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Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Fifth Edition

Book Description

The Definitive, Fully Updated Guide to Solving Real-World Chemical Reaction Engineering Problems

For decades, H. Scott Fogler’s Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering has been the world’s dominant text for courses in chemical reaction engineering. Now, Fogler has created a new, completely updated fifth edition of his internationally respected book. The result is a refined book that contains new examples and problems, as well as an updated companion Web site. More than ever, Fogler has successfully integrated text, visuals, and computer simulations to help both undergraduate and graduate students master all of the field’s fundamentals. As always, he links theory to practice through many relevant examples, ranging from standard isothermal and non-isothermal reactor design to applications, such as solar energy, blood clotting, and drug delivery, and computer chip manufacturing.

To promote the transfer of key skills to real-life settings, Fogler presents the following three styles of problems:

  1. Straightforward problems that reinforce the principles of chemical reaction engineering

  2. Living Example Problems (LEPs) that allow students to rapidly explore the issues and look for optimal solutions

  3. Open-ended problems that encourage students to practice creative problem-solving skills 

About the Web Site

The companion Web site offers extensive enrichment opportunities and additional content, including

  • Complete PowerPoint slides for lecture notes for chemical reaction engineering classes.

  • Links to additional software, including POLYMATH™, Matlab™, Wolfram Mathematica™, AspenTech™, and COMSOL™.

  • Interactive learning resources linked to each chapter, including Learning Objectives, Summary Notes, Web Modules, Interactive Computer Games, Solved Problems, FAQs, additional homework problems, and links to Learncheme.

  • Living Example Problems that provide more than eighty interactive simulations, allowing students to explore the examples and ask “what-if” questions. The LEPs are unique to this book.

  • Professional Reference Shelf, which includes advanced content on reactors, weighted least squares, experimental planning, laboratory reactors, pharmacokinetics, wire gauze reactors, trickle bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors, CVD boat reactors, detailed explanations of key derivations, and more.

  • Problem-solving strategies and insights on creative and critical thinking.

