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Employee Relations Management

Book Description

The introduction of the new economic policy in 1991 had a significant bearing on industrial relations. Coupled with liberalization, these policies changed the way industries functioned in India. It forced the government, employers and trade unions to align themselves to new realities. There is an ongoing transition in industrial relations on the global scale as well. The focus is gradually shifting from traditional industrial relations, characterized by conflict resolution, to employee relations management, characterized by collaborative partnerships between the employers and the employees. Employee Relations Management focuses on this ongoing transition from industrial relations to employee relations. It introduces readers to the fundamental concepts and relevant pieces of legislation against the backdrop of globalization and the new economic policy.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication Page
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Part I - Context
    1. 1 - Industrial Relations: Evolution and Growth
      1. 1.1 - The Evolution of Industrial Relations
      2. 1.2 - Definitions of Industrial Relations
        1. 1.2.1 - A Working Definition
      3. 1.3 - The Scope of Industrial Relations
        1. Box 1.1 - For Class Discussion
        2. 1.3.1 - Factors Shaping the Industrial Relations Climate
      4. 1.4 - Objectives of Industrial Relations
        1. 1.4.1 - At the Industry or Enterprise Level
        2. 1.4.2 - At the State Level
      5. 1.5 - Essential Features of Industrial Relations
        1. 1.5.1 - Conditions for Congenial Industrial Relations
        2. 1.5.2 - Principles for Promoting Healthy Industrial Relations
      6. 1.6 - Participants of Industrial Relations System and Dynamics of their Participation
      7. 1.7 - Industrial Relations: Perspective and Approach
        1. 1.7.1 - The Unitary Approach
        2. Box 1.2 - For Class Discussion
        3. 1.7.2 - Systems Approach: The Dunlop Model
        4. 1.7.3 - The Conflict Approach
        5. 1.7.4 - Weber's Social Action Approach
        6. 1.7.5 - The Gandhian or Trusteeship Approach
        7. 1.7.6 - The Marxian or Radical Approach
        8. Summary
        9. Key Terms
        10. Review Questions
        11. Questions for Critical Thinking
        12. Debate
        13. Case Analysis
    2. 2 - Industrial Relations in India
      1. 2.1 - The System of Industrial Relations in India
        1. 2.1.1 - The Role of the State
        2. 2.1.2 - The Labour Policy
        3. 2.1.3 - Tripartism in India's Industrial Relations System
        4. 2.1.4 - The Impact of the ILO on Indian Labour Relations
      2. 2.2 - The Historical Perspective
        1. 2.2.1 - The Protective Phase (1947–1956)
        2. 2.2.2 - The Consolidation Phase (1956–1965)
        3. 2.2.3 - The Conflict-ridden Interventionist Phase (1966–1976)
        4. 2.2.4 - The Directionless Phase (1977–1980)
        5. 2.2.5 - The Productivity-, Efficiency-, Quality-orientation Phase (1981–1990)
        6. 2.2.6 - The Competitive Phase
      3. 2.3 - Trends in Industrial Relations Management
        1. 2.3.1 - The Inclusion of the Needs of Unorganized Labour
        2. 2.3.2 - Labour Laws
      4. 2.4 - Conclusion
        1. Summary
        2. Key Terms
        3. Review Questions
        4. Questions for Critical Thinking
        5. Debate
        6. Case Analysis
        7. Appendix I
        8. Appendix II
        9. Appendix III
    3. 3 - Industrial Relations in Major Industrialized Economies: A Comparative Study
      1. 3.1 - Industrial Relations: A Historical Perspective
        1. 3.1.1 - The International Factors
