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Electromagnetics Explained

Book Description

Based on familiar circuit theory and basic physics, this book serves as an invaluable reference for both analog and digital engineers alike. For those who work with analog RF, this book is a must-have resource. With computers and networking equipment of the 21st century running at such high frequencies, it is now crucial for digital designers to understand electromagnetic fields, radiation and transmission lines. This knowledge is necessary for maintaining signal integrity and achieving EMC compliance. Since many digital designers are lacking in analog design skills, let alone electromagnetics, an easy-to-read but informative book on electromagnetic topics should be considered a welcome addition to their professional libraries.

  • Covers topics using conceptual explanations and over 150 lucid figures, in place of complex mathematics
  • Demystifies antennas, waveguides, and transmission line phenomena
  • Provides the foundation necessary to thoroughly understand signal integrity issues associated with high-speed digital design

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
    1. Suggested Audience and Guide for Use
    2. Parting Notes
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Chapter 1: Introduction and Survey of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    1. The Need for Electromagnetics
    2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. Electrical Length
    4. The Finite Speed of Light
    5. Electronics
    6. Analog and Digital Signals
    7. RF Techniques
    8. Microwave Techniques
    9. Infrared and the Electronic Speed Limit
    10. Visible Light and Beyond
    11. Lasers and Photonics
    12. Summary
    13. Bibliography: General Topics for Chapter 1
    14. Bibliography: State-of-the-Art Electronics
  8. Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Electric Fields
    1. The Electric Force Field
    2. Other Types of Fields
    3. Voltage and Potential Energy
    4. Charges in Metals
    5. The Definition of Resistance
    6. Electrons and Holes
    7. Electrostatic Induction and Capacitance
    8. Insulators (Dielectrics)
    9. Static Electricity and Lightning
    10. The Battery Revisited
    11. Electric Field Examples
    12. Conductivity and Permittivity of Common Materials
    13. Bibliography: Electric Fields and Conduction
    14. Bibliography: Static Electricity and Lightning
  9. Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Magnetic Fields
    1. Moving Charges: Source of All Magnetic Fields
    2. Magnetic Dipoles
    3. Effects of the Magnetic Field
    4. The Vector Magnetic Potential and Potential Momentum
    5. Magnetic Materials
    6. Magnetism and Quantum Physics
    7. Bibliography
  10. Chapter 4: Electrodynamics
    1. Changing Magnetic Fields and Lenz’s Law
    2. Faraday’s Law
    3. Inductors
    4. AC Circuits, Impedance, and Reactance
    5. Relays, Doorbells, and Phone Ringers
    6. Moving Magnets and Electric Guitars
    7. Generators and Microphones
    8. The Transformer
    9. Saturation and Hysteresis
    10. When to Gap Your Cores
    11. Ferrites: The Friends of RF, High-Speed Digital, and Microwave Engineers
    12. Maxwell’s Equations and the Displacement Current
    13. Perpetual Motion
    14. What About D and H? The Constitutive Relations
    15. Bibliography
  11. Chapter 5: Radiation
    1. Storage Fields Versus Radiation Fields
    2. Electrical Length
    3. The Field of a Static Charge
    4. The Field of a Moving Charge
    5. The Field of an Accelerating Charge
    6. X-Ray Machines
    7. The Universal Origin of Radiation
    8. The Field of an Oscillating Charge
    9. The Field of a Direct Current
    10. The Field of an Alternating Current
    11. Near and far Field
    12. The Fraunhofer and Fresnel Zones
    13. Parting Words
    14. Bibliography
  12. Chapter 6: Relativity and Quantum Physics
    1. Relativity and Maxwell’s Equations
    2. Space and Time are Relative
    3. Space and Time Become Space-Time
    4. The Cosmic Speed Limit and Proper Velocity
    5. Electric Field and Magnetic Field Become the Electromagnetic Field
    6. The Limits of Maxwell’s Equations
    7. Quantum Physics and the Birth of the Photon
    8. The Quantum Vacuum and Virtual Photons
    9. Explanation of the Magnetic Vector Potential
    10. The Future of Electromagnetics
