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Electromagnetic Transients in Transformer and Rotating Machine Windings

Book Description

Electromagnetic transient phenomena in transformers and rotating machines are complicated by their winding structures, with transient phenomena caused by either external events such as lightning, or by internal events such as switching operations and faults. Electromagnetic Transients in Transformer and Rotating Machine Windings explores relevant theoretical frameworks, the latest empirical research findings, and industry-approved techniques in this area. Written for professionals who want to improve their understanding of the electromagnetic transient phenomena in transformer and rotating machines windings, this research volume is also useful for university research students in power system protection, insulation condition monitoring, and incipient fault diagnosis.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Dedication
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgment
  9. Section 1: Basic Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Transmission Line Theories for the Analysis of Electromagnetic Transients in Coil Windings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VOLTAGE AND CURRENT ALONG A DISTRIBUTED-PARAMETER LINE
      4. MULTI-CONDUCTOR SYSTEM (AMETANI, 1990) (WEDEPOHL, 1963)
      5. FREQUENCY – DEPENDENT EFFECT (Ametani, 1990)
      6. TRAVELING WAVE (Ametani, 1990) (Bewley, 1951)
      7. COIL MODELING
    2. Chapter 2: Basic Methods for Analysis of High Frequency Transients in Power Apparatus Windings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODELS FOR WINDINGS OF POWER APPARATUS
      4. MODELS FOR CALCULATION OF INTERNAL VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION
      5. TERMINAL MODELS
      6. RESONANCE IN WINDINGS
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 3: Frequency Characteristics of Transformer Windings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ANALYSIS METHODS OF WINDING FREQUENCY CHARATERISTICS
      4. FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSFORMER WINDINGS
      5. APPLICATIONS OF WINDING FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. APPENDIX 1: TRANSFER FUNCTION OF LOSSY TRANSMISSION LINES
      9. APPENDIX 2: DETERMINATION OF PULSE TRAVELLING TIME IN TRANSFORMER WINDING
    4. Chapter 4: Frequency Characteristics of Generator Stator Windings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ANALYSIS METHODS OF WINDING FREQUNCY CHARACTERISTICS
      4. FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF GENERATOR STATOR WINDINGS
      5. APPLICATIONS OF WINDING FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. APPENDIX: TRANSMISSION LINE SIMULATION USING π-CONNECTED NETWORKS
    5. Chapter 5: Ferroresonance in Power and Instrument Transformers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FERRORESONANCE CONCEPT
      5. FERRORESONANCE OSCILLATION MODES
      6. CONFIGURATIONS VULNERABLE TO FERRORESONANCE
      7. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF FERRORESONANCE
      8. TIME-DOMAIN SIMULATION OF FERRORESONANCE
      9. FERRORESONANCE MITIGATION IN POWER AND INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
      10. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 2: Modelling
    1. Chapter 6: Transformer Modelling for Impulse Voltage Distribution and Terminal Transient Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODELS FOR INTERNAL VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION CALCULATION
      4. BLACK-BOX TERMINAL MODELS
      5. PARAMETER DETERMINATION
      6. APPLICATION EXAMPLES
    2. Chapter 7: Transformer Model for TRV at Transformer Limited Fault Current Interruption
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TRANSIENT RECOVERY VOLTAGE
      4. PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING CIRCUIT PARAMETERS OF TRV IN TLF
      5. IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT
      6. EXAMINATION OF FREQUENCY DEPENDENCY
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 8: Z-Transform Models for the Analysis of Electromagnetic Transients in Transformers and Rotating Machines Windings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONVENTIONAL TRANSFORMER AND ROTATING MACHINE MODELS FOR TERMINAL TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
      4. A Z-TRANSFORM MODEL FOR TRANSFORMER AND ROTATING MACHINE SURGE IMPEDANCES
      5. A Z-TRANSFORM TRANSFORMER MODEL FOR IMPULSE RESPONSE ALAYSIS
      6. A GENERAL Z-TRANSFORM TRANSFORMER MODEL
      7. CALCULATION RESULTS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. APPENDIX: BASIC CONCEPT OF Z-TRANSFORMATION AND MINIMUM-PHASE-SHIFT
    4. Chapter 9: Computer Modeling of Rotating Machines
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE TRANSIENT MODEL
      5. INDUCTION MACHINE TRANSIENT MODEL
      6. FAST TRANSIENT MODEL FOR GENERAL ROTATING MACHINES
  11. Section 3: Applications
    1. Chapter 10: Lightning Protection of Substations and the Effects of the Frequency-Dependent Surge Impedance of Transformers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LIGHTNING DISCHARGES
      4. LIGHTNING SURGES
      5. MODELS OF POWER LINES AND STATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF LIGHTNING SURGES
      6. EXEMPLARY ANALYSES
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 11: Transformer Insulation Design Based on the Analysis of Impulse Voltage Distribution
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ESTIMATION OF IMPULSE VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION VIA WINDING RATIO AND OSCILLATING FACTOR METHOD
      4. INITIAL IMPULSE VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION VIA CAPACITIES
      5. LUMPED PARAMETER MODEL
      6. WINDING TYPES AND THEIR TRANSIENT VOLTAGE WITHSTAND
      7. ACCEPTANCE TEST SETUPS
      8. VALIDATION OF CALCULATIONS: REPETITIVE SURGE OSCILLATOR MEASUREMENTS
      9. WINDING MINOR AND MAJOR INSULATION DESIGN; TAP-CHANGER WITHSTAND
      10. USE OF INTERNAL SURGE ARRESTORS
      11. TRANSFERRED IMPULSE VOLTAGE TO ADJACENT WINDING(S) IN A WINDING SET
      12. INTERNAL RESONANCES
      13. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN
      14. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 12: Detection of Transformer Faults Using Frequency Response Analysis with Case Studies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FREQUENCY RESPONSE MEASUREMENT OF TRANSFORMERS
      4. DIAGNOSIS OF TRANSFORMER FAULTS BY FRA
      5. CHALLENGES IN FRA
      6. STANDARDIZATION OF FRA
      7. FUTURE REASERCH DIRECTIONS IN FRA
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 13: Partial Discharge Detection and Location in Transformers Using UHF Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. UHF SENSOR TYPES AND THEIR INSTALLATION ON TRANSFORMERS
      5. PRACTICAL ISSUES
      6. REQUIREMENTS AND PREPARATION FOR PD LOCATION
      7. UHF PROPAGATION IN THE TRANSFORMER TANK
      8. CASE STUDIES
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 14: Detection and Location of Partial Discharges in Transformers Based on High Frequency Winding Responses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TRANSFORMER WINDING EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODELS
      4. PARTIAL DISCHARGE LOCATION BASED ON TERMINAL MEASUREMENTS
      5. CONCLUSION
  12. Compilation of References
  13. About the Contributors