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Emerging Markets and E-Commerce in Developing Economies

Book Description

Emerging Markets and E-Commerce in Developing Economies enhances understanding of e-commerce models and practices in less developed countries, and extends the growing literature on e-commerce. An essential addition to worldwide library collections, this essential contribution expands the body of knowledge in the field with relevant theoretical foundations, methodologies, and frameworks.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. List of Reviewers
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. REFERENCES
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. I. E-Commerce in DCs: An Overview
    1. I. E-Commerce in Developing Economies: A Review of Theoretical Frameworks and Approaches
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK
        1. Potential Benefits and Constraints
        2. Adoption and Diffusion
        3. Support and Implementation
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
        1. Descriptive Results
        2. Analytical Classification
        3. Summary by E-Commerce Research Themes
          1. Theme 1 : Potential and Constraints
          2. Theme 2: Adoption and Diffusion
          3. Theme 3: Support and Implementation
      6. DISCUSSION
        1. Potential and Constraints
        2. Adoption and Diffusion
          1. Technology Adoption Frameworks
          2. Managerial and Organizational Adoption Frameworks
          3. Environmental and Cultural Frameworks
          4. Interactionism Frameworks
        3. Support and Implementation
          1. Resource-Based Frameworks
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. LIMITATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
    2. A. APPENDIX ONE
      1. List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
    3. B. APPENDIX TWO
      1. Distributions of Articles by Journals
      2. List of Journals Reviewed
    4. II. Significance and Success Factors of E-Commerce in China and Russia: An Empirical View
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-COMMERCE IN CHINA AND RUSSIA: CONDITIONS AND BACKGROUND
      4. INTEREST AND INVOLVEMENT OF CHINESE AND RUSSIAN COMPANIES IN E-COMMERCE
      5. KEY DRIVERS OF E-COMMERCE VALUE CREATION IN CHINA AND RUSSIA
      6. CONCLUSION AND GENERAL IMPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
  7. II. Challenges to E-Commerce Adoption in DCs
    1. III. Identifying Factors for Lack of E-Commerce in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A FRAMEWORK FOR E-COMMERCE INFRASTRUCTURE
      4. TELECOMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURES
        1. Opportunity for Wireless Technologies
        2. Lack of Electricity
        3. Digital Divide
      5. USER INFRASTRUCTURE
        1. Internet Access Infrastructure
        2. Computer Lines and Equipment
      6. BUSINESS AND SERVICE INFRASTRUCTURE
        1. Business Infrastructure
        2. Service Infrastructure: Distribution and Delivery Systems
      7. REGULATORY AND COMMERCE INFRASTRUCTURE
        1. Financial Infrastructure Issues
          1. Banks and Financial Network Restructuring
          2. Finances through Venture Capitalists (VC)
        2. Regulatory and Tax Issues
          1. Differentiation of Goods and Services
          2. Taxes and Regulation Restructuring
        3. Legal Framework Issues
          1. Absence of Cyber-Laws
          2. Security Problems Associated with Net Transactions
          3. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Issues
      8. MARKET ACCESS AND CAPACITY BUILDING ISSUES
        1. Transfer of Technology
        2. Widespread Illiteracy
        3. International Forum for Coordinating E-Commerce Related Activities
      9. GOVERNMENT POLICIES, LIBERALIZATION AND DE-REGULATION
        1. Governmental Control & Policies
        2. Business Practices Issues
      10. CUSTOMER BASE
      11. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
      12. REFERENCES
    2. IV. E-Commerce Development in China: An Exploration of Perceptions and Attitudes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
        1. Research Model
        2. Research Design and Sampling Procedure
        3. Data Collection Procedures
        4. Data Analysis
      5. FINDINGS
        1. Demographic Data
        2. Environmental Factors
        3. Organizational Factors
        4. Personal Factors
        5. Perceptions about E-Commerce
        6. Attitudes toward E-Commerce
        7. Correlation Analysis
      6. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    3. V. E-Commerce Adoption and Appropriation by SMEs in Sri Lanka