    11. Relativity, Quantum Physics, and Beyond
    12. Bibliography and Suggestions for Further Reading
  13. Chapter 7: The Hidden Schematic
    1. The Non-Ideal Resistor
    2. The Non-Ideal Capacitor
    3. The Non-Ideal Inductor
    4. Non-Ideal Wires and Transmission Lines
    5. Other Components
    6. Making High-Frequency Measurements of Components
    7. RF Coupling and RF Chokes
    8. Component Selection Guide
    9. Bibliography
  14. Chapter 8: Transmission Lines
    1. The Circuit Model
    2. Characteristic Impedance
    3. The Waveguide Model
    4. Relationship Between the Models
    5. Reflections
    6. Putting it All Together
    7. Digital Signals and the Effects of Rise Time
    8. Analog Signals and the Effects of Frequency
    9. Impedance Transforming Properties
    10. Impedance Matching for Digital Systems
    11. Impedance Matching for RF Systems
    12. Maximum Load Power
    13. Measuring Characteristic Impedance: TDRS
    14. Standing Waves
    15. Bibliography
  15. Chapter 9: Waveguides and Shields
    1. Reflection of Radiation at Material Boundaries
    2. The Skin Effect
    3. Shielding in the Far Field
    4. Near Field Shielding of Electric Fields
    5. Why You Should Always Ground a Shield
    6. Near Field Shielding of Magnetic Fields
    7. Waveguides
    8. Resonant Cavities and Schumann Resonance
    9. Fiber Optics
    10. Lasers and Lamps
    11. Bibliography
  16. Chapter 10: Circuits as Guides for Waves and S-Parameters
    1. Surface Waves
    2. Surface Waves on Wires
    3. Coupled Surface Waves and Transmission Lines
    4. Lumped Element Circuits Versus Distributed Circuits
    5. λ/8 Transmission Lines
    6. S-Parameters: A Technique for All Frequencies
    7. The Vector Network Analyzer
    8. Bibliography
  17. Chapter 11: Antennas
    1. The Electric Dipole
    2. The Electric Monopole
    3. The Magnetic Dipole
    4. Receiving Antennas and Reciprocity
    5. Radiation Resistance of Dipole Antennas
    6. Feeding Impedance and Antenna Matching
    7. Antenna Pattern Versus Electrical Length
    8. Polarization
    9. Effects of Ground on Dipoles
    10. Wire Losses
    11. Scattering by Antennas, Antenna Aperture, and Radar Cross-Section
    12. Directed Antennas and the Yagi-Uda Array
    13. Traveling Wave Antennas
    14. Antennas in Parallel and the Folded Dipole
    15. Multiturn Loop Antennas
    16. Bibliography and Suggestions for Further Reading
  18. Chapter 12: EMC
    1. Self-Compatibility and Signal Integrity
    2. Frequency Spectrum of Digital Signals
    3. Conducted Versus Induced Versus Radiated Interference
    4. Crosstalk
    5. Circuit Layout
    6. PCB Transmission Lines
    7. The Path of Least Impedance
    8. The Fundamental Rule of Layout
    9. Shielding on PCBS
    10. Common Impedance: Ground Rise and Ground Bounce
    11. Star Grounds for Low Frequency
    12. Distributed Grounds for High Frequency: The 5/5 Rule
    13. Tree or Hybrid Grounds
    14. Power Supply Decoupling: Problems and Techniques
    15. Power Supply Decoupling: The Design Process
    16. RF Decoupling
    17. Power Plane Ripples
    18. 90 Degree Turns and Chamfered Corners
    19. Layout of Transmission Line Terminations
    20. Routing of Signals: Ground Planes, Image Planes, and PCB Stackup
    21. 3W Rule for Preventing Crosstalk
    22. Layout Miscellany
    23. Layout Examples
    24. Ground Loops (Multiple Return Paths)
    25. Differential Mode and Common Mode Radiation
    26. Cable Shielding
    27. Bibliography and Suggestions for Further Reading
  19. Chapter 13: Lenses, Dishes, and Antenna Arrays
    1. Reflecting Dishes
    2. Lenses
    3. Imaging
    4. Electronic Imaging and Antenna Arrays
    5. Optics and Nature
    6. Bibliography and Suggestions for Further Reading
  20. Chapter 14: Diffraction
    1. Diffraction and Electrical Size
    2. Huygens’ Principle
    3. Babinet’s Principle
    4. Fraunhofer and Fresnel Diffraction
    5. Radio Propagation
    6. Continuous Media
    7. Bibliography and Suggestions for Further Reading
  21. Chapter 15: Frequency Dependence of Materials, Thermal Radiation, and Noise
    1. Frequency Dependence of Materials
    2. Heat Radiation
    3. Circuit Noise
    4. Conventional and Microwave Ovens
    5. Bibliography and Suggestions for Further Reading
  22. Appendix A: Electrical Engineering Book Recommendations
  23. Index
  24. Instructions for online access