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Electromagnetic Field Theory and Transmission Lines

Book Description

Electromagnetic Field Theory and Transmission Lines is an ideal textbook for a single semester, first course on Electromagnetic Field Theory (EMFT) at the undergraduate level. This book uses plain and simple English, diagrammatic representations and real life examples to explain the fundamental concepts, notations, representation and principles that govern the field of EMFT. The chapters cover every aspect of EMFT from electrostatics to advanced topics dealing with Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)/Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), EMC standards and design methods for EMC. Careful and detailed explanation of challenging concepts will help students understand better.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Introduction
    1. Applications of Electromagnetic Field Theory
    2. Differences between Circuit Theory and Electromagnetic Field Theory
    3. Notation of Scalar Parameters
    4. Notation of Vector Parameters
    5. Small Value Representation
    6. Large Value Representation
    7. Frequency Ranges of TV Channels
    8. Some Great Contributors to Electromagnetic Field Theory
  7. Chapter 1. Mathematical Preliminaries
    1. 1.1 Fundamentals of Scalars and Vectors
    2. 1.2 Coordinate Systems
    3. 1.3 Del (∇) Operator
    4. 1.4 Gradient of a Scalar, V (= ∇V)
    5. 1.5 Divergence of a Vector, A (= ∇.A)
    6. 1.6 Curl of a Vector (≡ ∇ × A)
    7. 1.7 Laplacian Operator (∇2)
    8. 1.8 Dirac Delta
    9. 1.9 Decibel and Neper Concepts
    10. 1.10 Complex Numbers
    11. 1.11 Logarithmic Series and Identities
    12. 1.12 Quadratic Equations
    13. 1.13 Cubic Equations
    14. 1.14 Determinants
    15. 1.15 Matrices
    16. 1.16 Factorial
    17. 1.17 Permutations
    18. 1.18 Combinations
    19. 1.19 Basic Series
    20. 1.20 Exponential Series
    21. 1.21 Sine and Cosine Series
    22. 1.22 Sinh and Cosh Series
    23. 1.23 Hyperbolic Functions
    24. 1.24 Sine, Cosine, Tan and Cot Functions
    25. 1.25 Some Special Functions
    26. 1.26 Partial Derivative
    27. 1.27 Some Differentiation Formulae
    28. 1.28 Some Useful Integration Formulae
    29. 1.29 Radian and Steradian
    30. 1.30 Integral Theorems
    31. Points/Formulae to Remember
    32. Solved Problems
    33. Objective Questions
    34. Exercise Problems
  8. Chapter 2. Electrostatic Fields
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Applications of Electrostatic Fields
    3. 2.3 Different Types of Charge Distributions
    4. 2.4 Coulomb’s Law
    5. 2.5 Applications of Coulomb’s Law
    6. 2.6 Limitation of Coulomb’s Law
    7. 2.7 Electric Field Strength due to Point Charge
    8. 2.8 Salient Features of Electric Intensity
    9. 2.9 Electric Field due to Line Charge Density
    10. 2.10 Electric Field Strength due to Infinite Line Charge
    11. 2.11 Field due to Surface Charge Density, ρs (C/m2)
    12. 2.12 Field due to Volume Charge Density, ρυ (C/m3)
    13. 2.13 Potential
    14. 2.14 Potential at a Point
    15. 2.15 Potential Difference
    16. 2.16 Salient Features of Potential Difference
    17. 2.17 Potential Gradient
    18. 2.18 Salient Features of Potential Gradient
    19. 2.19 Equipotential Surface
    20. 2.20 Potential due to Electric Dipole
    21. 2.21 Electric Field due to Dipole
    22. 2.22 Electric Flux
    23. 2.23 Salient Features of Electric Flux
    24. 2.24 Faraday’s Experiment to Define Flux
    25. 2.25 Electric Flux Density
