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Electricity Production from Renewables Energies

Book Description

Energy and environmental issues have caused a marked increase in electricity production from renewable energy sources since the beginning of the 21st Century. The concept of sustainable development and concern for future generations challenge us every day to produce new technologies for energy production, and new patterns of use for these energies. Their rapid emergence can make the understanding and therefore the perception of these new technologies difficult. This book aims to contribute to a better understanding of the new electricity generation technologies by addressing a diverse audience. It presents the issues, sources and means of conversion into electricity using a general approach and develops scientific concepts to understand their main technical characteristics.

Systems of electricity generation from renewable energy resources of small to medium powers are presented. The basic electrical concepts necessary for understanding the operating characteristics of these energy converters are introduced, and the constraints and problems of integration in the electrical networks of those means of production are discussed. Several exercises are provided to the reader for evaluation purposes.

Contents

1. Decentralized Electricity Production from Renewable Energy, Benoît Robyns.

2. Solar Photovoltaic Power, Arnaud Davigny.

3. Wind Power, Bruno Francois and Benoît Robyns.

4. Terrestrial and Marine Hydroelectricity: Waves and Tides, Benoît Robyns and Antoine Henneton.

5. Thermal Power Generation, Jonathan Sprooten.

6. Integration of the Decentralized Production into the Electrical Network, Benoît Robyns.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Foreword
  5. Introduction
  6. Chapter 1. Decentralized Electricity Production from Renewable Energy
    1. 1.1. Decentralized production
    2. 1.2. The issue of renewable energies
      1. 1.2.1. Observations
      2. 1.2.2. The sustainable development context
      3. 1.2.3. Commitments and perspectives
    3. 1.3. Renewable energy sources
      1. 1.3.1. Wind energy
      2. 1.3.2. Solar energy
      3. 1.3.3. Hydraulics
      4. 1.3.4. Geothermal energy
      5. 1.3.5. Biomass
      6. 1.3.6. Contribution of the various renewable energies
    4. 1.4. Production of electricity from renewable energies
      1. 1.4.1. Electricity supply chains
      2. 1.4.2. Efficiency factor
    5. 1.5. Bibliography
  7. Chapter 2. Solar Photovoltaic Power
    1. 2.1. Introduction
    2. 2.2. Characteristics of the primary resource
    3. 2.3. Photovoltaic conversion
      1. 2.3.1. Introduction
      2. 2.3.2. Photovoltaic effect
      3. 2.3.3. Photovoltaic cells
        1. 2.3.3.1. Solar cell technologies
        2. 2.3.3.2. Comparison with the diode
        3. 2.3.3.2. Comparison with the diode
        4. 2.3.3.4. Maximum power of a cell
        5. 2.3.3.5. Efficiency
      4. 2.3.4. Cell association
    4. 2.4. Maximum electric power extraction [AST 08b] [PRO 97] [GER 02]
    5. 2.5. Power converters
      1. 2.5.1. Introduction
      2. 2.5.2. Structure of the photovoltaic conversion chains
      3. 2.5.2.1. Without an isolation transformer
      4. 2.5.2.2. With an isolation transformer
      5. 2.5.2.2.1. Low frequency transformer
      6. 2.5.2.2.2. High frequency transformer
      7. 2.5.3. Choppers
        1. 2.5.3.1. Introduction
        2. 2.5.3.2. Two switch choppers
          1. 2.5.3.2.1. Series choppers
          2. 2.5.3.2.2. Parallel choppers
      8. 2.5.4. Inverters
        1. 2.5.4.1. Introduction
        2. 2.5.4.2. Single-phase inverters
        3. 2.5.4.3. Three-phase inverters
    6. 2.6. Adjustment of the active and reactive power
    7. 2.7 Solar power stations [PRO 97] [AST 08b] [SAB 06]
      1. 2.7.1. Introduction
      2. 2.7.2. Autonomous power stations
