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Emerging Technologies for Semantic Work Environments: Techniques, Methods, and Applications

Book Description

"Today's work is characterized by a high degree of innovation and thus demands a thorough overview of relevant knowledge in the world and in organizations. Semantic Work Environments support the work of the user by collecting knowledge about needs and providing processed and improved knowledge to be integrated into work.

Emerging Technologies for Semantic Work Environments: Techniques, Methods, and Applications describes an overview of the emerging field of Semantic Work Environments by combining various research studies and underlining the similarities between different processes, issues and approaches in order to provide the reader with techniques, methods, and applications of the study."

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Foreword
  3. Preface
    1. CHALLENGES
    2. SOLUTIONS/BACKGROUND
    3. BOOK CONTENT
    4. REFERENCES
  4. Acknowledgment
  5. I. Introduction
    1. I. Enabling Social Semantic Collaboration: Bridging the Gap Between Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. SOCIAL SOFTWARE AND WEB 2.0
      3. SOCIAL SEMANTIC WORK ENVIRNOMENTS
      4. VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF SEMANTIC CONTENT
        1. Different Views on Instance Data
          1. List Views
          2. Individual Views
          3. Map View
          4. Calendar View
      5. COLLABORATIVE AUTHORING
        1. Inline Editing
        2. View Editing
        3. Editing Widgets
        4. Concept Identification and Reuse
      6. SOCIAL COLLABORATION ASPECTS
        1. Change Tracking
        2. Commenting
        3. Rating
        4. Popularity
        5. Activity/Provenance
      7. SEMANTIC SEARCH
        1. Facet-Based Browsing
        2. Semantically Enhanced Full-Text Search
      8. DATA INTEGRATION FOR SSWEs
        1. Semantic Annotation
        2. Developing a Unified Output Representation
        3. Converting the Data
      9. RELATED WORK
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. ENDNOTE
    2. II. Communication Systems for Semantic Work Environments
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
        1. Electronic Mail
        2. Mailing Lists and News Groups
        3. Instant Messaging
        4. Chat Systems
        5. Web Logs
        6. Wikis
        7. Audio and Video Based Communication Systems
        8. Discussion
      3. TOWARDS SEMANTIC WORK ENVIRONMENTS
        1. Personal Work Processes and Implications for SWEs
        2. Current Shortcomings
      4. RESEARCH ENHANCING WORK SUPPORT OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
        1. Management of Communicated Information
        2. Process Support
        3. Creating Semantic Communication Metadata
        4. Representing Communication
        5. Security and Trust
        6. Peer-to-Peer
      5. COMMUNICATION SUPPORT IN FUTURE SWES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. III. Semantic Social Software: Semantically Enabled Social Software or Socially Enabled Semantic Web?
      1. INTRODUCTION
        1. Social Software
        2. Semantic Web
        3. Semantic Social Software
      2. "SEMANTICALLY ENABLED SOCIAL SOFTWARE" OR "SOCIALLY ENABLED SEMANTIC WEB"?
        1. Semantically Enabled Social Software
        2. Socially Enabled Semantic Web
        3. Two Sides of the Same Story
      3. THREE APPLICATIONS OF SEMANTIC SOCIAL SOFTWARE
        1. Semantic Wikis: Community-Authored Knowledge Models
        2. Semantic Web Logs: Formalising Discourse
        3. E-Portfolios: Collecting Learning Artefacts
      4. SALIENT ASPECTS OF SEMANTIC SOCIAL SOFTWARE
        1. Testbed for Semantic Web Technology
        2. Coupling of Data and Metadata
        3. Emerging and Evolving Knowledge Models
        4. Self-Organising Communities around Emerging Topics
      5. CHALLENGES FOR THE SEMANTIC WEB COMMUNITY
        1. "Keep it Simple, Stupid!"