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This E-Book
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Dedication Page
    5. Contents
    6. Preface
      1. A. Who Is the Intended Audience?
      2. B. What Are the Goals of This Book?
        1. B.1 To Have Fun Learning Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE)
        2. B.2 To Develop a Fundamental Understanding of Reaction Engineering
        3. B.3. To Enhance Thinking Skills
      3. C. What Is the Structure of CRE?
        1. C.1 What Are the Concepts that Form the Foundation of CRE?
        2. C.2 What Is the Sequence of Topics in which This Book Can Be Used?
      4. D. What Are the Components of the CRE Web Site?
        1. D.1 Expanded Material
        2. D.2 Learning Resources
        3. D.3 Professional Reference Shelf
      5. E. Why Do We Assign Homework Problems?
      6. F. What Is a Living Example Problem (LEP)?
      7. G. What Software Is Available to Solve the LEPs?
      8. H. Are There Other Web Site Resources?
      9. I. How Can Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking Skills Be Enhanced?
        1. I.1. Enhance Critical Thinking Skills
      10. I.2 Enhance Creative Thinking Skills
      11. J. What’s New in This Edition?
        1. J.1 Pedagogy
      12. J.2 Content
      13. K. How Do I Say Thank You?
    7. About the Author
    8. 1. Mole Balances
      1. 1.1 The Rate of Reaction, –rA
      2. 1.2 The General Mole Balance Equation
      3. 1.3 Batch Reactors (BRs)
      4. 1.4 Continuous-Flow Reactors
        1. 1.4.1 Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)
        2. 1.4.2 Tubular Reactor
        3. 1.4.3 Packed-Bed Reactor (PBR)
      5. 1.5 Industrial Reactors
      6. Summary
      7. CRE Web Site Materials
      8. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      9. Supplementary Reading
    9. 2. Conversion and Reactor Sizing
      1. 2.1 Definition of Conversion
      2. 2.2 Batch Reactor Design Equations
      3. 2.3 Design Equations for Flow Reactors
        1. 2.3.1 CSTR (Also Known as a Backmix Reactor or a Vat)
        2. 2.3.2 Tubular Flow Reactor (PFR)
        3. 2.3.3 Packed-Bed Reactor (PBR)
      4. 2.4 Sizing Continuous-Flow Reactors
      5. 2.5 Reactors in Series
        1. 2.5.1 CSTRs in Series
        2. 2.5.2 PFRs in Series
        3. 2.5.3 Combinations of CSTRs and PFRs in Series
        4. 2.5.4 Comparing the CSTR and PFR Reactor Volumes and Reactor Sequencing
      6. 2.6 Some Further Definitions
        1. 2.6.1 Space Time
        2. 2.6.2 Space Velocity
      7. Summary
      8. Summary
      9. CRE Web Site
      10. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      11. Supplementary Reading
    10. 3. Rate Laws
      1. 3.1 Basic Definitions
        1. 3.1.1 Relative Rates of Reaction
      2. 3.2 The Reaction Order and the Rate Law
        1. 3.2.1 Power Law Models and Elementary Rate Laws
        2. 3.2.2 Nonelementary Rate Laws
        3. 3.2.3 Reversible Reactions
      3. 3.3 Rates and the Reaction Rate Constant
        1. 3.3.1 The Rate Constant k
        2. 3.3.2 The Arrhenius Plot
      4. 3.4 Present Status of Our Approach to Reactor Sizing and Design
      5. Summary
      6. CRE Web Site Materials
      7. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      8. Supplementary Reading
    11. 4. Stoichiometry
      1. 4.1 Batch Systems
        1. 4.1.1 Batch Concentrations for the Generic Reaction, Equation (2-2)
      2. 4.2 Flow Systems
        1. 4.2.1 Equations for Concentrations in Flow Systems
        2. 4.2.2 Liquid-Phase Concentrations
        3. 4.2.3 Gas-Phase Concentrations
      3. 4.3 Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium Conversion
      4. Summary
      5. CRE Web Site Materials
      6. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      7. Supplementary Reading
    12. 5. Isothermal Reactor Design: Conversion
      1. 5.1 Design Structure for Isothermal Reactors
      2. 5.2 Batch Reactors (BRs)
        1. 5.2.1 Batch Reaction Times
      3. 5.3 Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTRs)
        1. 5.3.1 A Single CSTR
        2. 5.3.2 CSTRs in Series
      4. 5.4 Tubular Reactors
      5. 5.5 Pressure Drop in Reactors
        1. 5.5.1 Pressure Drop and the Rate Law
