## 2

## Coordinate Systems

##### 2.1 INTRODUCTION

Coordinate system represents a point *P*(*x, y, z*) in a coordinate space. Three orthogonal coordinate systems are discussed below. A point or a vector can be represented in an orthogonal or a non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. In orthogonal coordinate systems, coordinates are mutually perpendicular.

##### 2.2 CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM

In this, three coordinate axes are mutually perpendicular to each other. The axes are *x, y* and *z*. A position vector at the origin of such a Cartesian coordinate system is shown in Figure 2.1. Position vector may be resolved into three component vectors viz. _{x}, _{y} and _{z}. Vector ...