        2. 3.1.2 - The Political Factors
      2. 3.2 - Industrial Relations in the UK
        1. 3.2.1 - The Evolution
        2. 3.2.2 - Trade Unions in the UK
        3. Box 3.1 - For Class Discussion
      3. 3.3 - Industrial Relations in the European Union
        1. 3.3.1 - The Trends in the EU
      4. 3.4 - Industrial Relations in the USA
        1. 3.4.1 - Trade Unions in the USA
        2. 3.4.2 - Labour Legislations in the USA
      5. 3.5 - Industrial Relations in Australia
        1. 3.5.1 - The Evolution
        2. 3.5.2 - The Recent Changes
        3. 3.5.3 - Trade Unions in Australia
        4. Box 3.2 - For Class Discussion
      6. 3.6 - Industrial Relations in China
        1. 3.6.1 - The Historical Perspective
        2. 3.6.2 Trade Unions in China
      7. 3.7 - Industrial Relations in Japan
        1. 3.7.1 - The Historical Perspective
        2. 3.7.2 - Trade Unions in Japan
      8. 3.8 - Industrial Relations in South Korea
        1. 3.8.1 - The Historical Perspective
        2. 3.8.2 - Trade Unions in South Korea
      9. 3.9 - Industrial Relations in Singapore
      10. 3.10 - International Trends
        1. Summary
        2. Key Terms
        3. Review Questions
        4. Questions for Critical Thinking
        5. Debate
        6. Case Analysis
    4. 4 - The Changing Characteristics of Industry and Workforce in India
      1. 4.1 - The Changing Characteristics of Industries
      2. 4.2 - The Changing Characteristics of the Industrial Workforce
        1. 4.2.1 - The Indian Workforce Prior to the Recent Changes
        2. 4.2.2 - The Impact of Industrial Change on the Workforce
        3. 4.2.3 - The Factors Facilitating Adaptation to Changes
        4. 4.2.4 - The Current Employment and Unemployment Situation
        5. 4.2.5 - The Composition and the Demographic Features of the Workforce
      3. 4.3 - The Demand for Labour
        1. 4.3.1 - Employment Distribution
        2. 4.3.2 - The Impact on Labour Deployment, Utilization and Productivity
        3. Box 4.1 - For Class Discussion
      4. 4.4 - The Challenges to IR
        1. 4.4.1 The Employer's Perspective
        2. 4.4.2 The Employee's/Union's Perspective
        3. 4.4.3 The Government's Perspective and the Labour Laws
          1. Summary
          2. Key Terms
          3. Review Questions
          4. Questions for Critical Thinking
          5. Debate
          6. Case Analysis
    5. 5 - Trade Unionism and Trade Unions
      1. 5.1 - The Concept of Trade Unionism
        1. Box 5.1 - For Class Discussion
        2. 5.1.1 - Characteristics of Trade Unionism
        3. 5.1.2 - The Origin of Trade Unionism
        4. 5.1.3 - The Impact of Trade Unions
        5. 5.1.4 - Principles of Trade Unionism
        6. 5.1.5 - Theories for the Emergence of Trade Unionism
        7. 5.1.6 - Reasons for Joining a Trade Union
        8. 5.1.7 - Tools of Trade Unionism
      2. 5.2 - Politics and Trade Unions
      3. 5.3 - Rights of Trade Unions
      4. 5.4 - Roles, Functions and Objectives of Trade Unions
        1. 5.4.1 - Objectives of Trade Unions
        2. 5.4.2 - Functions of Trade Unions
        3. 5.4.3 - Activities of Trade Unions
      5. 5.5 - Features of an Effective Trade Union
      6. 5.6 - The Classification of Trade Unions
        1. 5.6.1 - The Evolution of the Trade Union Structure
        2. 5.6.2 - Determinants of the Growth of Trade Unions
      7. 5.7 - Strategies for the Achievement of Trade Union Objectives
      8. 5.8 - The State of Trade Unions in the World
        1. Summary
        2. Key Terms
        3. Review Questions
        4. Questions for Critical Thinking
        5. Debate
        6. Case Analysis
    6. 6 - Trade Unions in India
