You are previewing Emerging Technologies for Food Processing.
O'Reilly logo
Emerging Technologies for Food Processing

Book Description

The second edition of Emerging Technologies in Food Processing presents essential, authoritative, and complete literature and research data from the past ten years. It is a complete resource offering the latest technological innovations in food processing today, and includes vital information in research and development for the food processing industry. It covers the latest advances in non-thermal processing including high pressure, pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency, high intensity pulsed light, ultrasound, irradiation, and addresses the newest hurdles in technology where extensive research has been carried out.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface to the 2nd Edition
  6. Editor Biography
  7. Contributors
  8. Section I. High Pressure Processing
    1. Chapter 1. High-Pressure Processing of Foods: An Overview
      1. 1.1. Introduction
      2. 1.2. Principles of HP Processing
      3. 1.3. Use of HP to Improve Food Safety and Stability
      4. 1.4. Effects of HP on Food Quality
      5. 1.5. Other Applications of HP
      6. 1.6. Modeling HP Processes
      7. 1.7. Outlook for HP Processing of Food
      8. 1.8. Conclusions
    2. Chapter 2. High-Pressure Processing of Salads and Ready Meals
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. Importance of Salads and Ready Meals
      3. 2.3. Pressure Effects on Microorganisms
      4. 2.4. The Effects of Pressure on Enzyme Activity
      5. 2.5. The Effects of Pressure on Color
      6. 2.6. The Effects of Pressure on Texture
      7. 2.7. The Effects of Pressure on Nutrients
      8. 2.8. Conclusions
    3. Chapter 3. High-Pressure Processing of Meats and Seafood
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. HPP Effect on the Texture and Water Retention of Meat and Seafood
      3. 3.3. The effect of HPP on Sensory Quality
      4. 3.4. The Chemical Safety of Pressure-Treated Meat Products
      5. 3.5. Pressure-Assisted Processes Applied to Meat and Seafood
      6. 3.6. Conclusions
    4. Chapter 4. High-Pressure Processing of Fruits and Fruit Products
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Physicochemical Parameters
      3. 4.3. Color
      4. 4.4. Texture
      5. 4.5. Flavor
      6. 4.6. Vitamins
      7. 4.7. Microorganisms
      8. 4.8. Conclusions
    5. Chapter 5. Microbiological Aspects of High-Pressure Processing
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. Effects of High Pressure
      3. 5.3. Factors Affecting The Effectiveness of Treatment
      4. 5.4. Conclusions
  9. Section II. Pulsed Electric Fields Processing
    1. Chapter 6. Overview of Pulsed Electric Fields Processing for Food
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Historical Background
      3. 6.3. Mechanisms of Action
      4. 6.4. PEF Treatment System
      5. 6.5. Main Processing Parameters
      6. 6.6. Applications
      7. 6.7. Conclusions
      8. Nomenclature
    2. Chapter 7. Pulsed Electric Field Processing of Liquid Foods and Beverages
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. PEF Technology
      3. 7.3. Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation
      4. 7.4. Equipment
      5. 7.5. PEF Treatment Variables
      6. 7.6. Target Differences
      7. 7.7. PEF-Based Nonthermal Hurdle Strategies
      8. 7.8. Specific Results on Liquid Foods
      9. 7.9. Process Models
      10. 7.10. Conclusions
      11. Nomenclature
    3. Chapter 8. Effect of High-Intensity Electric Field Pulses on Solid Foods
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Principle and Analysis of Cell Disintegration by PEF
      3. 8.3. Effects on Solid Foods
      4. 8.4. Equipment and Energy Requirements
      5. 8.5. Conclusions
    4. Chapter 9. Enzymatic Inactivation by Pulsed Electric Fields
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Mechanism of Enzyme Inactivation by PEF
      3. 9.3. Factors Affecting Enzyme Inactivation by PEF
      4. 9.4. Effects of PEF on Specific Enzymes
      5. 9.5. Modeling Enzymatic Inactivation by PEF
      6. 9.6. Enzyme Inactivation by Combining PEF with Other Hurdles
      7. 9.7. Enzyme Activity During Storage of PEF Processed Foods
      8. 9.8. Conclusions
      9. Nomenclature
    5. Chapter 10. Food Safety Aspects of Pulsed Electric Fields
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Microbiological Safety of PEF
      3. 10.3. Chemical Safety and PEFs