        2. Don’t Forget the Data in Metadata
        3. Be Tolerant About Inconsistencies
        4. There is No "One Size Fits All"
        5. Reasoning Needs to be Efficient
        6. Reasoning Needs Truth Maintanance
        7. Metadata Needs Versioning
      6. RELATED WORK
      7. CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
  6. II. Semantic Work Environment Tools
    1. IV. SWIM: A Semantic Wiki for Mathematical Knowledge Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEMANTIC MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE MARKUP WITH OMDoc
      4. CROSS-FERTILIZATION OF MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND SEMANTIC WIKI
        1. Semantic Wikis: State of the Art and Future Trends
        2. Benefits of a Semantic Wiki for MKM
        3. An Alternative Semantic Web
      5. DESIGN OF SWIM
        1. Data Model
        2. The System Ontology, the Core of SWiM
          1. OMDOc Types and Relations
          2. Relations Given by User Interaction (to be implemented)
          3. Inferable Relations (to be implemented)
          4. Metadata
          5. OWL-DL Implementation
        3. Extracting Semantics from OMDOc
        4. User Interface
          1. Rendering
          2. Dynamic Navigation Links
          3. Editing
      6. IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
      7. FUTURE WORK: SWIM AS A SERVICE PLATFORM
        1. Navigating the Dependency Graph
        2. Change management Assistance
        3. User-Friendly Editing
          1. Section-Wise "Edit in Place"
          2. Auto-Completion
        4. Connecting to Search Services
      8. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. ENDNOTES
    2. V. CoolWikNews: More than Meets the Eye in the 21st Century Journalism
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PROBLEM SCENARIO
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
        1. Metadata Representation Format
        2. Multi-Ontology Approach for Defining Wiki Pages and Contents
        3. Navigation
        4. Faceted Search
        5. Usability
        6. Knowledge Layers for Independent Domains
      5. ARCHITECTURE AND IMPLEMENTATION
      6. EXAMPLE OF USE
        1. Adding Semantics
        2. Navigating Through Semantics
        3. Searching through Semantics
      7. ADVANTAGES
      8. FUTURE WORK AND RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    3. VI. Improved Experience Transfer by Semantic Work Support
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE DIGITAL OIL FIELD
      3. EXPERIENCE TRANSFER: CURRENT PRACTICE
      4. EMBEDDING EXPERIENCE TRANSFER IN WORK PROCESSES
      5. THE AKSIO DRILLING ONTOLOGY
      6. USE OF SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGIES IN AKSIO
      7. FUTURE WORK
      8. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    4. VII. A Semi-Automatic Semantic Annotation and Authoring Tool for a Library Help Desk Service
      1. INTRODUCTION
        1. Help Desk Services
        2. Research Problem
        3. The Existing Service
        4. The Proposed Solution
      2. SEMI-AUTOMATIC SEMANTIC ANNOTATION
        1. Extracting Annotation Concepts from the Text
        2. Free Annotation Concepts
        3. Ranking Annotation Concepts
        4. An Authoring Example
      3. UTILIZING CASE-BASED REASONING TO FIND SIMILAR QUESTIONS
      4. INTEGRATING DIFFERENT DATA SOURCES IN ANSWER AUTHORING
        1. Authoring Using Existing QA Pairs
        2. Authoring Using a Library Classification System
        3. Authoring Using a Link Library
      5. EVALUATION
      6. DISCUSSION
        1. Results
        2. Related Work
        3. Future Research Directions
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. ENDNOTES
    5. VIII. A Wiki on the Semantic Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Related Work and Positioning
        2. SweetWiki ARCHITECTURE
          1. Underlying Tools
          2. Support for Ontologies
          3. The Wiki Ontology
          4. The Domain Ontology (users' Folksonomy)
          5. Support for External Resources
        3. The Semantic Search Engine and its Associated Semantic Web Server
          1. The Editor
        4. Advantages of Such an Approach: A Declarative Model!
          1. Office Document Integration
        5. SweetWiki is AN APPLICATION Wiki
          1. What is an Application Wiki?
        6. Example of Wiki Application: Management of Semantic User Profiles
      3. FOCUS ON TAGGING:USING SEMANTIC WEB TECHONLOGY TO IMPLEMENT A FORLKSONOMY
        1. Tagging a wiki
        2. Web-Based Ontology Editor for Refactoring
      4. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. FURTHER READING
      8. ENDNOTES
    6. IX. Personal Knowledge Management with Semantic Technologies
      1. INTRODUCTION
        1. Codifying Knowledge
        2. Cost of Authoring
        3. The Cost Gap
          1. Outline
      2. REQUIREMENTS FOR PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
        1. Requirement 1: Acceptable Costs
        2. Requirement 2: Focus on the Individual
        3. Requirement 3: Forget Rigid Classification
        4. Requirement 4: Follow the Links
        5. Requirement 5: Remember the Context