    26. 2.26 Salient Features of Electric Flux Density, D
    27. 2.27 Gauss’s Law and Applications
    28. 2.28 Proof of Gauss’s Law (on Arbitrary Surface)
    29. 2.29 Gauss’s Law in Point Form
    30. 2.30 Divergence of a Vector, Electric Flux Density
    31. 2.31 Applications of Gauss’s Law
    32. 2.32 Limitations of Gauss’s Law
    33. 2.33 Salient Features of Gauss’s Law
    34. 2.34 Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations
    35. 2.35 Applications of Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations
    36. 2.36 Uniqueness Theorem
    37. 2.37 Boundary Conditions on E and D
    38. 2.38 Proof of Boundary Conditions
    39. 2.39 Conductors in Electric Field
    40. 2.40 Properties of Conductors
    41. 2.41 Electric Current
    42. 2.42 Current Densities
    43. 2.43 Equation of Continuity
    44. 2.44 Relaxation Time (Tr)
    45. 2.45 Relation between Current Density and Volume Charge Density
    46. 2.46 Dielectric Materials in Electric Field
    47. 2.47 Properties of Dielectric Materials
    48. 2.48 Dipole Moment, p
    49. 2.49 Polarisation, P
    50. 2.50 Capacitance of Different Configurations
    51. 2.51 Energy Stored in an Electrostatic Field
    52. 2.52 Energy in a Capacitor
    53. Points/Formulae to Remember
    54. Objective Questions
    55. Multiple Choice Questions
    56. Exercise Problems
  9. Chapter 3. Steady Magnetic Fields
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Applications of Magnetostatic Fields
    3. 3.3 Fundamentals of Steady Magnetic Fields
    4. 3.4 Faraday’s Law of Induction
    5. 3.5 Magnetic Flux Density, B (wb/m2)
    6. 3.6 Ampere’s Law for Current Element or Biot-Savart Law
    7. 3.7 Field due to Infinitely Long Current Element
    8. 3.8 Field due to a Finite Current Element
    9. 3.9 Ampere’s Work Law or Ampere’s Circuit Law
    10. 3.10 Differential Form of Ampere’s Circuit Law
    11. 3.11 Stoke’s Theorem
    12. 3.12 Force on a Moving Charge due to Electric and Magnetic Fields
    13. 3.13 Applications of Lorentz Force Equation
    14. 3.14 Force on a Current Element in a Magnetic Field
    15. 3.15 Ampere’s Force Law
    16. 3.16 Boundary Conditions on H and B
    17. 3.17 Scalar Magnetic Potential
    18. 3.18 Vector Magnetic Potential
    19. 3.19 Force and Torque on a Loop or Coil
    20. 3.20 Materials in Magnetic Fields
    21. 3.21 Magnetisation in Materials
    22. 3.22 Inductance
    23. 3.23 Standard Inductance Configurations
    24. 3.24 Energy Density in a Magnetic Field
    25. 3.25 Energy Stored in an Inductor
    26. 3.26 Expression for Inductance, L, in Terms of Fundamental Parameters
    27. 3.27 Mutual Inductance
    28. 3.28 Comparison between Electric and Magnetic Fields/Circuits/Parameters
    29. Points/Formulae to Remember
    30. Objective Questions
    31. Multiple Choice Questions
    32. Exercise Problems
  10. Chapter 4. Maxwell’s Equations
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Equation of Continuity for Time Varying Fields
    3. 4.3 Maxwell’s Equations for Time Varying Fields
    4. 4.4 Meaning of Maxwell’s Equations
    5. 4.5 Conversion of Differential Form of Maxwell’s Equation to Integral Form
    6. 4.6 Maxwell’s Equations for Static Fields
    7. 4.7 Characteristics of Free Space
    8. 4.8 Maxwell’s Equations for Free Space
    9. 4.9 Maxwell’s Equations for Static Fields in Free Space
    10. 4.10 Proof of Maxwell’s Equations
    11. 4.11 Sinusoidal Time Varying Field
    12. 4.12 Maxwell’s Equations in Phasor Form
    13. 4.13 Influence of Medium on the Fields
    14. 4.14 Types of Media