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
        1. Barriers to E-Commerce Adoption in SMEs
        2. Barriers to E-Commerce Adoption in Developing Countries
        3. Models for Adoption
        4. The Stages of Adoption: Stage Models
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
        1. Research Approach
        2. Phase 1: Pilot Exploratory Study with SMEs
        3. Phase 2: Survey of SMEs Using Questionnaire
        4. Phase 3: Interviews with SME Intermediary Organizations
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
        1. Barriers: Pilot Interviews
        2. Preliminary Analysis of Survey Data
          1. Barriers and Support for SMEs
        3. What Barriers are Predominant at a Stage?
          1. Internal Barriers: Moving from No Website to E-Commerce Site
          2. Support for Internal Barriers: Moving from No Website to E-Commerce Site
          3. External Barriers: Moving from No Website to E-Commerce Site
        4. Perceptions of SME Intermediaries
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    4. VI. E-Commerce in Developing Countries: Impediments and Opportunities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHINA RESEARCH STUDY
      4. OVERCOMING IMPEDIMENTS AND CREATING OPPORTUNITIES
        1. Socio-Economic Behaviors and Prevailing Cultural Characteristics
        2. Infrastructure and E-Support Characteristics
        3. Governmental Policies and Legal Environment Characteristics
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
  8. III. E-Government in DCs
    1. VII. E-Governance in Uganda: Experiences and Lessons Learned from the DistrictNet Programme
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SHORT INTRODUCTION TO UGANDA
      4. UNDERSTANDING E-GOVERNANCE
        1. ICT for Change
        2. Domains of E-Governance
        3. Where is E-Governance Now?
        4. Guiding Principles for Successful E-Governance
        5. Model for Evaluation
      5. DISTRICTNET: UGANDA
        1. Set-Up of DistrictNet
        2. Proposed Technical Solution
        3. Implementation of DistrictNet
        4. DistrictNet and E-Administration
        5. DistrictNet and E-Services
        6. DistrictNet and E-Society
        7. Challenges and Obstacles
      6. CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNED
        1. E-Governance Implemented
        2. Lessons Learned
          1. Ad 1. Focus of ICT in Government Operations
            1. Think Big, But Begin Small
            2. Create Feedback Loops in E-Governance Programmes
          2. Ad 2. Ability to Use ICT in Government
            1. Stress Capacity Development as a Key Success Factor
            2. Recognize that Fighting Technology Takes Time
          3. Ad 3. Strategies for Connecting Citizens
            1. Emphasize that Information is a Commodity
            2. Ensure Content Availability and Usage
        3. Conclusion
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    2. C. APPENDIX: LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE IN UGANDA
    3. VIII. E-Government and Its Impact on E-Commerce in LDCs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREVIOUS STUDIES
      4. DEFINITION OF E-GOVERNMENT
      5. E-GOVERNMENT AS A CATALYST FOR E-COMMERCE
      6. E-GOVERNMENT VERSUS E-BUSINESS
        1. The Roadmap to Success
        2. Can E-Government use E-Business Models and Technology Platform?
      7. E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGY
        1. Constituency Services
        2. Operational Proficiency
        3. Political Return
      8. CHALLENGES FACING E-GOVERNMENT
        1. Political Challenges
        2. Social Challenges
        3. Digital Divide
        4. Privacy and Security
        5. Corruption
        6. Legal Challenges
        7. Technical
      9. BENEFITS OF E-GOVERNMENT
        1. Political and Governance Benefits
        2. Economic Benefits
          1. Operational Efficiency and Cost Reduction
          2. Effect of E-Government on Competitiveness
          3. Consumers Convenience and Cost Reduction
        3. Social Benefits
        4. Impact of E-Government on E-Business
      10. IMPROVING E-GOVERNING IN LDCS
        1. Online Presence
        2. E-Mail
        3. Simplified Knowledge Management
        4. Pubic Private Sector Partnership
      11. EXTENSIONS TO E-GOVERNMENT
        1. M-Government
        2. G-Government
        3. U-Government
        4. LDC-Specific Environment Characteristics
        5. The Learning E-Government
      12. OPPORTUNITIES FOR LDCS
        1. ICT as an Enabler for Business
        2. Open-Source Software
        3. Software Industry
        4. Knowledge Economy
        5. Leapfrogging
        6. Benefits of Leapfrogging
        7. Wireless Access Opportunities
      13. REFERENCES
  9. IV. National Culture and E-Commerce Adoption in DCs
    1. IX. Cultural Interpretation of E-Commerce Acceptance in Developing Countries: Empirical Evidence from Malaysia and Algeria
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CULTURE AND INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES
      4. UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIORAL BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES
      5. CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT
        1. Cultural Differences
        2. Power Distance
        3. Uncertainty Avoidance
        4. Individualism/Collectivism
        5. Masculinity/Femininity
      6. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN MALAYSIA AND ALGERIA
      7. RESEARCH METHOD
      8. DEMOGRAPHICAL PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS
      9. RELIABILITY MEASUREMENT
      10. MEAN VALUES OF COMPOSITE VARIABLES
      11. HYPOTHESES TESTING
      12. THEORETICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      13. LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      14. REFERENCES
    2. X. Cultural Differences, Information Technology Infrastructure, and E-Commerce Behavior: Implications for Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION
      4. OVERVIEW OF CULTURAL AND INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE DIFFERENCES ACROSS COUNTRIES
        1. Cultural Differences
        2. Information Infrastructure
      5. DATA
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE AND E-COMMERCE BEHAVIOR:
      8. CULTURE AND E-COMMERCE
        1. The Effect of Power Distance Index (PDI)
        2. The Effect of Individualism (IND)
        3. The Effect of Masculinity (MAS)
        4. The Effect of Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
      9. SUMMARY OF THE EMPIRICAL RESULTS
      10. POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      11. CASE STUDY: TURKEY
      12. CASE STUDY: MENA COUNTRIES
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ENDNOTES
    3. D. APPENDIX A
      1. Properties of Cultural Dimensions for Different Regions
        1. PDI
        2. IDV
        3. MAS
        4. UAI
    4. XI. Mobile-Commerce Intention to Use via SMS: The Case of Kuwait
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Research Questions and Objectives