      1. 6.1 - Phases in the Growth of Trade Unions in India
        1. 6.1.1 - The Pre-independence Phase
        2. 6.1.2 - The First Post-independence Phase
        3. 6.1.3 - The Second Post-independence Phase (Mid-1960s–1980)
        4. 6.1.4 - The Third Post-independence Phase (1980–Pre-liberalization Era)
        5. 6.1.5 - The Fourth Post-independence Phase (Post-liberalization Era)
      2. 6.2 - The Structure of Trade Unions in India
      3. 6.3 - Union Security
      4. 6.4 - Political Affiliations of Trade Unions
      5. 6.5 - The Problems of Trade Unions in India
        1. 6.5.1 - The Politicization and Proliferation of Unions
        2. 6.5.2 - Outside Leadership
        3. 6.5.3 - Inter-union Rivalry
        4. 6.5.4 - Intra-union Rivalry
        5. 6.5.5 - Small Size
        6. 6.5.6 - Financial Insecurity
        7. 6.5.7 - The Changing Demography of Workforce
      6. 6.6 - The Recognition of Unions
      7. 6.7 - Rights of Recognized Unions
        1. Box 6.2 - For Class Discussion
      8. 6.8 - Unfair Labour Practices with Regard to Trade Unions
      9. 6.9 - Trade Unionism in India Today
      10. 6.10 - The Trade Unions Act, 1926
        1. 6.10.1 - Scope and Coverage
        2. 6.10.2 - Objectives
        3. 6.10.3 - Provisions
      11. 6.11 - Managerial Trade Unionism
        1. Summary
        2. Key Terms
        3. Review Questions
        4. Questions for Critical Thinking
        5. Debate
        6. Case Analysis
  9. Part II - Paradigm Shift
    1. 7 - From Industrial Relations to Employee Relations
      1. 7.1 - A Shift in Focus
        1. 7.1.1 - The Employee–Employer Relationship
        2. Box 7.1 - For Class Discussion
        3. 7.1.2 - Why ERM?
      2. 7.2 - Employee Relations Management
      3. 7.3 - Industrial Relations and Employee Relations: Differences in Perspectives
        1. 7.3.1 - Influencing Factors
        2. 7.3.2 - Principles
        3. 7.3.3 - Scope
        4. 7.3.4 - Objectives
        5. 7.3.5 - Preconditions
        6. 7.3.6 - Measures
        7. 7.3.7 - Linkage Human Resource Management
        8. 7.3.8 - Line or Staff Function
        9. 7.3.9 - The Role of an HR Manager
        10. Summary
        11. Key Terms
        12. Review Questions
        13. Questions for Critical Thinking
        14. Debate
        15. Case Analysis
    2. 8 - Employee Relations Management at Work
      1. 8.1 - Employee Relations in a Strategic Framework
      2. 8.2 - Employee Relations at the Workplace
        1. 8.2.1 - Principles, Structures, Functions, Policies and Processes
        2. Box 8.1 - For Class Discussion
        3. 8.2.2 - The Role of an Employee Relations Manager
      3. 8.3 - Culture and Employee Relations
        1. 8.3.1 - Culture Design for Employee Relations
        2. 8.3.2 - Organizational Behaviour in Culture Design
      4. 8.4 - The Future of Employee Relations
        1. 8.4.1 - Transition
        2. 8.4.2 - Employee Relations and the Management of Change
        3. Box 8.2 - For Class Discussion
        4. Summary
        5. Key Terms
        6. Review Questions
        7. Questions for Critical Thinking
        8. Debate
        9. Case Analysis
  10. Part III - Legislations and Administration
    1. 9 - Labour Legislation in a Changing Context
      1. Box 9.1 - For Class Discussion
      2. 9.1 - The Classification of Labour Laws
        1. 9.1.1 - The Regulation of Working Conditions
        2. 9.1.2 - Legislations Related to Social Security
        3. 9.1.3 - Legislations Related to Wage and Bonus
        4. 9.1.4 - Industrial Relations and Conflict Prevention
      3. 9.2 - The Scheme for a Structured Study of the Acts
      4. 9.3 - The Factories Act, 1948
        1. 9.3.1 Objectives
        2. 9.3.2 - Coverage