        6. Requirement 6: Value the Power of Paper
        7. Requirement 7: Keep it Simple
        8. Requirement 8: Keep the Flow
      3. STATE OF THE ART IN "CLASSIC" PKM APPROACHES AND THEIR PROBLEMS
        1. Weblogs
        2. Wikis
        3. Mind-Mapping
        4. Personal Information Management (PIM) Tools
      4. SUMMARY OF EXISTING APPROACHES
      5. INTRODUCING SEMANTIC PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (SPKM)
      6. EXISTING SPKM TOOLS AND THEIR DRAWBACKS
      7. PERSONAL SEMANTIC WIKIS (PSW)
        1. Scenario: Writing an Article using a PWS
        2. Evaluating Personal Semantic Wikis
      8. CONCLUSION
        1. Outlook
        2. Future Research Trends
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. ENDNOTES
    7. X. DeepaMehta: Another Computer is Possible
      1. INTRODUCTION
        1. Machine Dreams
        2. The Potential of Ontologies
        3. The Trouble with Computers and their Solutions
          1. Missing Relations
          2. Missing Work Context
        4. The Vision of an Integrated Work Environment
      2. THE DeepaMehta PLATFORM
        1. Topic Maps Frontend
        2. System Architecture
        3. Data Model
          1. Topic Maps
          2. DeepaMehta Topic Maps Extensions to Incorporate RDF/RDFS-like Features
          3. Higher-Level DeepaMehta Concepts
        4. The Application Framework
        5. The DeepaMehta Unified Process
      3. CUSTOMER SOLUTION EXAMPLES
        1. Kiezatlas, A Geographical CMS
        2. Amina Knowledge Platform
      4. OUTLOOK
        1. Extended Support for Semantic Technologies
        2. Extended Collaboration Features
        3. Extended Standard Applications
        4. Architectural Concerns
      5. RELATED WORK
        1. Semantic Desktop
        2. Graph-Based Information Visualization
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. Reanimating Soft Cybernetics
        2. Examining Underlying Images
        3. Research Issues
          1. Computer Science/Human Computer Interaction
          2. Cognitive Science
          3. Communication Science/Linguistics
          4. Philosophy
          5. Cultural Studies
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
  7. III. Methods for Semantic Work Environments
    1. XI. Added-Value: Getting People into Semantic Work Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE SEMANTICS PRISONER'S DILEMMA
        1. The Prisoner's Dilemma
        2. The Microperspectives in the Semantic Prisoner's Dilemma
      4. ADDED-VALUE ANALYSIS AS A DESIGN METHOD
        1. Strategy
        2. Consumer Behaviour
        3. Pricing
        4. The Added-Value Analysis Method
      5. RELATED SOFTWARE DESIGN METHODS
        1. Focusing on Users
        2. Focusing on Workflows
        3. Focusing on Values
      6. SEMANTIC SERVICES IN CPOINT AND CONNEXIONS
        1. CPOINT ("Content in PowerPoint")
          1. Overview
          2. Introductory Run Through
          3. CPOINT Solutions
        2. ConneXions
          1. Overview
          2. Introductory Run Through
          3. CONNEXIONS Solutions
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. XII. Enabling Learning on Demand in Semantic Work Environments: The Learning in Process Approach
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND AND STATE OF THE ART
      3. METHOD: CONTEXT-STEERED LEARNING
      4. MODEL: CONCEPTUALIZING LEARNING ON DEMAND
      5. TECHNOLOGY: A SERVICE-ORIENTED INFRASTRUCTURE
      6. USER CONTEXT MANAGEMENT AS AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY
      7. A BRIEF WALKTHROUGH
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. ENDNOTE
  8. IV. Techniques for Semantic Work Environments
    1. XIII. Automatic Acquisition of Semantics from Text for Semantic Work Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING
        1. Phonological Analysis
        2. Text Segmentation
        3. Morphology
        4. Syntax
        5. Semantics
        6. Discourse
        7. Pragmatics
        8. NLP Toolkits
      4. WORD SENSE DISAMBIGUATION
        1. Machine-Readable Dictionaries
        2. Thesauri
        3. Computational lexicons
        4. Topic Signatures
        5. Annotated Corpora and Machine Learning
        6. Unsupervised Word Sense Disambiguation
      5. INFORMATION EXTRACTION
        1. Named Entity Recognition and Classification (NERC)
        2. Ontology-Based NERC
      6. RELATIONSHIP EXTRACTION
        1. Methods Based on Machine-Readable Dictionaries
        2. Methods Based on Distributional properties of Words
        3. Pattern-Based Methods
      7. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH TRENDS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. ENDNOTE
    2. XIV. Technologies for Semantic Project-Driven Work Environments
      1. INTRODUCTION
        1. The Present
        2. The Future
      2. WORKING IN PROJECT-DRIVEN ENVIRONMENTS: THE NEED FOR COLLABORATIVE SEMANTICS
      3. RELATED WORK
        1. Ontology-Based Information integration
        2. The Semantic Desktop
        3. (Semantic) Wikis
      4. TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENGINEERING AN ORGANIZATIONAL MEMORY
        1. Architecture Overview
        2. METIS: A Flexible Database Foundation for Unified Media Management
