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Electroacoustic Devices: Microphones and Loudspeakers

Book Description

This is the definitive reference for microphones and loudspeakers, your one-stop reference covering in great detail all you could want and need to know about electroacoustics devises (microphones and loudspeakers). Covering both the technology and the practical set up and placement this guide explores and bridges the link between experience and the technology, giving you a better understanding of the tools to use and why, leading to greatly improved results.

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Part I: 1. Electroacoustic Devices
  7. 1. Microphones
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Pickup Patterns
      1. 1.2.1 Omnidirectional Microphones
      2. 1.2.2 Bidirectional Microphones
      3. 1.2.3 Unidirectional Microphones
    3. 1.3 Types of Transducers
      1. 1.3.1 Carbon Microphones
      2. 1.3.2 Crystal and Ceramic Microphones
      3. 1.3.3 Dynamic Microphones
      4. 1.3.4 Capacitor Microphones
      5. 1.3.5 Electret Microphones
    4. 1.4 Microphone Sensitivity
      1. 1.4.1 Open-Circuit Voltage Sensitivity
      2. 1.4.2 Maximum Power Output Sensitivity
      3. 1.4.3 Electronic Industries Association (EIA) Output Sensitivity
      4. 1.4.4 Various Microphone Sensitivities
      5. 1.4.5 Microphone Thermal Noise
    5. 1.5 Microphone Practices
      1. 1.5.1 Placement
      2. 1.5.2 Grounding
      3. 1.5.3 Polarity
      4. 1.5.4 Balanced or Unbalanced
      5. 1.5.5 Impedance
    6. 1.6 Miscellaneous Microphones
      1. 1.6.1 Pressure Zone Microphones (PZM)
      2. 1.6.2 Lavalier Microphones
      3. 1.6.3 Head-Worn Microphones
      4. 1.6.4 Base Station Microphones
      5. 1.6.5 Differential Noise-Canceling Microphones
      6. 1.6.6 Controlled-Reluctance Microphones
      7. 1.6.7 Handheld Entertainer Microphones
      8. 1.6.8 Pressure-Gradient Condenser Microphones
      9. 1.6.9 Interference Tube Microphones
      10. 1.6.10 Rifle Microphones
      11. 1.6.11 Parabolic Microphones
      12. 1.6.12 Zoom Microphones
      13. 1.6.13 Automatic Microphone Systems
      14. 1.6.14 PolarFlex™ Microphone System
    7. 1.7 Stereo Microphones
      1. 1.7.1 Coincident Microphones
      2. 1.7.2 XY Stereo Technique
      3. 1.7.3 The ORTF Technique
      4. 1.7.4 The M/S Stereo Technique
      5. 1.7.5 The Stereo Boom Microphone
      6. 1.7.6 SASS Microphones
      7. 1.7.7 Surround Sound Microphone System
    8. 1.8 Microphones for Binaural Recording
      1. 1.8.1 Artificial Head Systems
      2. 1.8.2 In the Ear Recording Microphones
    9. 1.9 USB Microphones
    10. 1.10 Wireless Communication Systems
      1. 1.10.1 Criteria for Selecting a Wireless Microphone
      2. 1.10.2 Receiving Antenna Systems
      3. 1.10.3 Companding
      4. 1.10.4 Waterproof Wireless Microphone Systems
    11. 1.11 Multichannel Wireless Microphone and Monitoring Systems
      1. 1.11.1 Introduction
      2. 1.11.2 Frequencies
      3. 1.11.3 Spacing
      4. 1.11.4 Frequency Deviation
      5. 1.11.5 Frequency Coordination
      6. 1.11.6 Transmitter Considerations
      7. 1.11.7 Receiver Considerations
      8. 1.11.8 Antennas
      9. 1.11.9 Wireless Monitor Systems
      10. 1.11.10 System Planning for Multichannel Wireless Systems
