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Electromigration in Thin Films and Electronic Devices

Book Description

Understanding and limiting electromigration in thin films is essential to the continued development of advanced copper interconnects for integrated circuits. Electromigration in thin films and electronic devices provides an up-to-date review of key topics in this commercially important area.

Part one consists of three introductory chapters, covering modelling of electromigration phenomena, modelling electromigration using the peridynamics approach and simulation and x-ray microbeam studies of electromigration. Part two deals with electromigration issues in copper interconnects, including x-ray microbeam analysis, voiding, microstructural evolution and electromigration failure. Finally, part three covers electromigration in solder, with chapters discussing topics such as electromigration-induced microstructural evolution and electromigration in flip-chip solder joints.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Electromigration in thin films and electronic devices is an essential reference for materials scientists and engineers in the microelectronics, packaging and interconnects industries, as well as all those with an academic research interest in the field.

  • Provides up-to-date coverage of the continued development of advanced copper interconnects for integrated circuits
  • Comprehensively reviews modelling of electromigration phenomena, modelling electromigration using the peridynamics approach and simulation, and x-ray microbeam studies of electromigration
  • Deals with electromigration issues in copper interconnects, including x-ray microbeam analysis, voiding, microstructural evolution and electromigration failure

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Part I: Introduction
    1. Chapter 1: Modeling of electromigration phenomena
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Analytical methods
      4. 1.3 Numerical methods
      5. 1.4 Conclusion
    2. Chapter 2: Modeling electromigration using the peridynamics approach
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Previous approaches to modeling electromigration (EM)
      4. 2.3 Peridynamics (PD)
      5. 2.4 PD and EM
      6. 2.5 Illustrative example
      7. 2.6 Computational requirements: present and future
      8. 2.7 Conclusions
    3. Chapter 3: Modeling, simulation, and X-ray microbeam studies of electromigration
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Modeling and simulation approaches
      4. 3.3 Experimental, modeling and simulation findings
      5. 3.4 Conclusions
      6. 3.5 Acknowledgments
  7. Part II: Electromigration in copper interconnects
    1. Chapter 4: X-ray microbeam analysis of electromigration in copper interconnects
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Samples and X-ray microdiffraction methods
      4. 4.3 Electromigration (EM)-induced strains in conductor lines
      5. 4.4 Conclusions and summary
      6. 4.6 Appendix
    2. Chapter 5: Voiding in copper interconnects during electromigration
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Void nucleation
      4. 5.3 Void growth
      5. 5.4 Immortality
      6. 5.5 Future trends
      7. 5.6 Acknowledgements
    3. Chapter 6: The evolution of microstructure in copper interconnects during electromigration
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Copper microstructure evolution during electromigration
      4. 6.3 Plasticity and materials degradation mechanisms in copper interconnects
      5. 6.4 Implications for the reliability of advanced copper interconnect schemes
      6. 6.5 Conclusions and future trends
    4. Chapter 7: Scaling effects on electromigration reliability of copper interconnects
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Mass transport during electromigration (EM)
      4. 7.3 Effect of via scaling on EM reliability
      5. 7.4 Multi-linked statistical tests for via reliability
      6. 7.5 Methods to improve the EM lifetime
      7. 7.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 7.7 Acknowledgements
    5. Chapter 8: Electromigration failure in nanoscale copper interconnects
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Process solutions being developed for copper interconnects
      3. 8.2 Electromigration (EM) scaling by generation
      4. 8.3 Suppression by metal capping: blocking rate-limiting EM pathways
      5. 8.4 Copper microstructure impact
      6. 8.5 Conclusions
      7. 8.6 Acknowledgements
  8. Part III: Electromigration in solder
    1. Chapter 9: Electromigration-induced microstructural evolution in lead-free and lead–tin solders
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Intermetallic compound formation
      4. 9.3 Void formation
      5. 9.4 Formation of whisker and hillock
      6. 9.5 Grain reorientation and grain rotation
      7. 9.6 Dissolution and recrystallization
    2. Chapter 10: Electromigration in flip-chip solder joints
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Electromigration (EM)-induced voiding failure of solder interconnects
      4. 10.3 Joule heating-enhanced dissolution of under bump metallurgy (UBM) and the diffusion of on-chip metal interconnects
      5. 10.4 Stress-related degradation of solder interconnects under EM
      6. 10.5 Thermomigration (TM) behavior in solder interconnects under a thermal gradient
      7. 10.6 Conclusions
      8. 10.7 Acknowledgements
  9. Index