        3. Ylvi: A Semantic Multimedia Wiki Framework
        4. SemDAV: Leveraging Business Knowledge to the Desktop
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    3. XV. An Integrated Formal Approach to Semantic Work Environments Design
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. TCOZ AND SW SERVICES OVERVIEW
        1. TCOZ Overview
          1. Object-Z and CSP
          2. TCOZ Features
          3. Interface: Channels, Sensors and Actuators
          4. Active Objects
        2. Semantic Web Ontology and Service Overview
      3. THE TALK DISCOVERY SYSTEM
        1. System Scenario
        2. Formal Model of the Talk Discovery System
          1. Calendar Agent
          2. MapQuest Agent
          3. Personal Agent
          4. Talk Discovery Agent
      4. EXTRACTING OWL WEB ONTOLOGY FROM THE TCOZ MODEL
        1. Given Type Translation
        2. Axiomatic (Function and Relation) Definition Translation
          1. Z Axiomatic (Subset and Constant) Definition Translation Subset
        3. Constant
        4. Z State Schema Translation
        5. Class Translation
      5. EXTRACTING OWL-S ONTOLOGY FROM THE TCOZ MODEL
        1. Translation Rules
          1. Basic Rule 1 (R1)
          2. Basic Rule 2 (R2)
          3. Basic Rule 3 (R3)
          4. Basic Rule 4 (R4)
          5. Basic Rule 5 (R5):
          6. Basic Rule 6 (R6):
          7. Basic Rule 7 (R7):
        2. CaseStudy
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. XVI. Lightweight Data Modeling in RDF
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. OVERVIEW OF THE EDITING META-MODEL (EMM)
        1. Conventions Used in this Chapter
        2. Building Blocks for Data Modeling in RDF
        3. Who Uses the EMM and How?
        4. The Main EMM Constructs
      3. THE USER INTERFACE: WHAT WILL IT ALL LOOK LIKE?
        1. Normal Editing
        2. Creating New instances
        3. Editing an Instance
        4. Batch Editing
        5. Meta-Editing
      4. SCHEMA: WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE OF THE DATA?
        1. The Basic Type System Constructs
          1. Basic Sets
          2. Defining Classes
        2. Type System Operations
          1. Class Subsumption and Instance Checking
          2. Instance Checking
          3. Default Values for Implicit Classes
          4. Construction Sets
          5. Schema Derivation
          6. Direct Schema
          7. Equivalence Schema
          8. Schema Honoring Equivalence and Subtyping
        3. More Implicit Classes
        4. Translation from and to OWL
        5. Future Schema Features
      5. PRESENTATION: SELECT, ORDER AND STYLE THE DATA TO BE EDITED
        1. The Abstract Box Model: Laying out RDF Data
        2. Selectors: Matching Resources and Properties
          1. Resource Selectors
        3. Property Selectors
          1. Selector Specificity
        4. Groups: Context-Specific Containers for EMM Constructs
        5. Lenses: Selecting Trees of RDF Data
          1. Property Descriptions for Collections and Containers
          2. Conflict Resolution for Lenses and Formats
        6. Formats: Styling RDF Data
          1. Inheritance of Format Parameters
          2. Additional Content: Adding Text
          3. Value Display Hints: What Widgets to Use?
      6. EDITING: SPECIFYING AND APPLYING CHANGES VIA PROJECTIONS
        1. Creating a Projection
          1. Projecting a Lens
            1. Adding Schema Information
          2. Projecting a Format
        2. Editing a Projection
          1. Displaying the Projection
        3. Adding a Property
        4. Applying the Projection: Changing the Data
          1. Application Result: What to Remove, Add, and Keep
          2. Parsed vs. Created Data
          3. Adding and Removing Types
          4. Editing Collections
      7. ADDITIONAL EDITING MECHANISMS
        1. RDFa: Reversibly Embedding RDF in HTML
        2. Designating Primary Classes
        3. Handling Qualified Names
        4. Labeling Resources
        5. Editor Support for Common Editing Patterns
          1. Creating an Editing Profile
          2. Using the Editing Profile
          3. Thin Frontends
      8. EXAMPLES
        1. Bookmarks
        2. A Lens for Classes
        3. A Lens for Lenses
        4. Additional Content
        5. Using the EMM in a semantic work Environment
      9. RELATED WORK
        1. Protégé
        2. Haystack (Quan, Huynh, & Karger, 2003)
        3. DBin (Tummarello, Morbidoni, & Nucci, 2006)
        4. Annotation Profiles (Palmér, Enoksson, & Naeve, 2006)
        5. Efforts to Extend/Modify RDFS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. Associations
        2. Using UML for Meta-Editing
        3. Schema
          1. Computed Properties
          2. Data Validation
          3. Defaults
          4. Meta-Modeling
        4. Presentation
          1. Advanced Fresnel Features
          2. Medium-Specific Additional Content
          3. User-Defined Labels
        5. Editing
          1. Sharing Data
          2. Help Texts
          3. Data Refactoring
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. FURTHER READING
      15. ENDNOTES
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors