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Emerging Nanotechnologies in Dentistry

Book Description

New nanomaterials are leading to a range of emerging dental treatments that utilize more biomimetic materials that more closely duplicate natural tooth structure (or bone, in the case of implants). The use of nanostructures that will work in harmony with the body’s own regenerative processes (eg, to restore tooth structure or alveolar bone) are moving into clinical practice. This book brings together an international team of experts from the fields of nanomaterials, biomedical engineering and dentistry, to cover the new materials and techniques with potential for use intra-orally or extra-orally for the restoration, fixation, replacement, or regeneration of hard and soft tissues in and about the oral cavity and craniofacial region. New dental nanotechnologies include the use of advanced inorganic and organic materials, smart and biomimetic materials, tissue engineering and drug delivery strategies.



  • Book prepared by an interdisciplinary and international group of bio-nanomaterial scientists and dental/oral biomedical researchers
  • Comprehensive professional reference for the subject covering materials fabrication and use of materials for all major diagnostic and therapeutic dental applications – repair,restoration, regeneration, implants and prevention
  • Book focuses in depth on the materials manufacturing processes involved with emphasis on pre-clinical and clinical applications, use and biocompatibility

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Front-matter
  4. Copyright
  5. Foreword
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Dedication
  8. List of Contributors
  9. Chapter 1. Nanotechnology and the Future of Dentistry
  10. 1.1. Introduction
  11. 1.2. Nanotechnology Approaches
  12. 1.3. Nanotechnology to Nanomanufacturing
  13. 1.4. Nanodentistry
  14. 1.5. Future Directions and Conclusions
  15. Chapter 2. Nanoparticles for Dental Materials
  16. 2.1. Introduction: Why Use Nanoparticles?
  17. 2.2. Synthesis of Nanoparticles
  18. 2.3. Examples of Dental Materials Using Nanoparticles
  19. 2.4. Selected Properties of Dental Materials Containing Nanoparticles
  20. 2.5. Clinical Experience with Dental Materials Containing Nanoparticles
  21. 2.6. Conclusions
  22. Chapter 3. Antimicrobial Nanoparticles in Restorative Composites
  23. 3.1. Introduction
  24. 3.2. Antibacterial Restorative Composites
  25. 3.3. Antimicrobial Macromolecules
  26. 3.4. Nanoparticles
  27. 3.5. Conclusions
  28. Chapter 4. Nanotechnology in Operative Dentistry
  29. 4.1. Introduction
  30. 4.2. Historical Review: Nanotechnology Applications in Operative Dentistry
  31. 4.3. Biomimetics
  32. 4.4. Fillers in Composite Resins
  33. 4.5. SEM and EDS Evaluation
  34. 4.6. Filler Weight Content (wt%)
  35. 4.7. Water Sorption
  36. 4.8. Mechanical Behavior
  37. 4.9. Clinical Applications
  38. 4.10. Conclusions
  39. Chapter 5. Impact of Nanotechnology on Dental Implants
  40. 5.1. Introduction
  41. 5.2. Nanoscale Surface Modifications
  42. 5.3. Interactions of Surface Dental Implants with Blood
  43. 5.4. Interactions Between Surfaces and MSCs
  44. 5.5. Tissue Integration
  45. 5.6. Conclusion
  46. Chapter 6. Titanium Surface Modification Techniques for Dental Implants—From Microscale to Nanoscale
  47. 6.1. Introduction
  48. 6.2. Titanium Surface Modification Methods
  49. 6.3. Limitations and Conclusion
  50. Chapter 7. Titanium Nanotubes as Carriers of Osteogenic Growth Factors and Antibacterial Drugs for Applications in Dental Implantology
  51. 7.1. Introduction
  52. 7.2. Titanium Nanotubes
  53. 7.3. TiO2 Nanotubes for Implant Fabrication
  54. 7.4. Functionalization of TiO2 Nanotubes with Growth Factors and Antibacterial/Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
  55. 7.5. Conclusions
  56. Chapter 8. Cellular Responses to Nanoscale Surface Modifications of Titanium Implants for Dentistry and Bone Tissue Engineering Applications
  57. 8.1. Introduction
  58. 8.2. Nanotopography Generated from Surface Modification of Ti Implants
  59. 8.3. Nanotopography and Protein Absorption
  60. 8.4. Nanotopography Alters Osteoblast Responses
  61. 8.5. Nanotopography and Stem Cell Responses
  62. 8.6. Conclusions
  63. Chapter 9. Corrosion Resistance of Ti6Al4V with Nanostructured TiO2 Coatings
  64. 9.1. Introduction
  65. 9.2. Nanostructured TiO2 Deposited on Ti6Al4V
  66. 9.3. Characterization Techniques
  67. 9.4. Corrosion Tests with Electrochemical Techniques
  68. 9.5. Conclusions
  69. Chapter 10. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Incorporated GTR Membranes
  70. 10.1. Introduction
  71. 10.2. Periodontal Defects and GTR
  72. 10.3. Use of Electrospinning for Preparation of Nanocomposites
