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Book Description

Bridging the gap between statistics texts and SAS documentation, Elementary Statistics Using SAS is written for those who want to perform analyses to solve problems. The first section of the book explains the basics of SAS data sets and shows how to use SAS for descriptive statistics and graphs. The second section discusses fundamental statistical concepts, including normality and hypothesis testing. The remaining sections of the book show analyses for comparing two groups, comparing multiple groups, fitting regression equations, and exploring contingency tables. For each analysis, author Sandra Schlotzhauer explains assumptions, statistical approach, and SAS methods and syntax, and makes conclusions from the results. Statistical methods covered include two-sample t-tests, paired-difference t-tests, analysis of variance, multiple comparison techniques, regression, regression diagnostics, and chi-square tests. Elementary Statistics Using SAS is a thoroughly revised and updated edition of Ramon Littell and Sandra Schlotzhauer's SAS System for Elementary Statistical Analysis.

2. Acknowledgments
3. 1. The Basics
1. 1. Getting Started
1. Introducing This Book
1. Purpose
2. Audience
3. What This Book Is and Isn't
4. How This Book Is Organized
5. Typographic Conventions
6. How to Use This Book
2. Introducing SAS Software
3. Summarizing the Structure of SAS Software
1. Syntax and Spacing Conventions
2. Output Produced by SAS Software
4. Starting SAS
5. Displaying a Simple Example
6. Getting Help
7. Exiting SAS
8. Introducing Several SAS Statements
9. Summary
2. 2. Creating SAS Data Sets
1. What Is a SAS Data Set?
2. Understanding the SAS DATA Step
1. Summarizing the SAS DATA Step
2. Assigning Names
3. Task 1: The DATA Statement
4. Task 2: The INPUT Statement
5. Task 3: The DATALINES Statement
6. Task 4: The Data Lines
7. Task 5: The Null Statement
8. Task 6: The RUN Statement
3. Creating the Speeding Ticket Data Set
4. Printing a Data Set
5. Sorting a Data Set
6. Summary
7. Special Topics
1. Labeling Variables
2. Formatting Values of Variables
3. Combining Labeling and Formatting
4. Syntax
3. 3. Importing Data
1. Opening an Existing SAS Data Set
2. Reading Data from an Existing Text File
3. Importing Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets
4. Using the Import Wizard on a PC
5. Introducing Advanced Features
6. Summary
4. 4. Summarizing Data
1. Understanding Types of Variables
2. Summarizing a Continuous Variable
3. Creating Line Printer Plots for Continuous Variables
4. Creating Histograms for Continuous Variables
5. Creating Frequency Tables for All Variables
6. Creating Bar Charts for All Variables
7. Checking Data for Errors
8. Summary
9. Special Topic: Using ODS to Control Output Tables
4. 2. Statistical Background
1. 5. Understanding Fundamental Statistical Concepts
1. Populations and Samples
2. The Normal Distribution
3. Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Methods
4. Testing for Normality
1. Statistical Test for Normality
2. Other Methods of Checking for Normality
3. Identifying ODS Tables
4. Rechecking the Falcons Data
5. Building a Hypothesis Test
6. Statistical and Practical Significance
1. Statistical Significance
2. Practical Significance
3. Example
7. Summary
2. 6. Estimating the Mean
1. Using One Number to Estimate the Mean
2. Effect of Sample Size
3. Effect of Population Variability
4. The Distribution of Sample Averages
1. The Central Limit Theorem
2. The Empirical Rule and the Central Limit Theorem
5. Getting Confidence Intervals for the Mean
6. Summary
5. 3. Comparing Groups
1. 7. Comparing Paired Groups
1. Deciding between Independent and Paired Groups
2. Summarizing Data from Paired Groups
3. Building Hypothesis Tests to Compare Paired Groups
1. Deciding Which Statistical Test to Use
2. Understanding Significance
4. Performing the Paired-Difference t-test
1. Assumptions
2. Using PROC UNIVARIATE to Test Paired Differences
3. Using PROC TTEST to Test Paired Differences
4. Identifying ODS Tables
5. Performing the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test
6. Summary
2. 8. Comparing Two Independent Groups
1. Deciding between Independent and Paired Groups
2. Summarizing Data
3. Building Hypothesis Tests to Compare Two Independent Groups