        3. 9.3.3 - Applicability
        4. 9.3.4 - Definitions
        5. Box 9.2 - For Class Discussion
        6. 9.3.5 - Structure
        7. 9.3.6 - Main Provisions
      5. 9.4 - The Shops and Establishments Act, 1953
        1. 9.4.1 - Objectives
        2. 9.4.2 - Scope and Coverage
        3. 9.4.3 - Main Provisions
      6. 9.5 - The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970
        1. 9.5.1 - Objectives
        2. 9.5.2 - Scope and Coverage
        3. 9.5.3 - Definitions
        4. 9.5.4 - Registration and Licensing
        5. 9.5.5 - Duties of the Controlling Authorities
        6. Box 9.4 - For Class Discussion
        7. 9.5.6 - Duties of Contractors
        8. 9.5.7 - Duties of the Principal Employer
        9. 9.5.8 - The Engagement of Contract Labour
        10. 9.5.9 - The Prohibition of Employment of Contract Labour
        11. 9.5.10 - The Central and State Advisory Boards
        12. 9.5.11 - Facilities for Contract Labour
        13. 9.5.12 - Payment of Wages
        14. 9.5.13 - Other Laws Applicable to Contract Labour
        15. Summary
        16. Key Terms
        17. Review Questions
        18. Questions for Critical Thinking
        19. Debate
        20. Case Analysis
    2. 10 - Social-security Legislations
      1. 10.1 - Major Legislations
      2. 10.2 - The Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948
        1. 10.2.1 - Scope, Applicability and Coverage
        2. 10.2.2 - Important Terms Used in the Act
        3. 10.2.3 - Administration
        4. 10.2.4 - Benefits in Detail
        5. 10.2.5 - Obligations of Employers
      3. 10.3 - Maternity Benefit Act, 1961
        1. 10.3.1 - Objectives
        2. 10.3.2 - Coverage
        3. 10.3.3 - Provisions
      4. 10.4 - The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923
        1. 10.4.1 - Scope and Coverage
        2. Box 10.1 - For Class Discussion
        3. Box 10.2 - For Class Discussion
        4. 10.4.2 - Compensation
      5. 10.5 - The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972
        1. 10.5.1 - Scope, Coverage and Definitions
        2. 10.5.2 - The Calculation of Gratuity
        3. 10.5.3 - Gratuity not Payable
        4. 10.5.4 - Obligations of the Employer
        5. 10.5.5 - The Process for Receiving Payment
      6. 10.6 - Employees' Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952
        1. 10.6.1 - Objectives
        2. 10.6.2 - Scope and Coverage
        3. 10.6.3 - Definitions
        4. 10.6.4 - Provisions
        5. Summary
        6. Key Terms
        7. Review Questions
        8. Questions for Critical Thinking
        9. Debate
        10. Case Analysis
    3. 11 - Wage Legislation
      1. 11.1 - The History of Wage Legislation
        1. 11.1.1 - The Need for Wage Legislation
        2. 11.1.2 - The Regulation of Wages
      2. 11.2 - The Payment of Wages Act, 1936
        1. 11.2.1 - Coverage
        2. 11.2.2 - Important Terms
        3. 11.2.3 - Provisions
        4. 11.2.4 - The Enforcement Machinery
        5. 11.2.5 - Penal Provisions
      3. 11.3 - The Minimum Wages Act, 1948
        1. Box 11.1 - For Class Discussion
        2. 11.3.1 - Objectives, Scope and Coverage
        3. 11.3.2 - Important Terms
        4. 11.3.3 - Main Provisions
        5. Box 11.3 - For Class Discussion
      4. 11.4 - The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965
        1. 11.4.1 - Labour Appellate Tribunal (LAT) Formula
        2. 11.4.2 - Bonus Commission
        3. 11.4.3 - Objectives
        4. 11.4.4 - Applicability
        5. 11.4.5 - Important Terms
        6. Summary
        7. Key Terms
        8. Review Questions
        9. Questions for Critical Thinking
        10. Debate
        11. Case Analysis
