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Emerging Health Trends: A Look at Where Science Will Take Us (Collection)

Book Description

3 books illuminate the cutting edge medical research that could save your life

Right now, science is transforming what we know about preserving and improving human health. These three extraordinary books take you to the cutting edge of emerging science, presenting new findings that might someday save your life. In Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis, Karl S. Drlica and David S. Perlin presents a thorough and authoritative overview of the growing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics, and what this means to our ability to control and treat infectious diseases. The authors answer crucial questions such as: What is resistance? How does it emerge? How do common human activities promote resistance? What can we do about it? How can we strengthen our defenses against resistance, minimize our risks, extend the effectiveness of current antibiotics, and find new ones faster? Next, in Chips, Clones, and Living Beyond 100: How Far Will the Biosciences Take Us?, Paul and Joyce A. Schoemaker tour the remarkable field of biosciences as it stands today, and preview the directions and innovations that are most likely to emerge in the coming years. They offer a clear, non-technical overview of crucial current developments that are likely to have enormous impact, addressing issues ranging from increased human longevity to global warming, bio-warfare to personalized medicine. Along the way, they illuminate each of the exciting technologies and hot-button issues associated with contemporary biotechnology - including stem cells, cloning, probiotics, DNA microarrays, proteomics, gene therapy, and more. Finally, in It Takes a Genome, Greg Gibson posits a revolutionary new hypothesis: our genome is out of equilibrium, both with itself and its environment. Our bodies weren’t designed to subsist on fat and sugary foods; our immune systems aren’t designed for today’s clean, bland environments; our minds aren’t designed to process hard-edged, artificial electronic inputs from dawn ‘til midnight. That, says Gibson, is why so many of us suffer from chronic diseases that barely touched our ancestors. Gibson reveals the stunningly complex ways genes cooperate and interact; illuminates the genetic “mismatches” that lead to cancer, diabetes, inflammatory and infectious diseases, AIDS, depression, and senility; and considers surprising new evidence for genetic variations in human psychology.

From world-renowned leaders and experts, includingKarl S. Drlica, David S. Perlin, Paul J. H. Schoemaker, Joyce A. Schoemaker, and Greg Gibson

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis
    1. Copyright Page
    2. Dedication Page
    3. Contents
    4. About the Authors
    5. Preface
    6. Chapter 1. Introduction to the Resistance Problem
      1. MRSA Is Putting Resistance in the News
      2. Humans Live with Many Pathogens
      3. Antibiotics Block Growth and Kill Pathogens
      4. Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics Also Perturb Our Microbiomes