        2. Significance of the Research
        3. Why the Study Focused on SMS in Kuwait?
      3. THEORY AND BACKGROUND
        1. Past Literature Review on SMS Adoption
        2. Other Related Literature Review on ICT Adoption Models
          1. Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
          2. Theory of Planed Behavior (TPB)
          3. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
          4. The Decomposed TPB
          5. Nysveen's et al. (2005) Model
          6. The Modified Integrated Model
          7. Past Studies on Model Comparison
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
        1. Instrument Development and Data Collection
        2. Reliability of the Measure
        3. Measures
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
        1. Demographic Data and Behavior of Respondents with SMS Usage
        2. Factor Analysis
        3. Regression Analysis
          1. Predicting Behavioral Intention Using TRA
          2. Predicting Behavioral Intention Using TPB
          3. Predicting SMS Adoption Using TAM
          4. Predicting SMS Adoption Using the DTPB
          5. Predicting SMS Using Nysveen's Model
          6. Predicting SMS Using the New Proposed Model
        4. Discussion
      6. CONCLUSIONS
        1. Contributions
        2. Limitations
        3. Research Implications
      7. REFERENCES
    5. E. APPENDIX 1: CONSTRUCT MEASUREMENT
      1. Image
      2. Perceived Enjoyment (PE)
      3. Perceived Usefulness (PU)
      4. Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU)
      5. Subjective Norm
      6. Attitude Toward Use
      7. Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC)
      8. Intention to Use
  10. V. Strategies for Successful E-Commerce Development in DCs
    1. XII. An Economic Framework for the Assessment of E-Commerce in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. MODEL
        1. Factor Conditions
          1. Improved Search for the Factors of Production
          2. Access to a Larger Market
          3. Accumulation of Human and Physical Capital and Technological Innovations
          4. Cost of Network Access and the Congestion Problem
          5. Factor Substitutability
        2. Demand Conditions
          1. Efficient Search for Variety of Products and Information
          2. Rapid Information Processing and Transparency
          3. Reduced Transaction Cost
        3. Related and Supporting Industries and Firm Structure
          1. Communication Systems, Information Technology
          2. Financial Sector and Payment Systems
          3. Shipping and Distribution Systems
          4. Government Regulations, Standards, and Protocols
          5. Changes in the Role of Intermediaries
          6. Global Trade Liberalization
        4. Company's Strategy, Organizational Structure and Rivalry
          1. Pricing of Digital Goods
          2. Highly Differentiated Products
          3. Economies of Scale and Scope
          4. Lower Menu Cost
          5. Electronic Marketplace
      5. CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    2. XIII. Guidelines for Preparing Organizations in Developing Countries for Standards-Based B2B