    4. 12 - Industrial Relations: Institutional Framework for the Prevention and Settlement of Industrial Disputes
      1. 12.1 - Industrial Conflict
        1. 12.1.1 - The IR Perspective
        2. 12.1.2 - The ER Perspective
      2. 12.2 - The Big Picture
      3. 12.3 - Industrial Dispute under the ID Act
      4. 12.4 - Industrial Dispute: Concept
      5. 12.5 - Forms of Industrial Action
        1. 12.5.1 - Different Forms of Strike
      6. 12.6 - Types of Disputes
        1. 12.6.1 - The Classification of Disputes
      7. 12.7 - Severity of Effects
      8. 12.8 - Causes of Industrial Dispute
        1. Box 12.4 - For Class Discussion
      9. 12.9 - Measures to Improve Industrial Relations
      10. 12.10 - Industrial Disputes: A Historical Perspective
        1. 12.10.1 - Sector-wise Trends
        2. 12.10.2 - Spatial Trends
        3. 12.10.3 - A State-wise Comparison
        4. 12.10.4 - Industry-wise Trends
        5. 12.10.5 - Cause-wise Trends
      11. 12.11 - Machinery to Deal with Industrial Disputes
        1. 12.11.1- Statutory and Non-statutory Measures
      12. 12.12 - The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947
        1. 12.12.1 - Objectives
        2. 12.12.2 - Definitions
        3. 12.12.3 - The Prohibition of Strike and Lockout
        4. 12.12.4 - Illegal Strikes and Lockouts
        5. 12.12.5 - Lay-off, Retrenchment and Closure
        6. 12.12.6 - Closure of Undertaking
        7. 12.12.7 - Last in-First OUT
        8. 12.12.8 - Unfair Labour Practices
        9. 12.12.9 - Settlement Machinery
        10. 12.12.10 - Conclusion
        11. Summary
        12. Key Terms
        13. Review Questions
        14. Questions for Critical Thinking
        15. Debate
        16. Case Analysis
    5. 13 - Industrial Conflict: Settlement Machinery
      1. 13.1 - The Settlement of Disputes: An Overview
      2. 13.2 - Conciliation
        1. 13.2.1 - Conciliation Officers
        2. 13.2.2 - The Protection of Workmen During Pendency of Conciliation Proceedings
      3. 13.3 - Obligations of Employers
      4. 13.4 - Obligations of Employees
      5. 13.5 - The Board of Conciliation
      6. 13.6 - The Performance of Conciliation Machinery
      7. 13.7 - Arbitration
        1. 13.7.1 - Compulsory Arbitration
        2. 13.7.2 - Voluntary Arbitration
        3. 13.7.3 - National Arbitration Promotion Board
        4. 13.7.4 - The Evaluation of the Working of Voluntary Arbitration
      8. 13.8 - Adjudication
        1. 13.8.1 - Types of Adjudication
        2. 13.8.2 - Labour Courts
        3. 13.8.3 - The Second National Commission on Labour on Labour Relations Commissions
        4. 13.8.4 - Industrial Tribunals
        5. 13.8.5 - National Tribunals
        6. 13.8.6 - The Performance of Adjudication Machinery
      9. 13.9 - The Recommendation of the National Commission on Labour on Settlement Machinery
        1. Summary
        2. Key Terms
        3. Review Questions
        4. Questions for Critical Thinking
        5. Debate
        6. Case Analysis
    6. 14 - Industrial Disputes: Institutional Framework and Preventive Measures
      1. 14.1 - Harmonious Relations
      2. 14.2 - A Framework of Preventive Measures
        1. 14.2.1 - Institutions/Consultative Bodies
        2. Box 14.2 - For Class Discussion
        3. 14.2.2 - Joint Consultative Tripartite Bodies
        4. 14.2.3 - Industrial Committees
        5. 14.2.4 - Bipartite Bodies
        6. 14.2.5 - Works Committee
        7. 14.2.6 - Joint Management Councils
      3. 14.3 - Ethical Code: Code of Discipline
        1. 14.3.1 - Standing Orders
        2. Box 14.5 - For Class Discussion
        3. 14.3.2 - Grievance Procedure
        4. 14.3.3 - Collective Bargaining
      4. 14.4 - Managing Discipline