      5. Antibiotic Resistance Protects Pathogens
      6. Antibiotic Resistance Is Widespread
      7. Antibiotic Resistance Is Divided into Three Types
      8. The Development of New Antibiotics Is Slowing
      9. Vaccines Block Disease
      10. Perspective
    7. Chapter 2. Working with Pathogens
      1. Pathogens Are a Diverse Group of Life Forms
      2. Pathogen Numbers Are Measured by Microscopy and by Detecting Growth
      3. Molecular Probes Can Be Specific and Highly Sensitive
      4. Koch’s Postulates Help Establish That a Pathogen Causes Disease
      5. Modern Biology Has Refined Koch’s Postulates
      6. Pathogen Studies Focus on Populations
      7. Perspective
    8. Chapter 3. A Survey of Antibiotics
      1. Antibiotics Are Selective Poisons
      2. Antibiotics Are Found in a Variety of Ways
      3. Antibacterial Agents Usually Attack Specific Targets
      4. Antibacterial Agents May Have a Generalized Effect
      5. Most Antifungal Agents Attack Membranes and Cell Walls
      6. Antiprotozoan Agents Tend to Be Disease-Specific
      7. Antihelminth Agents Are Used with a Variety of Worms
      8. Antiviral Agents Are Often Narrow Spectrum
      9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
      10. Influenza Virus
      11. Herpes Virus
      12. Antibiotic Classes Evolve
      13. Antiseptics and Disinfectants Decontaminate Surfaces
      14. Perspective
    9. Chapter 4. Dosing to Cure
      1. Treatment Strategies Have Been Determined Empirically
      2. Susceptibility Testing Guides Antibiotic Choice
      3. Testing for Viruses Bypasses Pathogen Growth
      4. PK/PD Indices Help Determine Antibiotic Dosage
      5. Young Children Are Not Little Adults
      6. Toxic Side Effects Are Determined Empirically
      7. Duration of Treatment Is Determined Empirically
      8. Prophylaxis Preempts Disease
      9. Management Programs Control Hospital Antibiotic Policy
      10. Self-Medication Is Outside the Guidelines
      11. Perspective
    10. Chapter 5. Emergence of Resistance
      1. Resistance Can Emerge in Individual Patients
      2. Spontaneous Mutations Are Nucleotide Sequence Changes
      3. Emergence of Spontaneous Resistance Often Arises Stepwise
      4. Mutant Selection Window Hypothesis Describes Emergence of Spontaneous Resistance
      5. Mutations Can Be Caused (Induced) by Antibiotic Treatment
      6. Resistance Arises from Several Molecular Mechanisms
      7. Treatment Time Can Contribute to Resistance
      8. Mutator Mutations Increase Mutation Frequency
      9. Phenotypic Resistance Occurs Without Mutations
      10. Resistance May Compromise Antiseptic and Disinfectant Use
      11. Viral Resistance Can Arise Readily
      12. Resistance Mutations Can Affect Pathogen Fitness
      13. Unintended Damage Can Arise from Treatment
      14. Perspective
    11. Chapter 6. Movement of Resistance Genes Among Pathogens
      1. Horizontal Gene Transfer Involves Specific Molecular Events
      2. Recombination Involves Breaking and Rejoining of DNA Molecules
      3. Plasmids Are Molecular Parasites
      4. Some Plasmids Move by Conjugation
      5. Bacteriophages Move Bacterial Genes by Transduction
      6. Bacterial Transformation Involves Uptake of DNA from the Environment
      7. Transposition Moves Genes from One DNA to Another
      8. Gene Mobilization Moves Genes from the Chromosome to a Plasmid
      9. Integrons Gather Genes into an Expression Site
      10. Genomic Islands Help Create Pathogens
      11. Plasmid Enzymes Can Be Inhibited
      12. Perspective
    12. Chapter 7. Transmission of Resistant Disease
      1. Spread of Pathogens Is Highly Evolved
      2. Infection Control as Local Crisis Management
      3. Tuberculosis Is Airborne
      4. Airborne Viruses
      5. Digestive-Tract Pathogens
      6. Direct-Contact Pathogens
      7. Arthropod-Borne Pathogens
      8. Blood-Borne Infections
      9. Multiple-Mode Transmission
      10. Perspective
    13. Chapter 8. Surveillance
      1. Surveillance Is the First Line of Defense
      2. The Denominator Effect Lowers Surveillance Accuracy
      3. Surveillance Consortia Collect and Process Data
      4. Molecular Methods Provide Rapid Pathogen Identification
      5. Interpretation of Surveillance Studies
      6. Surveillance Indicates Resistance Problems with Gonorrhea
      7. Policy Changes Are Occurring in Agricultural Practice
      8. Perspective
    14. Chapter 9. Making New Antibiotics
      1. New Antibiotics Are Temporary Solutions
      2. Model Systems Are Used to Speed Drug Discovery
      3. Natural Products Are a Source of Antibiotics
      4. High-Throughput Screening Accelerates Antibiotic Discovery
      5. Rational Drug Design Can Identify Antibiotics
      6. New Antibiotics Must Have Few Side Effects
      7. Antibiotic Discovery Faces a Fundamental Economic Problem