      4. 10.4. Conclusions
      5. Nomenclature
  10. Section III. Other Nonthermal Processing Techniques
    1. Chapter 11. Recent Developments in Osmotic Dehydration
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. Mechanism of Osmotic Dehydration
      3. 11.3. Effect of Process Parameters on Mass Transfer and Structure
      4. 11.4. Determination of Moisture and Solid Diffusion Coefficients
      5. 11.5. Methods For Increasing the Rate of Mass Transfer
      6. 11.6. Applications of Osmotic Dehydration
      7. 11.7. Limitations of Osmotic Dehydration
      8. 11.8. Management of Osmotic Solution
      9. 11.9. Conclusions
      10. Nomenclature
    2. Chapter 12. Athermal Membrane Processes for the Concentration of Liquid Foods and Natural Colors
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. Existing Methods
      3. 12.3. Osmotic Membrane Distillation
      4. 12.4. Direct Osmosis
      5. 12.5. Membrane Modules
      6. 12.6. Applications
      7. 12.7. Integrated Membrane Processes
      8. 12.8. Suggestions for Future Work
      9. 12.9. Conclusions
      10. Nomenclature
    3. Chapter 13. High-intensity Pulsed Light Technology
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Principles of PLT
      3. 13.3. Systems for PLT
      4. 13.4. Effects of PL on Microorganisms
      5. 13.5. Technological Aspects of PLT
      6. 13.6. Effects of PL on Food Quality and Components
      7. 13.7. Conclusions
    4. Chapter 14. Nonthermal Processing By Radio Frequency Electric Fields
      1. 14.1. Introduction
      2. 14.2. Radio Frequency Electric Fields Equipment
      3. 14.3. Modeling of Radio Frequency Electric Fields
      4. 14.4. RFEF Nonthermal Inactivation of Yeast
      5. 14.5. Bench Scale RFEF Inactivation of Bacteria and Spores
      6. 14.6. Pilot-Scale RFEF Inactivation of Bacteria
      7. 14.7. Electrical Costs
      8. 14.8. Conclusions
    5. Chapter 15. Application of Ultrasound
      1. 15.1. Introduction
      2. 15.2. Fundamentals of Ultrasound
      3. 15.3. Ultrasound as a Food Preservation Tool
      4. 15.4. Ultrasound as a Processing Aid
      5. 15.5. Ultrasound Effects on Food Properties
      6. 15.6. Conclusions
    6. Chapter 16. Irradiation
      1. 16.1. Introduction
      2. 16.2. Definition of Irradiation
      3. 16.3. Gamma and X-ray Irradiation
      4. 16.4. UV Irradiation
      5. 16.5. Combined Treatments
      6. 16.6. Conclusions
    7. Chapter 17. New Chemical and Biochemical Hurdles
      1. 17.1. Introduction
      2. 17.2. Novel antimicrobial Agents
      3. 17.3. Essential Oils
      4. 17.4. Antimicrobial Peptides
      5. 17.5. Novel Chemical Antimicrobial Agents
      6. 17.6. Quantification of Minimum and Noninhibitory ConcentrationS
      7. 17.7. Biochemical Hurdles
      8. 17.8. Conclusions
    8. Chapter 18. Decontamination of Foods by Cold Plasma
      1. 18.1. Introduction
      2. 18.2. The Chemistry of Cold Plasma
      3. 18.3. Low-Pressure Cold Plasmas
      4. 18.4. Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasmas
      5. 18.5. Economics of Cold Plasma
      6. 18.6. Conclusions
    9. Chapter 19. Opportunities and Challenges in the Application of Ozone in Food Processing
      1. 19.1. Introduction
      2. 19.2. Physicochemical Properties
      3. 19.3. Ozonation Reactions
      4. 19.4. Generation of Ozone
      5. 19.5. Solubility of Ozone in Water
      6. 19.6. Methods for Mixing Ozone
      7. 19.7. Determination and Monitoring of Ozone
      8. 19.8. Critical Factors Affecting The Efficacy of Ozone
      9. 19.9. Application in Food Processing
      10. 19.10. Synergistic Effects of Ozone
      11. 19.11. Conclusions
  11. Section IV. Alternative Thermal Processing
    1. Chapter 20. Recent Developments in Microwave Heating
      1. 20.1. Introduction
      2. 20.2. Dielectric Properties of Foods
      3. 20.3. Heat and Mass Transfer in Microwave Processing
      4. 20.4. Microwave Processing of Foods
      5. 20.5. Conclusions
      6. Nomenclature
    2. Chapter 21. Radio-Frequency Processing
      1. 21.1. Introduction
      2. 21.2. Dielectric Heating
      3. 21.3. Material Properties
      4. 21.4. Adopting RF Heating
      5. 21.5. RF Heating Applications
      6. 21.6. RF Drying Applications
      7. 21.7. Conclusions
      8. Nomenclature
    3. Chapter 22. Ohmic Heating
      1. 22.1. Introduction
      2. 22.2. Fundamentals of Ohmic Heating
      3. 22.3. Electrical Conductivity
      4. 22.4. Generic Configurations
      5. 22.5. Modeling
      6. 22.6. Treatment of Products
      7. 22.7. Conclusions
