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Empires of Oil: Corporate Oil in Barbarian Worlds by Duncan Clarke

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11Corporate oil’s modern enemies

Worldwide it has been estimated that there might be over 1 million NGOs, and whatever the actual count the number is growing. An internet search for “NGOs & oil” in Google produces over 1.3 million items. The NGO world represents a veritable fifth estate, one closely linked to the fourth estate of the media and press but distinctive in character. Though not all have engaged with the oil industry, many have, and more are likely to do so.

Although in cases derived from radical movements in previous eras, the NGO phenomenon is in many ways a post-modern one, even where some have a long vintage in this “market”. The tools used vary, but typically include research, global communication and dissemination via the internet, ...

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