      8. Perspective
    15. Chapter 10. Restricting Antibiotic Use and Optimizing Dosing
      1. Antibiotic Conservation: Use Less Often When Unnecessary and Higher Amounts When Needed
      2. Human Consumption of Antibiotics Correlates with Resistance
      3. Limiting Human Consumption of Antibiotics
      4. Agricultural Use Contributes to Antibiotic Consumption
      5. Antibiotic Contamination of the Environment Is a Byproduct of Usage
      6. Clinical Resistance and Resistant Mutants Are Not the Same
      7. Dosing to Eradicate Susceptible Cells May Not Halt Emergence of Resistance
      8. Keeping Concentrations Above MPC Restricts Mutant Amplification
      9. Combining MPC with PK/PD Targets
      10. Combination Therapy Restricts Emergence of Resistance
      11. Consideration of Resistance During Drug Discovery
      12. Perspective
    16. Chapter 11. Influenza and Antibiotic Resistance
      1. Seasonal Influenza Virus Is Controlled by Vaccines
      2. Antiviral Resistance Has Emerged Among Seasonal Influenza Virus
      3. Pandemic Influenza Can Be a Killer
      4. Avian Flu H5N1 Is a Candidate for Deadly Pandemic Flu
      5. Antibiotics May Play an Important Role in Pandemic Influenza
      6. Antibiotic Resistance Occurs with Avian Flu H5N1
      7. Bacterial Pneumonia May Create Another Resistance Problem
      8. Perspective
    17. Chapter 12. Avoiding Resistant Pathogens
      1. Consumer Perspective Differs from That of Public Health Official or Manufacturer
      2. Avoiding Airborne Infection Is Difficult
      3. Precautions Can Be Taken with MRSA
      4. Sexually Transmitted Infections Require Renewed Attention
      5. Arthropod-Borne Infections Are on the Move
      6. Contaminated Food Is Common
      7. Avoid Rounds of Treatment Interspersed with Pathogen Outgrowth
      8. Consume Only with Sound Indications, Choose Optimal Antibiotics
      9. Perspective
    18. Afterword: A Course of Action
      1. Overuse
      2. Dosing
      3. Drug Discovery and Surveillance
      4. Resistance as a Side Effect
    19. Appendix A. Molecules of Life
      1. The Action of Molecules Defines Life
      2. Proteins Are Molecular Workers
      3. DNA Is the Repository of Genetic Information
      4. RNA Plays Several Roles in Life Processes
      5. Carbohydrates Store Energy, Form Cell Walls, and Make Rigid Structures
      6. Lipids Store Energy and Form Membranes
      7. Cellular Chemistry Is Organized into Metabolic Pathways
    20. Appendix B. Microbial Life Forms
      1. Bacteria Lack Nuclei and Other Organelles
      2. Fungi Are Eukaryotes Having Cell Walls But Not Chloropasts
      3. Parasitic Protozoa Are Eukaryotes Lacking a Cell Wall
      4. Helminths Are Parasitic Worms
      5. Viruses Are Inert Until They Infect
    21. Glossary
    22. Literature Cited
      1. Chapter 1
      2. Chapter 2
      3. Chapter 3
      4. Chapter 4
      5. Chapter 5
      6. Chapter 6
      7. Chapter 7
      8. Chapter 8
      9. Chapter 10
      10. Chapter 11
      11. Chapter 12
      12. Afterword
      13. Appendix B
    23. Index
    24. Financial Times Press
  3. Chips, Clones, and Living Beyond 100: How Far Will the Biosciences Take Us?
    1. Copyright Page
    2. Dedication
    3. Contents at a Glance
    4. Contents
    5. Praise for Chips, Clones, and Living Beyond 100
    6. Foreword
    7. Preface
      1. Origins of this book
      2. An uncertain future
    8. 1. Living well beyond 100
      1. Great progress made, much more to come
      2. Medical challenges and promises
      3. Living well versus living longer
      4. Social challenges and promises
      5. Can we afford old age?
      6. Government and business
      7. The journey ahead
      8. Endnotes
    9. 2. A short history of biomedicine
      1. Improving hygiene
      2. The power of immunology
      3. The discovery of antibiotics
      4. The DNA revolution
      5. Unraveling the code
      6. Conclusion
      7. Endnotes
    10. 3. Snapshot of the biosciences
      1. DNA-based technologies
      2. RNA-based technologies
      3. Protein-based technologies
      4. Cell-based and other technologies
      5. Conclusion
      6. Endnotes
    11. 4. Bio-driven convergence
      1. Converging technologies
      2. Healthcare and IT
      3. Reshaping bioinformatics
      4. Commercialization challenges
      5. The road ahead
      6. Endnotes
    12. 5. The business of biomedicine
      1. The pharmaceutical industry
      2. The biotechnology sector
      3. Medical device industry
      4. Medical diagnostics industry
      5. Prevention and disease management
      6. Conclusions
      7. Endnotes
    13. 6. Healthcare under stress
      1. Stress in developed nations
      2. Stress in developing nations
      3. Which technologies will succeed?
      4. Illustrative cases