      8. Nomenclature
    4. Chapter 23. Combined Microwave Vacuum Drying
      1. 23.1. Introduction
      2. 23.2. Microwaves
      3. 23.3. Dielectric Properties of Food
      4. 23.4. Thermal Properties of Food
      5. 23.5. Characteristics of Microwave Vacuum Drying
      6. 23.6. Combination of Microwave Vacuum with Other Processes
      7. 23.7. Equipment
      8. 23.8. Modeling of Microwave Vacuum-Drying
      9. 23.9. Microwave Freeze-Drying
      10. 23.10. Other Applications of Microwave Vacuum Processing
      11. 23.11. Commercial Potential
      12. 23.12. Conclusions
      13. Nomenclature
    5. Chapter 24. Recent Advances in Hybrid Drying Technologies
      1. 24.1. Introduction
      2. 24.2. Product Quality Degradation During Dehydration
      3. 24.3. Hybrid Drying Systems
      4. 24.4. Conclusions
    6. Chapter 25. Infrared Heating
      1. 25.1. Introduction
      2. 25.2. Fundamentals of IR Heating
      3. 25.3. Computational Modeling of IR Heating Process
      4. 25.4. Application of IR Heating for Food and Agricultural Processing
      5. 25.5. Outlook of IR Heating for Food and Agricultural Processing
      6. 25.6. Conclusions
      7. Nomenclature
  12. Section V. Innovations in Food Refrigeration
    1. Chapter 26. Vacuum Cooling of Foods
      1. 26.1. Introduction
      2. 26.2. Vacuum Cooling Principles, Process, and Equipment
      3. 26.3. Vacuum Cooling Applications in the Food Industry
      4. 26.4. Mathematical Modeling of Vacuum-Cooling Process
      5. 26.5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Vacuum Cooling
      6. 26.6. Factors Affecting Vacuum-Cooling Process
      7. 26.7. Conclusions
      8. Nomenclature
    2. Chapter 27. Ultrasonic Assistance for Food Freezing
      1. 27.1. Introduction
      2. 27.2. Power Ultrasound Generation and Equipment
      3. 27.3. Acoustic Effects on the Food Freezing Process
      4. 27.4. Factors Affecting Power Ultrasound Efficiency
      5. 27.5. Applications
      6. 27.6. Conclusions
    3. Chapter 28. High-Pressure Freezing
      1. 28.1. Introduction
      2. 28.2. High Pressure for Freezing: Principles and Equipment
      3. 28.3. Types of High-Pressure Freezing Processes
      4. 28.4. Microbial and Enzymatic Inactivation after High-Pressure Freezing
      5. 28.5. Modeling High-Pressure Freezing Processes
      6. 28.6. Future Perspectives
      7. 28.7. Conclusions
      8. Nomenclature
    4. Chapter 29. Controlling the Freezing Process with Antifreeze Proteins
      1. 29.1. Introduction
      2. 29.2. Water as the Solvent of Life
      3. 29.3. The Physical Characteristics of Ice
      4. 29.4. Historical Review of AFP Research
      5. 29.5. Cold Tolerance in Cold-Blooded Animals
      6. 29.6. AFPS in Various Organisms
      7. 29.7. Types of AFP
      8. 29.8. Antifreeze Mechanism
      9. 29.9. Enhancement of Antifreeze Activity
      10. 29.10. The Use of AFP in Food Preservation
      11. 29.11. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of AFPS
      12. 29.12. Conclusions
    5. Chapter 30. Freezing Combined with Electrical and Magnetic Disturbances
      1. 30.1. Introduction
      2. 30.2. Water Properties and Freezing
      3. 30.3. Phase Changes Under Electrical Disturbances
      4. 30.4. Magnetic Fields and Phase Change
      5. 30.5. Research on Freezing Under an Electric Field
      6. 30.6. Electro and Magnetic Electric Fields or Oscillating Electric Fields
      7. 30.7. Patent Search
      8. 30.8. Conclusions
      9. Nomenclature
  13. Section VI. Minimal Processing
    1. Chapter 31. Minimal Processing of Fresh Fruit, Vegetables, and Juices
      1. 31.1. Introduction
      2. 31.2. Factors and Processing Operations that Affect the Quality of Minimally Processed Plant Foods
      3. 31.3. Emerging Technologies for Keeping the Microbial and Sensory Quality of MPFVS
      4. 31.4. Emerging Technologies FOR Minimally Processed Fresh Fruit Juices
      5. 31.5. Conclusions
    2. Chapter 32. Minimal Processing of Ready Meals
      1. 32.1. Introduction
      2. 32.2. Design of Total System
      3. 32.3. Cook-Chill
      4. 32.4. Cook-Freeze
      5. 32.5. Sous-Vide
      6. 32.6. Novel and Alternative Processing Options
      7. 32.7. Conclusions
    3. Chapter 33. Modified Atmosphere Packaging, for Minimally Processed Foods
      1. 33.1. Introduction
      2. 33.2. Properties of Packaged Food
      3. 33.3. Properties of Packaging Materials
      4. 33.4. Modified Atmosphere Packaging Design
      5. 33.5. Conclusions
      6. Nomenclature
  14. Index