        1. 14.4.1 Disciplinary Procedures
        2. Summary
        3. Key Terms
        4. Review Questions
        5. Questions for Critical Thinking
        6. Debate
        7. Case Analysis
    7. 15 - Wage Determination, Wage Administration and Employee Relations
      1. 15.1 - The Context and Concepts of Wage
        1. 15.1.1 - Minimum Wage, Fair Wage and Living Wage
      2. 15.2 - The Evolution of Wage Administration in India
        1. 15.2.1 - Legislation
        2. 15.2.2 - Policy Recommendations and Resolutions
        3. 15.2.3 - Wage Boards
        4. 15.2.4 - Job Evaluation
      3. 15.3 - Components and Determinants of Wage
        1. 15.3.1 - Components of Wage
        2. 15.3.2 - Determinants of Wage
      4. 15.4 - Wage Structure
        1. 15.4.1 - The Purpose of Wage Structure
      5. 15.5 - Towards a Wage Policy
        1. Summary
        2. Key Terms
        3. Review Questions
        4. Questions for Critical Thinking
        5. Debate
        6. Case Analysis
    8. 16 - Labour Administration
      1. 16.1 - An Introduction to Labour Administration
        1. 16.1.1 - The Concept of Labour Administration
      2. 16.2 - Scope of Labour Administration
      3. 16.3 - The Evolution of Labour Administration in India
      4. 16.4 - Labour Policy in India
        1. Box 16.1 - For Class Discussion
      5. 16.5 - Labour Laws
      6. 16.6 - Voluntary Arrangements
      7. 16.7 - Labour Administrative Machinery of the Government
        1. 16.7.1 - Ministry of Labour
        2. 16.7.2 - Attached Offices
        3. 16.7.3 - Subordinate Offices
        4. 16.7.4 - The Autonomous Organizations
        5. 16.7.5 - Adjudication Bodies
        6. 16.7.6 - Labour Administration Machinery of the State Government
      8. 16.8 - The Role of ILO in Labour Administration
      9. 16.9 - Recommendations of the Second National Commission on Labour, 2002
        1. Summary
        2. Key Terms
        3. Review Questions
        4. Questions for Critical Thinking
        5. Debate
        6. Case Analysis
  11. Part IV - Skills
    1. 17 - Negotiation Essentials for Employee Relations
      1. 17.1 - Conflict and Negotiations
        1. 17.1.1 - Approaches to Resolve Conflict
        2. Box 17.1 - For Class Discussion
        3. Box 17.2 - For Class Discussion
        4. 17.1.2 - The Dual Concern Model of Conflict Resolution
        5. 17.1.3 - Is “Conflict” Desirable?
      2. 17.2 - Negotiation
      3. 17.3 - Employee Relations and Negotiations
        1. 17.3.1 - Situations Requiring Negotiation
      4. 17.4 - Integrative and Distributive Negotiation Strategies
      5. Box 17.3 - For Class Discussion
      6. 17.5 - The Basic Negotiation Process
        1. 17.5.1 - Preparation
        2. 17.5.2 - Opening
        3. 17.5.3 - Bargaining
        4. 17.5.4 - Closing
      7. 17.6 - Essential Skills
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Questions for Critical Thinking
      12. Debate
      13. Case Analysis
    2. 18 - Soft Skills for Employee Relations
      1. 18.1 - What are Soft Skills?
      2. 18.2 - Emotional Intelligence and Competence
        1. Box 18.1 - For Class Discussion
      3. 18.3 - A “Framework”
      4. 18.4 - The Role of an ER Manager/Professional
      5. 18.5 - Conclusion
        1. Summary
        2. Key Terms
        3. Review Questions
        4. Questions for Critical Thinking
        5. Debate
        6. Case Analysis
  12. Notes
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 8
    8. Chapter 9
    9. Chapter 10
    10. Chapter 11
    11. Chapter 12
    12. Chapter 13
    13. Chapter 14
    14. Chapter 15
    15. Chapter 16
    16. Chapter 17
    17. Chapter 18
  13. Glossary
  14. Acknowledgements
  15. Copyright