      5. Summary
      6. Endnotes
    14. 7. Wildcards for the future
      1. Trends versus uncertainties
      2. Wildcards
      3. Society and politics
      4. Science and technology
      5. Business and economics
      6. A scenario framework
      7. The role of stakeholders
      8. Endnotes
    15. 8. Scenarios up to 2025
      1. Bio Gridlock scenario
      2. Golden age scenario
    16. 9. What it all means
      1. You and your family
      2. At work
      3. Business and commerce
      4. Society at large
      5. Endnotes
    17. A. DNA, RNA, and protein
      1. Molecules of inheritance
      2. The structure of DNA
      3. Cracking the code
      4. Making proteins
      5. Regulating gene expression
      6. Endnotes
    18. B. Cloning genes
      1. Restriction enzymes
      2. Cloning procedure
      3. Endnotes
    19. C. Complexity of the genome
      1. Non-coding RNAs
      2. SNP variations
      3. Endnotes
    20. Glossary of Biomedical Terms
    21. Acknowledgments
    22. About the Authors
    23. Index
    24. Financial Times Press
  4. It Takes a Genome: How a Clash Between Our Genes and Modern Life Is Making Us Sick
    1. Copyright Page
    2. Dedication Page
    3. Contents
    4. Praise for It Takes a Genome
    5. Preface: How a genetic culture clash with modern life is making us sick
    6. 1. The adolescent genome
      1. Genetic Imperfection
      2. Unselfish Genes
      3. How Genes Work and Why they Come in Different Flavors
      4. Three Reasons Why Genes Might Make Us Sick
      5. A Unified Theory of Complex Disease
      6. The Human Genome Project
      7. Genomewide Association
    7. 2. Breast cancer’s broken genes
      1. Cancer of the Breast
      2. Broken Genes, Broken Lives
      3. Epidemiology and Relative Risk
      4. Brakes, Accelerators, and Mechanics
      5. Familial Breast Cancer
      6. Growth Factors and the Risk to Populations
      7. Pharmacogenetics and Breast Cancer
      8. Why Do Genes Give us Cancer?
    8. 3. Not so thrifty diabetes genes
      1. Jackie and Ella
      2. The Pathology of Diabetes
      3. Type 1 Diabetes
      4. An Epidemic Genetic Disease
      5. Genetics of Obesity
      6. Type 2 Diabetes
      7. Debunking the Thrifty Genes Hypothesis
      8. Disequilibrium and Metabolic Syndrome
    9. 4. Unhealthy hygiene
      1. Athletic Asthmatics
      2. Inflammation and Respiration
      3. The Hygiene Hypothesis
      4. Asthma Epidemiology
      5. Genetics of Asthma
      6. Inflamed Bowels and Crohn’s Disease
      7. Rheumatoid Arthritis
      8. Imbalance of the Immune System
    10. 5. Genetic AIDS
      1. AIDS and the World
      2. From HIV to AIDS
      3. Why HIV is so Nasty
      4. How to Resist a Virus with Your Genes
      5. HIV Imbalance
    11. 6. Generating depression
      1. Creative Depression
      2. An Epidemic of Mood Swings
      3. Bipolar and Monopolar Disorders
      4. The Pharmacology of Despair
      5. Misbehaving Serotonin
      6. Faint Genetic Signals
      7. Schizophrenia and Other Mental Disturbances
      8. The Genetic Tightrope of the Mind
      9. A Kindling Theory in the Modern World
    12. 7. The alzheimer’s generation
      1. Slow Walk to Dementia
      2. Alzheimer’s on the March
      3. Tangles and Plaques
      4. Early Onset FAD
      5. Late Onset LOAD
      6. Just Growing Old
    13. 8. Genetic normality
      1. Height and Weight
      2. Pigmentation
      3. The God Gene
      4. A Few Words About IQ
      5. On Being Human
      6. The Adolescent Genome Revisited
    14. Notes
      1. Chapter 1
      2. Chapter 2
      3. Chapter 3
      4. Chapter 4
      5. Chapter 5
      6. Chapter 6
      7. Chapter 7
      8. Chapter 8
    15. About the author
    16. Index
  5. City of Dust: Illness, Arrogance, and 9/11
    1. Copyright Page
    2. Dedication Page
    3. Contents
    4. Acknowledgments
    5. About the Author
    6. Part I: Catastrophe
      1. Introduction
        1. Endnotes
      2. 1. All that we hold dear
        1. Endnotes
      3. 2. Optimism or arrogance?
        1. Endnotes
      4. 3. Significant chaos
        1. Endnotes
    7. Part II: Disease
      1. 4. Raising doubts
        1. Endnotes
      2. 5. A gathering storm
        1. Endnotes
      3. 6. Building a science
        1. Endnotes
      4. 7. It’s not the dying
        1. Endnotes
      5. 8. Life and dust
        1. Endnotes
    8. Part III: Doubt
      1. 9. Such money grubbers as these
        1. Endnotes
      2. 10. Degrees of certitude
        1. Endnotes
      3. 11. Beyond doubt
        1. Endnotes
      4. 12. Assaulting uncertainty
        1. Endnotes
      5. 13. Science on trial
        1. Endnotes
    9. Part IV: Reality
      1. 14. Missed opportunities
        1. Endnotes
      2. 15. Afterclap
        1. Endnotes
    10. Epilogue
    11. Index