        2. 5.5.2 Flow Through a Packed Bed
        3. 5.5.3 Pressure Drop in Pipes
        4. 5.5.4 Analytical Solution for Reaction with Pressure Drop
        5. 5.5.5 Robert the Worrier Wonders: What If...
      6. 5.6 Synthesizing the Design of a Chemical Plant
      7. Summary
      8. ODE Solver Algorithm
      9. CRE Web Site Materials
      10. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      11. Supplementary Reading
    13. 6. Isothermal Reactor Design: Moles and Molar Flow Rates
      1. 6.1 The Molar Flow Rate Balance Algorithm
      2. 6.2 Mole Balances on CSTRs, PFRs, PBRs, and Batch Reactors
        1. 6.2.1 Liquid Phase
        2. 6.2.2 Gas Phase
      3. 6.3 Application of the PFR Molar Flow Rate Algorithm to a Microreactor
      4. 6.4 Membrane Reactors
      5. 6.5 Unsteady-State Operation of Stirred Reactors
      6. 6.6 Semibatch Reactors
        1. 6.6.1 Motivation for Using a Semibatch Reactor
        2. 6.6.2 Semibatch Reactor Mole Balances
      7. Summary
      8. ODE Solver Algorithm
      9. CRE Web Site Materials
      10. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      11. Supplementary Reading
    14. 7. Collection and Analysis of Rate Data
      1. 7.1 The Algorithm for Data Analysis
      2. 7.2 Determining the Reaction Order for Each of Two Reactants Using the Method of Excess
      3. 7.3 Integral Method
      4. 7.4 Differential Method of Analysis
        1. 7.4.1 Graphical Differentiation Method
        2. 7.4.2 Numerical Method
        3. 7.4.3 Finding the Rate-Law Parameters
      5. 7.5 Nonlinear Regression
      6. 7.6 Reaction-Rate Data from Differential Reactors
      7. 7.7 Experimental Planning
      8. Summary
      9. CRE Web Site Materials
      10. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      11. Supplementary Reading
    15. 8. Multiple Reactions
      1. 8.1 Definitions
        1. 8.1.1 Types of Reactions
        2. 8.1.2 Selectivity
        3. 8.1.3 Yield
      2. 8.2 Algorithm for Multiple Reactions
        1. 8.2.1 Modifications to the Chapter 6 CRE Algorithm for Multiple Reactions
      3. 8.3 Parallel Reactions
        1. 8.3.1 Selectivity
        2. 8.3.2 Maximizing the Desired Product for One Reactant
        3. 8.3.3 Reactor Selection and Operating Conditions
      4. 8.4 Reactions in Series
      5. 8.5 Complex Reactions
        1. 8.5.1 Complex Gas-Phase Reactions in a PBR
        2. 8.5.2 Complex Liquid-Phase Reactions in a CSTR
        3. 8.5.3 Complex Liquid-Phase Reactions in a Semibatch Reactor
      6. 8.6 Membrane Reactors to Improve Selectivity in Multiple Reactions
      7. 8.7 Sorting It All Out
      8. 8.8 The Fun Part
      9. Summary
      10. CRE Web Site Materials
      11. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      12. Supplementary Reading
    16. 9. Reaction Mechanisms, Pathways, Bioreactions, and Bioreactors
      1. 9.1 Active Intermediates and Nonelementary Rate Laws
        1. 9.1.1 Pseudo-Steady-State Hypothesis (PSSH)
        2. 9.1.2 Why Is the Rate Law First Order?
        3. 9.1.3 Searching for a Mechanism
        4. 9.1.4 Chain Reactions
      2. 9.2 Enzymatic Reaction Fundamentals
        1. 9.2.1 Enzyme–Substrate Complex
        2. 9.2.2 Mechanisms
        3. 9.2.3 Michaelis–Menten Equation
        4. 9.2.4 Batch-Reactor Calculations for Enzyme Reactions
      3. 9.3 Inhibition of Enzyme Reactions
        1. 9.3.1 Competitive Inhibition
        2. 9.3.2 Uncompetitive Inhibition
        3. 9.3.3 Noncompetitive Inhibition (Mixed Inhibition)
        4. 9.3.4 Substrate Inhibition
      4. 9.4 Bioreactors and Biosynthesis
        1. Cell Growth and Division
        2. 9.4.1 Cell Growth
        3. 9.4.2 Rate Laws
        4. 9.4.3 Stoichiometry
        5. 9.4.4 Mass Balances
        6. 9.4.5 Chemostats
        7. 9.4.6 CSTR Bioreactor Operation
        8. 9.4.7 Wash-Out
      5. Summary
      6. CRE Web Site Materials
        1. Problems
      7. Supplementary Reading
        1. Web
        2. Text
    17. 10. Catalysis and Catalytic Reactors
      1. 10.1 Catalysts
        1. 10.1.1 Definitions
        2. 10.1.2 Catalyst Properties
        3. 10.1.3 Catalytic Gas-Solid Interactions
        4. 10.1.4 Classification of Catalysts
      2. 10.2 Steps in a Catalytic Reaction