      11. 1.11.11 Future Considerations: Digital Wireless Transmission
      12. 1.11.12 Conclusion
    12. 1.12 Microphone Accessories
      1. 1.12.1 Inline Microphone Processors
      2. 1.12.2 Windscreens and Pop Filters
      3. 1.12.3 Shock Mounts
      4. 1.12.4 Stands and Booms
      5. 1.12.5 Attenuators and Equalizers
    13. 1.13 Microphone Techniques
      1. 1.13.1 Stereo Micing Techniques
      2. 1.13.2 Microphone Choice
      3. 1.13.3 Microphone Characteristics
      4. 1.13.4 Specific Micing Techniques
      5. 1.13.5 Conclusion
    14. Acknowledgments
    15. References
    16. Bibliography
  8. 2. Loudspeakers
    1. 2.1 Introduction
      1. 2.1.1 Uses of Loudspeakers
      2. 2.1.2 Loudspeaker Components
    2. 2.2 Transducer Types
      1. 2.2.1 Electrodynamic Transducers
      2. 2.2.2 Diaphragm Types
      3. 2.2.3 Suspension Methods
      4. 2.2.4 Mechanical Construction
    3. 2.3 Compression Drivers
    4. 2.4 Electrostatic Transducers
    5. 2.5 Piezoelectric Loudspeakers
    6. 2.6 Motor Design Considerations
      1. 2.6.1 Output Limitations
      2. 2.6.2 Heat Transfer Designs for High-Power Woofers
    7. 2.7 Radiator Types
      1. 2.7.1 Direct Radiators
      2. 2.7.2 Cone Radiators
      3. 2.7.3 Dome Radiators
      4. 2.7.4 Ring Radiators
      5. 2.7.5 Panel Radiators
      6. 2.7.6 Horns
    8. 2.8 Loudspeaker Systems
      1. 2.8.1 Configuration Choices
      2. 2.8.2 Types of Loudspeaker Systems
      3. 2.8.3 Performance Issues in Multiway Systems
      4. 2.8.4 Line Arrays
      5. 2.8.5 Crossovers
      6. 2.8.6 Acoustic Boundaries
      7. 2.8.7 Conclusion
    9. 2.9 Characterization of Loudspeaker Performance
      1. 2.9.1 Motivation
      2. 2.9.2 Efficiency and Sensitivity
      3. 2.9.3 Network Transfer Function
      4. 2.9.4 Loudspeaker Transfer Function
      5. 2.9.5 Impedance
      6. 2.9.6 Distortion
      7. 2.9.7 Characterization for Design Purposes
      8. 2.9.8 Characterization for the User
    10. 2.10 Direct Radiation of Sound
      1. 2.10.1 Acoustics of Radiators
      2. 2.10.2 Direct Radiator Enclosure Design
      3. 2.10.3 Horns
    11. 2.11 Loudspeaker Testing and Measurement
      1. 2.11.1 Linear Transfer Function
      2. 2.11.2 Chart Recorders
      3. 2.11.3 Real Time Analyzers
      4. 2.11.4 Time-Windowed Measurements
      5. 2.11.5 Swept Sine Measurements
    12. Reference
    13. Bibliography
  9. 3. Loudspeaker Cluster Design
    1. 3.1 Why Array?
    2. 3.2 Array Problems and Partial Solutions: A Condensed History
    3. 3.3 Conventional Array Shortcomings
    4. 3.4 Conventional Array Shortcoming Analysis
    5. 3.5 Coincident Acoustical Centers: A Practical Approach
      1. 3.5.1 TRAP Horns: A New Approach
      2. 3.5.2 TRAP Performance
    6. 3.6 Low Frequency Arrays: Beneficial Interference
      1. 3.6.1 Horizontal Woofer Arrays: Maintaining Wide Dispersion
      2. 3.6.2 Vertical Woofer Arrays
    7. 3.7 Line Arrays and Digitally Steerable Loudspeaker Column Arrays
      1. 3.7.1 What Affects Intelligibility
      2. 3.7.2 Measuring Intelligibility
      3. 3.7.3 Architecture and Room Acoustics
      4. 3.7.4 Line Arrays
      5. 3.7.5 DSP-Driven Vertical Arrays
      6. 3.7.6 Multichannel DSP Can Control Array Height
      7. 3.7.7 Steerable Arrays May Look Like Columns But They Are Not
  10. Index