C.L. Gan and M.K. Lim, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
In this chapter, the void formation mechanism in copper interconnects is discussed. The void nucleation process is described, and the differences between aluminum and copper interconnects are highlighted. The void growth mechanism is presented, emphasizing the role that the copper/cap interface plays in electromigration. Immortality in copper interconnects is discussed in the context of no-void nucleation and void growth saturation.
Electromigration has remained a reliability issue today even though ...