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. B2B
          1. Introduction to B2B
          2. B2B Standards Implementation Model
        2. Developing Countries
        3. The Framework for Managing Critical Success Factors
          1. Critical Success Factors: The Framework Base
          2. The System's Boundary
          3. The Stakeholders
          4. The Objective
          5. The Framework for Managing CSF
      4. MAPPING THE CSF FRAMEWORK TO THE B2B SETTING
      5. CONCRETE GUIDELINES FOR STRATEGIC PLANNING
        1. To Achieve and Describe Goals in Relation to an Updated Business Strategy
        2. To Identify Critical Parts where the Initial Anchoring Work should Start
        3. To Explicitly Define Relations Between Goals, the Strategy, Stakeholders, etc.
      6. CONCRETE GUIDELINES FOR PROCESS ANALYSIS
        1. To have a Clear View of the Organization's Business Processes
        2. To Identify what Business Processes to Include, and to Motivate and Prepare Relevant Stakeholders
        3. To Identify what Systems that Support the Business Process
      7. CONCRETE GUIDELINES FOR PARTNER ALIGNMENT
        1. To Establish Partner Readiness
        2. To Establish Legal Contracts
        3. To Form Cross-Organizational Teams
      8. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      9. REFERENCES
    3. XIV. A Proposed Template for the Evaluation of Web Design Strategies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Stickiness
        2. Customization and Globalization
        3. Availability, Hardware/Software Requirements, Accessibility
        4. Security, Privacy, Legal and Ethical Issues Involved in Internet Marketing
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
        1. Web Site Design/Stickiness
        2. Customization and Globalization
        3. Accessibility, Hard/Software Requirements
        4. Security, Privacy
      6. IMPLICATIONS
      7. LIMITATIONS: FURTHER RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    4. F. APPENDIX
      1. Companies: http://www.presspoint.gr/sectors.asp (Sources: ASE (Athens Stock Exchange): companies in blue background, Presspoint.gr: companies in white background)
  11. VI. Case Studies on E-Commerce in DCs
    1. XV. Electronic Commerce Reality in Tunisia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE BIRTH OF THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN TUNISIA
        1. The Tunisian Post Initiative
        2. Description of the General Scheme of E-Commerce Transactions via the ONP
        3. The Connection Between the CWS of the Merchant and the Server of the ONP via Internet
        4. Steps of an Electronic Payment Transaction Between the Customer and the Merchant
        5. Survey of Transactions Made by the ONP
      4. STATISTICS RELATED TO THE ONP CARD
        1. Card Types and Users' Evolution
        2. Benefits of Electronic Payments via the ONP
      5. DESCRIPTION OF THE GENERAL SCHEME OF AN E-COMMERCE TRANSACTION VIA THE SMT
        1. The Connection Between the Merchant's CWS and the SMT Server via Internet
        2. The Steps of Achieving an Electronic Payment Transaction Between the Customer and the Merchant via the SMT
        3. The Authentication Steps of the Merchant's Website by the SMT
      6. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEM OF THE ONP AND THE SMT
      7. LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE CASE STUDIES: THE RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS
      8. CONCLUDING
      9. REFERENCES
    2. XVI. Electronic Commerce in China: Can We Wake Up the Giant?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE DEVELOPMENT
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. ANALYSIS OF E-COMMERCE IN CHINA
        1. The National Factors Perspective
        2. Telecommunications Infrastructure
        3. Government Regulations
          1. Access Regulation
          2. Domain Name Registration
          3. Encryption
          4. The Secrecy Regulations
          5. Personal Data Privacy and Security
          6. Consumer Protection Regulation
        4. Talent Supply
        5. The Related and Supporting Industries Perspective
        6. Payment Systems
        7. Logistics Systems
        8. The Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Perspective of the Firm
        9. The Demand Perspective
          1. Consumer Demand for E-Commerce
          2. Business Demand for E-Commerce
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. XVII. Evolution of Electronic Procurement in Egypt: Case of Speedsend.com
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. EVOLUTION OF ELECTRONIC PROCUREMENT
      3. SPEEDSEND: EGYPT LEADING EPROCUREMENT PLATFORM
      4. LOCAL MARKET STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS
      5. SPEEDSEND.COM: FROM VISION TO REALITY
        1. Idea Generation
        2. Business Model
        3. Value Proposition
        4. Initial Financing
        5. Speedsend.com Growth
        6. Internal Operations and Capabilities
          1. Ordering Cycle
          2. Purchase Cycle
          3. Enterprise Content Management
          4. Customer Service
          5. Training
          6. Warehousing and Delivery
          7. Online Information Dissemination
          8. Website
        7. SpeedSend Strategies
          1. Sales Strategy
          2. Retention and Client Growth Strategy
          3. Product Development Strategy
          4. New Client Acquisition
        8. Challenges
          1. Demand Forecasting
          2. Internal Communication
          3. Personnel Challenges
          4. Technological Challenges
          5. Business Model Divide
      6. SWOT ANALYSIS
      7. COMPETITION
      8. SPEEDSEND FINANCIALS
      9. WHAT IS NEXT?
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTE
    4. XVIII. The State and Development of E-Commerce in Serbia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FACTS ABOUT SERBIA
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHODOLOGY
      5. TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE
      6. DELIVERY CHALLENGES
      7. TELECOMMUNICATIONS FACILITIES
      8. SOFTWARE INDUSTRY
      9. E-BANKING AND E-PAYMENT SYSTEMS
      10. LEGISLATURE SUPPORT
      11. EDUCATION SYSTEM
      12. CUSTOMER READINESS
      13. REGIONAL COOPERATION
      14. E-COMMERCE SUCCESS STORIES IN SERBIA
      15. PRECONDITIONS FOR E-COMMERCE DEVELOPMENT IN SERBIA
        1. Creation of Telecommunication Infrastructure and Affordable Access to Internet Services
        2. Application of Business Process Reengineering
        3. Facilitation of Business Processes and Acceptance of Internationally Harmonized standards
        4. Appropriate Management of Human Resources
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
  12. Compilation of References
  13. About the Contributors