    15. 4.15 Summary of Maxwell’s Equations for Different Cases
    16. 4.16 Conditions at a Boundary Surface
    17. 4.17 Proof of Boundary Conditions on E, D, H and B
    18. 4.18 Complete Boundary Conditions in Scalar Form
    19. 4.19 Boundary Conditions in Vector Form
    20. 4.20 Time Varying Potentials
    21. 4.21 Retarded Potentials
    22. 4.22 Maxwell’s Equations Approach to Relate Potentials, Fields and Their Sources
    23. 4.23 Helmholtz Theorem
    24. 4.24 Lorentz Gauge Condition
    25. Points/Formulae to Remember
    26. Objective Questions
    27. Multiple Choice Questions
    28. Exercise Problems
  11. Chapter 5. Electromagnetic Fields and Waves
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Applications of EM Waves
    3. 5.3 Wave Equations in Free Space
    4. 5.4 Wave Equations for a Conducting Medium
    5. 5.5 Uniform Plane Wave Equation
    6. 5.6 General Solution of Uniform Plane Wave Equation
    7. 5.7 Relation between E and H in Uniform Plane Wave
    8. 5.8 Proof of E and H of EM Wave being Perpendicular to Each Other
    9. 5.9 Wave Equations in Phasor Form
    10. 5.10 Wave Propagation in Lossless Medium
    11. 5.11 Propagation Characteristics of EM Waves in Free Space
    12. 5.12 Propagation Characteristics of EM Waves in Conducting Medium
    13. 5.13 Summary of Propagation Characteristics of EM Waves in a Conducting Medium
    14. 5.14 Conductors and Dielectrics
    15. 5.15 Wave Propagation Characteristics in Good Dielectrics
    16. 5.16 Summary of the Propagation Characteristics of EM Waves in Good Dielectrics
    17. 5.17 Wave Propagation Characteristics in Good Conductors
    18. 5.18 Summary of Characteristics of Wave Propagation in Good Conductors
    19. 5.19 Depth of Penetration, δ (m)
    20. 5.20 Polarisation of a Wave
    21. 5.21 Sources of Different Polarised EM Waves
    22. 5.22 Direction Cosines of a Vector Field
    23. 5.23 Wave on a Perfect Conductor—Normal Incidence
    24. 5.24 Waves on Dielectric—Normal Incidence
    25. 5.25 Oblique Incidence of a Plane Wave on a Boundary Plane
    26. 5.26 Oblique Incidence of Wave on Perfect Conductor
    27. 5.27 Oblique Incidence of a Plane Wave on Dielectric
    28. 5.28 Brewster Angle
    29. 5.29 Total Internal Reflection
    30. 5.30 Surface Impedance
    31. 5.31 Poynting Vector and Flow of Power
    32. 5.32 Complex Poynting Vector
    33. Points/Formulae to Remember
    34. Objective Questions
    35. Multiple Choice Questions
    36. Exercise Problems
  12. Chapter 6. Guided Waves
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Waves between Parallel Plates
    3. 6.3 Derivation of Field Equations between Parallel Plates and Propagation Parameters
    4. 6.4 Field Components for TE Waves (Ez = 0)
    5. 6.5 Field Components of TM Waves (Hz =0)
    6. 6.6 Propagation Parameters of TE and TM Waves
    7. 6.7 Guide Wavelength
    8. 6.8 Transverse Electromagnetic Wave (TEM Wave)
    9. 6.9 Velocities of Propagation
    10. 6.10 Attenuation in Parallel Plate Guides
    11. 6.11 Wave Impedances
    12. 6.12 Waves in Rectangular Waveguides
    13. 6.13 Derivation of Field Equations in Rectangular Hollow Waveguides
    14. 6.14 Propagation Parameters of TE and TM Waves in Rectangular Waveguides
    15. 6.15 TEM Wave Does Not Exist in Hollow Waveguides
    16. 6.16 Excitation Methods for Different TE and TM Waves/Modes
    17. 6.17 Evanescent Wave or Mode
    18. 6.18 Wave Impedance in Waveguide
    19. 6.19 Power Transmitted in a Lossless Waveguide
    20. 6.20 Waveguide Resonators
    21. 6.21 Salient Features of Cavity Resonators