        1. 10.2.1 Step 1 Overview: Diffusion from the Bulk to the External Surface of the Catalyst
        2. 10.2.2 Step 2 Overview: Internal Diffusion
        3. 10.2.3 Adsorption Isotherms
        4. 10.2.4 Surface Reaction
        5. 10.2.5 Desorption
        6. 10.2.6 The Rate-Limiting Step
      3. 10.3 Synthesizing a Rate Law, Mechanism, and Rate-Limiting Step
        1. 10.3.1 Is the Adsorption of Cumene Rate-Limiting?
        2. 10.3.2 Is the Surface Reaction Rate-Limiting?
        3. 10.3.3 Is the Desorption of Benzene Rate-Limiting?
        4. 10.3.4 Summary of the Cumene Decomposition
        5. 10.3.5 Reforming Catalysts
        6. 10.3.6 Rate Laws Derived from the Pseudo-Steady-State Hypothesis (PSSH)
        7. 10.3.7 Temperature Dependence of the Rate Law
      4. 10.4 Heterogeneous Data Analysis for Reactor Design
        1. 10.4.1 Deducing a Rate Law from the Experimental Data
        2. 10.4.2 Finding a Mechanism Consistent with Experimental Observations
        3. 10.4.3 Evaluation of the Rate-Law Parameters
        4. 10.4.4 Reactor Design
      5. 10.5 Reaction Engineering in Microelectronic Fabrication
        1. 10.5.1 Overview
        2. 10.5.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition
      6. 10.6 Model Discrimination
      7. 10.7 Catalyst Deactivation
        1. 10.7.1 Types of Catalyst Deactivation
        2. 10.7.2 Reactors That Can Be Used to Help Offset Catalyst Decay
        3. 10.7.3 Temperature–Time Trajectories
        4. 10.7.4 Moving-Bed Reactors
        5. 10.7.5 Straight-Through Transport Reactors (STTR)
      8. Summary
      9. CRE Web Site Materials
      10. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      11. Supplementary Reading
    18. 11. Nonisothermal Reactor Design—The Steady-State Energy Balance and Adiabatic PFR Applications
      1. 11.1 Rationale
      2. 11.2 The Energy Balance
        1. 11.2.1 First Law of Thermodynamics
        2. 11.2.2 Evaluating the Work Term
        3. 11.2.3 Overview of Energy Balances
      3. 11.3 The User-Friendly Energy Balance Equations
        1. 11.3.1 Dissecting the Steady-State Molar Flow Rates to Obtain the Heat of Reaction
        2. 11.3.2 Dissecting the Enthalpies
        3. 11.3.3 Relating ΔHRx (T), , and ΔCP
      4. 11.4 Adiabatic Operation
        1. 11.4.1 Adiabatic Energy Balance
        2. 11.4.2 Adiabatic Tubular Reactor
      5. 11.5 Adiabatic Equilibrium Conversion
        1. 11.5.1 Equilibrium Conversion
      6. 11.6 Reactor Staging
        1. 11.6.1 Reactor Staging with Interstage Cooling or Heating
        2. 11.6.2 Exothermic Reactions
        3. 11.6.3 Endothermic Reactions
      7. 11.7 Optimum Feed Temperature
      8. Summary
      9. CRE Web Site Materials
      10. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      11. Supplementary Reading
    19. 12. Steady-State Nonisothermal Reactor Design—Flow Reactors with Heat Exchange
      1. 12.1 Steady-State Tubular Reactor with Heat Exchange
        1. 12.1.1 Deriving the Energy Balance for a PFR
        2. 12.1.2 Applying the Algorithm to Flow Reactors with Heat Exchange
      2. 12.2 Balance on the Heat-Transfer Fluid
        1. 12.2.1 Co-current Flow
        2. 12.2.2 Countercurrent Flow
      3. 12.3 Algorithm for PFR/PBR Design with Heat Effects
        1. 12.3.1 Applying the Algorithm to an Exothermic Reaction
        2. 12.3.2 Applying the Algorithm to an Endothermic Reaction
      4. 12.4 CSTR with Heat Effects
        1. The Term in the CSTR
        2. 12.4.1 Heat Added to the Reactor,
      5. 12.5 Multiple Steady States (MSS)
        1. 12.5.1 Heat-Removed Term, R(T)
        2. 12.5.2 Heat-Generated Term, G(T)
        3. 12.5.3 Ignition-Extinction Curve
      6. 12.6 Nonisothermal Multiple Chemical Reactions
        1. 12.6.1 Energy Balance for Multiple Reactions in Plug-Flow Reactors
        2. 12.6.2 Parallel Reactions in a PFR
        3. 12.6.3 Energy Balance for Multiple Reactions in a CSTR
        4. 12.6.4 Series Reactions in a CSTR
        5. 12.6.5 Complex Reactions in a PFR
      7. 12.7 Radial and Axial Variations in a Tubular Reactor
        1. 12.7.1 Molar Flux
        2. 12.7.2 Energy Flux
        3. 12.7.3 Energy Balance
      8. 12.8 Safety
      9. Summary
      10. CRE Web Site Materials
      11. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      12. Supplementary Reading