1. Deciding Which Statistical Test to Use
2. Understanding Significance
4. Performing the Two-Sample t-test
1. Assumptions
2. Testing for Equal Variances
3. Testing to Compare Two Means
4. Changing the Alpha Level for Confidence Intervals
5. Performing the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test
1. Using PROC NPAR1WAY for the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test
6. Summary
3. 9. Comparing More Than Two Groups
1. Summarizing Data from Multiple Groups
2. Building Hypothesis Tests to Compare More Than Two Groups
1. Using Parametric and Nonparametric Tests
2. Balanced and Unbalanced Data
3. Understanding Significance
3. Performing a One-Way ANOVA
1. Understanding Assumptions
2. Performing the Analysis of Variance
3. Understanding Results
4. Analysis of Variance with Unequal Variances
5. Summarizing PROC ANOVA
6. Performing a Kruskal-Wallis Test
1. Assumptions
2. Using PROC NPAR1WAY
3. Understanding Results
4. Summarizing PROC NPAR1WAY
7. Understanding Multiple Comparison Procedures
1. Performing Pairwise Comparisons with Multiple t-Tests
2. Using the Bonferroni Approach
3. Performing the Tukey-Kramer Test
4. Changing the Alpha Level
5. Using Dunnett's Test When Appropriate
6. Recommendations
7. Summarizing Multiple Comparison Procedures
8. Summarizing with an Example
9. Summary
6. 4. Fitting Lines to Data
1. 10. Understanding Correlation and Regression
1. Summarizing Multiple Continuous Variables
1. Creating Scatter Plots
2. Creating a Scatter Plot Matrix
3. Using Summary Statistics to Check Data for Errors
4. Reviewing PROC CORR Syntax for Summarizing Variables
2. Calculating Correlation Coefficients
3. Performing Straight-Line Regression
4. Fitting a Straight Line with PROC REG
1. Finding the Equation for the Fitted Straight Line
2. Understanding the Parameter Estimates Table
3. Understanding the Fit Statistics Table
4. Understanding the Analysis of Variance Table
5. Understanding Other Items in the Results
6. Using PROC REG Interactively
7. Printing Predicted Values and Limits
8. Plotting Predicted Values and Limits
9. Summarizing Straight-Line Regression
5. Fitting Curves
1. Understanding Polynomial Regression
2. Fitting Curves with PROC REG
3. Understanding Results for Fitting a Curve
4. Printing Predicted Values and Limits
5. Changing the Alpha Level
6. Plotting Predicted Values and Limits
7. Summarizing Polynomial Regression
6. Regression for Multiple Independent Variables
1. Understanding Multiple Regression
2. Fitting Multiple Regression Models in SAS
3. Understanding Results for Multiple Regression
4. Printing Predicted Values and Limits
5. Summarizing Multiple Regression
7. Summary
8. Special Topic: Line Printer Plots
2. 11. Performing Basic Regression Diagnostics
1. Concepts in Plotting Residuals
2. Creating Residuals Plots for the Kilowatt Data
1. Residuals Plots for Straight-Line Regression
2. Residuals Plots for Multiple Regression
3. Creating Residuals Plots for the Engine Data
1. Residuals Plots for Straight-Line Regression
2. Residuals Plots for Fitting a Curve
4. Looking for Outliers in the Data
5. Investigating Lack of Fit
1. Concepts for Lack of Fit
2. Checking Lack of Fit for the Kilowatt Data
3. Checking Lack of Fit for the Engine Data
6. Testing the Regression Assumption for Errors
7. Summary
8. Special Topic: Creating Diagnostic Plots with Traditional Graphics and Line Printer Plots
9. Special Topic: Automatic ODS Graphics
7. 5. Data in Summary Tables
1. 12. Creating and Analyzing Contingency Tables
1. Defining Contingency Tables
2. Summarizing Raw Data in Tables
3. Creating Contingency Tables from an Existing Summary Table
4. Creating Contingency Tables for Several Variables
5. Performing Tests for Independence
1. Understanding Chi-Square Test Results
2. Understanding Fisher's Exact Test Results
6. Creating Measures of Association with Ordinal Variables
1. Understanding the Results
2. Changing the Confidence Level
7. Summarizing Analyses with PROC FREQ
8. Summary
9. Special Topic: ODS Statistical Graphics
8. 1. Further Reading
9. 2. Summary of SAS Elements and Chapters
10. 3. Introducing the SAS Windowing Environment
1. Viewing Initial Windows
2. Creating a SAS Program
3. Submitting a Program
4. Saving, Including, and Printing Programs
5. Printing and Saving Output
11. 4. Overview of SAS Enterprise Guide