  73. 10.4. GTR Membranes Based on Electrospun CNT/HA Nanoparticles Incorporated Composite Nanofibers
  74. 10.5. Conclusions
  75. Chapter 11. Fabrication of PEG Hydrogel Micropatterns by Soft-Photolithography and PEG Hydrogel as Guided Bone Regeneration Membrane in Dental Implantology
  76. 11.1. Introduction
  77. 11.2. Microfabrication
  78. 11.3. Lithography
  79. 11.4. Hydrogel as a Biomaterial
  80. 11.5. Soft-Photolithography of Hydrogel Micropatterns
  81. 11.6. PEG Hydrogel as GBR Membrane in Dental Implantology
  82. 11.7. Conclusions
  83. Chapter 12. Nano-Apatitic Composite Scaffolds for Stem Cell Delivery and Bone Tissue Engineering
  84. 12.1. Introduction
  85. 12.2. Development of Nano-Apatitic and Macroporous Scaffolds
  86. 12.3. Cell Infiltration into Scaffold
  87. 12.4. Biomimetic Nano-Apatite–Collagen Fiber Scaffold
  88. 12.5. Fast Fracture of Nano-Apatite Scaffold
  89. 12.6. Fatigue of Nano-Apatite Scaffold
  90. 12.7. Nano-Apatite Scaffold–Human Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Interactions
  91. 12.8. Seeding Bone Marrow Stem Cells on Nano-Apatite Scaffolds
  92. 12.9. Conclusions
  93. Chapter 13. Self-Assembly of Proteins and Peptides and Their Applications in Bionanotechnology and Dentistry
  94. 13.1. Introduction
  95. 13.2. Mechanism of Molecular Self-Assembly
  96. 13.3. Classification of Self-Assembly
  97. 13.4. Self-Assembly of Proteins and Peptides
  98. 13.5. Bionanotechnology Applications
  99. 13.6. Peptide Nanofibers, Nanotubes, and Nanowires
  100. 13.7. Three-Dimensional Peptide Matrix Scaffolds
  101. 13.8. Advantages and Limitations of Self-Assembling Peptide Matrix Scaffolds
  102. 13.9. Self-Assembly in Regenerative Biology and Dentistry
  103. 13.10. Conclusions
  104. Chapter 14. Bone Regeneration Using Self-Assembled Nanoparticle-Based Scaffolds
  105. 14.1. Introduction
  106. 14.2. Scaffolding Biomaterials
  107. 14.3. Growth Factors
  108. 14.4. Controlled Release Technology
  109. 14.5. Controlled Release Systems for Bone Regeneration
  110. 14.6. Conclusions
  111. Chapter 15. Surface Engineering of Dental Tools with Diamond for Improved Life and Performance
  112. 15.1. Tooth Materials
  113. 15.2. Dental Burs
  114. 15.3. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond Films onto Dental Burs
  115. 15.4. Bur Performance Investigations
  116. 15.5. Conclusions
  117. Chapter 16. Nanomechanical Characterization of Mineralized Tissues in the Oral Cavity
  118. 16.1. Introduction
  119. 16.2. Basic Data Analysis Protocol for Nanoindentation
  120. 16.3. Nanoindentation of Oral Mineralized Tissues
  121. 16.4. Conclusions
  122. Chapter 17. Nanoindentation Techniques for the Determination of Mechanical Properties of Materials in Dentistry
  123. 17.1. Introduction
  124. 17.2. Basic Information from the Load–Displacement Curves
  125. 17.3. Characterization of Inelastic Properties
  126. 17.4. Determination of Properties in Nonhomogeneous Bodies
  127. 17.5. Characterization of Time-Dependent Load Response
  128. 17.6. Resistance Against Crack Propagation
  129. 17.7. Scratch Tests for the Evaluation of Friction and Wear Resistance
  130. 17.8. Devices for Nanoindentation
  131. Chapter 18. Nanocharacterization Techniques for Dental Implant Development
  132. 18.1. Measurement of the Topology of Nanostructures
  133. 18.2. Measurement of Nanostructure Internal Geometries
  134. 18.3. Measurement of Composition of Nanostructures
  135. 18.4. Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of Nanostructures
  136. 18.5. Conclusions
  137. Chapter 19. Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems for Oral Cancer Treatment
  138. 19.1. Introduction
  139. 19.2. Cancer Treatment Techniques
  140. 19.3. Mechanism of Action of Chemotherapeutic Agents
  141. 19.4. Oral Cancer
  142. 19.5. TNM Classification of Tumors
  143. 19.6. Management of Oral Cancer
  144. 19.7. Nanoparticulate-Based Drug Delivery in Cancer Treatment
  145. 19.8. Conclusions
  146. Chapter 20. Carbon Nanotubes in Cancer Therapy and Drug Delivery
  147. 20.1. Introduction
  148. 20.2. Cellular Uptake of CNTs
  149. 20.3. CNTs as Carriers for Drug, Gene, and Protein
  150. 20.4. CNTs for Oral Cancer Therapy
  151. 20.5. Conclusions
  152. Chapter 21. Nanodiagnostics in Microbiology and Dentistry
  153. 21.1. Introduction
  154. 21.2. Nanomaterials
  155. 21.3. Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology and its Limitations
  156. 21.4. Nanotechnology Applications in Drug Delivery Systems, Nanodiagnostics, and Various Other Fields
  157. 21.5. Contribution of Microbiology to Nanotechnology
  158. 21.6. AFM Imaging of Microorganisms
  159. 21.7. Nanoplasmonic Sensors Detecting Live Viruses
  160. 21.8. Nanodentistry
  161. 21.9. Conclusions
  162. Index