    22. 6.22 Circular Waveguides
    23. 6.23 Salient Features of Circular Waveguides
    24. Points/Formulae to Remember
    25. Objective Questions
    26. Multiple Choice Questions
    27. Exercise Problems
  13. Chapter 7. Transmission Lines
    1. 7.1 Transmission Lines
    2. 7.2 Types of Transmission Lines
    3. 7.3 Applications of Transmission Lines
    4. 7.4 Equivalent Circuit of a Pair of Transmission Lines
    5. 7.5 Primary Constants
    6. 7.6 Transmission Line Equations
    7. 7.7 Input Impedance of a Transmission Line
    8. 7.8 Secondary Constants
    9. 7.9 Lossless Transmission Lines
    10. 7.10 Distortionless Line
    11. 7.11 Phase and Group Velocities
    12. 7.12 Loading of Lines
    13. 7.13 Input Impedance of Lossless Transmission Line
    14. 7.14 RF Lines
    15. 7.15 Relation between Reflection Coefficient, Load and Characteristic Impedances
    16. 7.16 Relation between Reflection Coefficient and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
    17. 7.17 Lines of Different Length − Lines
    18. 7.18 Losses in Transmission Lines
    19. 7.19 Smith Chart and Applications
    20. 7.20 Stubs
    21. 7.21 Double Stubs
    22. Points/Formulae to Remember
    23. Objective Questions
    24. Multiple Choice Questions
    25. Exercise Problems
  14. Chapter 8. Radiation and Antennas
    1. 8.1 General Solution of Maxwell’s Equations
    2. 8.2 Expressions for E and H in Terms of Potentials
    3. 8.3 Retarded Potentials
    4. 8.4 Antenna Definition
    5. 8.5 Functions of an Antenna
    6. 8.6 Properties of an Antenna
    7. 8.7 Antenna Parameters
    8. 8.8 Basic Antenna Elements
    9. 8.9 Radiation Mechanism
    10. 8.10 Radiation Fields of an Alternating Current Element (or Oscillating Electric Dipole)
    11. 8.11 Radiated Power and Radiation Resistance of a Current Element
    12. 8.12 Radiation, Induction and Electrostatic Fields
    13. 8.13 Hertzian Dipole
    14. 8.14 Different Current Distributions in Linear Antennas
    15. 8.15 Radiation from Half Wave Dipole
    16. 8.16 Radiation from Quarter Wave Monopole
    17. 8.17 Radiation Characteristics of Dipoles
    18. Points/Formulae to Remember
    19. Objective Questions
    20. Multiple Choice Questions
    21. Exercise Problems
  15. Chapter 9. Advanced Topics
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Secondary Sources of Electromagnetic Fields
    3. 9.3 Reciprocity in Electromagnetic Field Theory
    4. 9.4 Reaction Concept
    5. 9.5 Induction and Equivalence Theorems
    6. 9.6 Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility (EMI/EMC)
    7. 9.7 EMI Sources
    8. 9.8 Effects of EMI
    9. 9.9 Methods to Eliminate EMI or Design Methods for EMC
    10. 9.10 Need for EMC Standards
    11. 9.11 EMC Standards
    12. 9.12 Advantages of EMC Standards
    13. 9.13 EMC Standards in Different Countries
    14. 9.14 Biological Effects of EMI/EMR (Electromagnetic Interference/Electromagnetic Radiation)
    15. 9.15 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
    16. 9.16 Origin of ESD Event
    17. 9.17 Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)
    18. 9.18 Numerical Techniques for the Analysis of Electromagnetic Fields
    19. 9.19 Finite Difference Method (FDM)
    20. 9.20 Finite Element Method (FEM)
    21. 9.21 Method of Moments (MOM)
    22. Solved Problems
    23. Points/Formulae to Remember
    24. Objective Questions
    25. Multiple Choice Questions
    26. Exercise Problems
  16. Objective Questions and Answers
  17. Bibliography
  18. Acknowledgements
  19. Copyright