    20. 13. Unsteady-State Nonisothermal Reactor Design
      1. 13.1 The Unsteady-State Energy Balance
      2. 13.2 Energy Balance on Batch Reactors (BRs)
        1. 13.2.1 Adiabatic Operation of a Batch Reactor
        2. 13.2.2 Case History of a Batch Reactor with Interrupted Isothermal Operation Causing a Runaway Reaction
      3. 13.3 Semibatch Reactors with a Heat Exchanger
      4. 13.4 Unsteady Operation of a CSTR
        1. 13.4.1 Startup
      5. 13.5 Nonisothermal Multiple Reactions
      6. Summary
      7. CRE Web Site Materials
      8. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      9. Supplementary Reading
    21. 14. Mass Transfer Limitations in Reacting Systems
      1. 14.1 Diffusion Fundamentals
        1. Where are we going ??:†
        2. 14.1.1 Definitions
        3. 14.1.2 Molar Flux
        4. 14.1.3 Fick’s First Law
      2. 14.2 Binary Diffusion
        1. 14.2.1 Evaluating the Molar Flux
        2. 14.2.2 Diffusion and Convective Transport
        3. 14.2.3 Boundary Conditions
        4. 14.2.4 Temperature and Pressure Dependence of DAB
        5. 14.2.5 Steps in Modeling Diffusion to a Reacting Surface
        6. 14.2.6 Modeling Diffusion with Chemical Reaction
      3. 14.3 Diffusion Through a Stagnant Film
      4. 14.4 The Mass Transfer Coefficient
        1. 14.4.1 Correlations for the Mass Transfer Coefficient
        2. 14.4.2 Mass Transfer to a Single Particle
        3. 14.4.3 Mass Transfer–Limited Reactions in Packed Beds
        4. 14.4.4 Robert the Worrier
      5. 14.5 What If . . . ? (Parameter Sensitivity)
      6. Summary
      7. CRE Web Site Materials
      8. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      9. Journal Critique Problems
      10. Supplementary Reading
    22. 15. Diffusion and Reaction
      1. 15.1 Diffusion and Reactions in Homogeneous Systems
      2. 15.2 Diffusion and Reactions in Spherical Catalyst Pellets
        1. 15.2.1 Effective Diffusivity
        2. 15.2.2 Derivation of the Differential Equation Describing Diffusion and Reaction in a Single Catalyst Pellet
        3. 15.2.3 Writing the Diffusion with the Catalytic Reaction Equation in Dimensionless Form
        4. 15.2.4 Solution to the Differential Equation for a First-Order Reaction
      3. 15.3 The Internal Effectiveness Factor
        1. 15.3.1 Isothermal First-Order Catalytic Reactions
        2. 15.3.2 Effectiveness Factors with Volume Change with Reaction
        3. 15.3.3 Internal Diffusion Limited Reactions Other Than First Order
        4. 15.3.4 Weisz–Prater Criterion for Internal Diffusion Limitations
      4. 15.4 Falsified Kinetics
      5. 15.5 Overall Effectiveness Factor
      6. 15.6 Estimation of Diffusion- and Reaction-Limited Regimes
        1. 15.6.1 Mears Criterion for External Diffusion Limitations
      7. 15.7 Mass Transfer and Reaction in a Packed Bed
      8. 15.8 Determination of Limiting Situations from Reaction-Rate Data
      9. 15.9 Multiphase Reactors in the Professional Reference Shelf
        1. 15.9.1 Slurry Reactors
        2. 15.9.2 Trickle Bed Reactors
      10. 15.10 Fluidized Bed Reactors
      11. 15.11 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
      12. Summary
      13. CRE Web Site Materials
      14. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      15. Journal Critique Problems
      16. Supplementary Reading
    23. 16. Residence Time Distributions of Chemical Reactors
      1. 16.1 General Considerations
        1. 16.1.1 Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Function
      2. 16.2 Measurement of the RTD
        1. 16.2.1 Pulse Input Experiment
        2. 16.2.2 Step Tracer Experiment
      3. 16.3 Characteristics of the RTD
        1. 16.3.1 Integral Relationships
        2. 16.3.2 Mean Residence Time
        3. 16.3.3 Other Moments of the RTD
        4. 16.3.4 Normalized RTD Function, E(Θ)
        5. 16.3.5 Internal-Age Distribution, I(α)
      4. 16.4 RTD in Ideal Reactors
        1. 16.4.1 RTDs in Batch and Plug-Flow Reactors
        2. 16.4.2 Single-CSTR RTD
        3. 16.4.3 Laminar-Flow Reactor (LFR)
      5. 16.5 PFR/CSTR Series RTD
      6. 16.6 Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
        1. 16.6.1 General Comments
        2. 16.6.2 Simple Diagnostics and Troubleshooting Using the RTD for Ideal Reactors
      7. Summary
        1. Summary
      8. Summary
      9. CRE Web Site Materials
      10. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      11. Supplementary Reading
    24. 17. Predicting Conversion Directly from the Residence Time Distribution
      1. 17.1 Modeling Nonideal Reactors Using the RTD
        1. 17.1.1 Modeling and Mixing Overview
        2. 17.1.2 Mixing
      2. 17.2 Zero-Adjustable-Parameter Models
        1. 17.2.1 Segregation Model
        2. 17.2.2 Maximum Mixedness Model
      3. 17.3 Using Software Packages
        1. Maximum Mixedness Model
        2. 17.3.1 Comparing Segregation and Maximum Mixedness Predictions
      4. 17.4 RTD and Multiple Reactions
        1. 17.4.1 Segregation Model
        2. 17.4.2 Maximum Mixedness
      5. Summary
      6. CRE Web Site Materials
      7. Questions and Problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      8. Supplementary Reading
    25. 18. Models for Nonideal Reactors
      1. 18.1 Some Guidelines for Developing Models
        1. 18.1.1 One-Parameter Models
        2. 18.1.2 Two-Parameter Models
      2. 18.2 The Tanks-in-Series (T-I-S) One-Parameter Model
        1. 18.2.1 Developing the E-Curve for the T-I-S Model
        2. 18.2.2 Calculating Conversion for the T-I-S Model
        3. 18.2.3 Tanks-in-Series versus Segregation for a First-Order Reaction
      3. 18.3 Dispersion One-Parameter Model
      4. 18.4 Flow, Reaction, and Dispersion
        1. 18.4.1 Balance Equations
        2. 18.4.2 Boundary Conditions
        3. 18.4.3 Finding Da and the Peclet Number
        4. 18.4.4 Dispersion in a Tubular Reactor with Laminar Flow
        5. 18.4.5 Correlations for Da
        6. 18.4.6 Experimental Determination of Da
      5. 18.5 Tanks-in-Series Model versus Dispersion Model
      6. 18.6 Numerical Solutions to Flows with Dispersion and Reaction
      7. 18.7 Two-Parameter Models—Modeling Real Reactors with Combinations of Ideal Reactors
        1. 18.7.1 Real CSTR Modeled Using Bypassing and Dead Space
        2. 18.7.2 Real CSTR Modeled as Two CSTRs with Interchange
      8. 18.8 Use of Software Packages to Determine the Model Parameters
      9. 18.9 Other Models of Nonideal Reactors Using CSTRs and PFRs
      10. 18.10 Applications to Pharmacokinetic Modeling
      11. Summary
      12. CRE Web Site Materials
      13. Questions and problems
        1. Questions
        2. Problems
      14. Supplementary Reading
    26. A. Numerical Techniques
      1. A.1 Useful Integrals in Reactor Design
      2. A.2 Equal-Area Graphical Differentiation
      3. A.3 Solutions to Differential Equations
        1. A.3.A First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations
        2. A.3.B Coupled Differential Equations
        3. A.3.C Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations
      4. A.4 Numerical Evaluation of Integrals
      5. A.5 Semilog Graphs
      6. A.6 Software Packages
    27. B. Ideal Gas Constant and Conversion Factors
    28. C. Thermodynamic Relationships Involving the Equilibrium Constant
    29. D. Software Packages
      1. D.1 Polymath
        1. D.1.A About Polymath
        2. D.1.B Polymath Tutorials
      2. D.2 MATLAB
      3. D.3 Aspen
      4. D.4 COMSOL Multiphysics
    30. E. Rate-Law Data
    31. F. Nomenclature
      1. Subscripts
      2. Greek Symbols
    32. G. Open-Ended Problems
      1. G.1 Design of Reaction Engineering Experiment
      2. G.2 Effective Lubricant Design
      3. G.3 Peach Bottom Nuclear Reactor
      4. G.4 Underground Wet Oxidation
      5. G.5 Hydrodesulfurization Reactor Design
      6. G.6 Continuous Bioprocessing
      7. G.7 Methanol Synthesis
      8. G.8 Cajun Seafood Gumbo
      9. G.9 Alcohol Metabolism
      10. G.10 Methanol Poisoning
    33. H. Use of Computational Chemistry Software Packages
      1. H.1 Computational Chemical Engineering
    34. I. How to Use the CRE Web Resources
      1. I.1 CRE Web Resources Components
      2. I.2 How the Web Can Help Your Learning Style
        1. I.2.1 Global vs. Sequential Learners
        2. I.2.2 Active vs. Reflective Learners
        3. I.2.3 Sensing vs. Intuitive Learners
        4. I.2.4 Visual vs. Verbal Learners
      3. I.3 Navigation
    35. Index