      3. 2.7.3. Power stations connected to the network
    8. 2.8. Exercises
      1. 2.8.1. Characteristic of a photovoltaic panel
      2. 2.8.2. Sizing an autonomous photovoltaic installation
    9. 2.9. Bibliography
  8. Chapter 3. Wind Power
    1. 3.1. Characteristic of the primary resource
      1. 3.1.1. Variability
      2. 3.1.2. The Weibull distribution
      3. 3.1.3. The effect of relief
      4. 3.1.4. Loading rate
      5. 3.1.5. Compass card
    2. 3.2. Kinetic wind energy
    3. 3.3. Wind turbines
      1. 3.3.1. Horizontal axis wind turbines
        1. 3.3.1.1. Introduction
        2. 3.3.1.2. Conversion into mechanical power by a lift effect
        3. 3.3.1.3. Influence of the rotational speed on the angle of attack
        4. 3.3.1.4. Efficiency and power coefficien
      2. 3.3.2. Vertical axis wind turbines
      3. 3.3.3. Comparison of the various turbine types
    4. 3.4. Power limitation by varying the power coefficient
      1. 3.4.1. The “pitch” or variable pitch angle system
      2. 3.4.2. The “stall” or aerodynamic stall system
    5. 3.5. Mechanical couplings between the turbine and the electric generator
      1. 3.5.1. Connection between mechanical speed, synchronous speed and electrical network frequency
      2. 3.5.2. “Direct drive” wind turbines (without a multiplier)
      3. 3.5.3. Use of a speed multiplier
    6. 3.6. Generalities on induction and mechanical electric conversion
    7. 3.7. “Fixed speed” wind turbines based on induction machines
      1. 3.7.1. Physical principle
      2. 3.7.2. Constitution of induction machines
      3. 3.7.3. Modeling
        1. 3.7.3.1. Equivalent single-phase diagram
        2. 3.7.3.2. Static characteristics
      4. 3.7.4. Conversion system
      5. 3.7.5. Operation characteristics
    8. 3.8. Variable speed wind turbine
      1. 3.8.1. Issues
      2. 3.8.2. Classification of the structures according to machine technologies
      3. 3.8.3. Principle of element sizing
      4. 3.8.4. Adjustment of active and reactive powers
      5. 3.8.5. Aerogenerators based on a doubly fed induction machine
        1. 3.8.5.1. Doubly fed wound rotor induction machines
        2. 3.8.5.2. Operating characteristic of a wind turbine based on a doubly fed induction machine
      6. 3.8.6. Aerogenerators based on a synchronous machine
        1. 3.8.6.1. High power wind turbines
        2. 3.8.6.2. Small wind turbines
    9. 3.9. Wind turbine farms
    10. 3.10. Exercises
      1. 3.10.1. Fixed speed wind turbines
      2. 3.10.2. Characterization of a turbine and estimate of the generated power
      3. 3.10.3. High power variable speed wind turbines
        1. 3.10.3.1. Nominal operation by neglecting all the losses
        2. 3.10.3.2. Nominal operation by considering the losses
        3. 3.10.3.3. Reduced power operation (low wind) by neglecting all the losses
    11. 3.11. Bibliography
  9. Chapter 4. Terrestrial and Marine Hydroelectricity: Waves and Tides
    1. 4.1. Run-of-the-river hydraulics
      1. 4.1.1. Hydroelectricity
      2. 4.1.2. Small hydraulics
      3. 4.1.3. Hydraulic turbines
      4. 4.1.4. Electromechanical conversion for small hydroelectricity
      5. 4.1.5. Exercise: small hydroelectric run-of-the-river power station
    2. 4.2. Hydraulic power of the sea
      1. 4.2.1. Wave power
        1. 4.2.1.1. Origin and description of the waves
        2. 4.2.1.2. Potential
          1. 4.2.1.2.1. Energy and power
          2. 4.2.1.2.2. Vertical distribution of energy
          3. 4.2.1.2.3. Transported power per meter of a wave front
        3. 4.2.1.3. Global resource
      2. 4.2.2. Energy of the continuous ocean currents
      3. 4.2.2.1. Description of the current phenomenon
      4. 4.2.3. Tidal energy
        1. 4.2.3.1. Tide phenomenon
        2. 4.2.3.2. Tidal amplitude
        3. 4.2.3.3. Tidal currents
        4. 4.2.3.4. Potential
      5. 4.2.4. Wave production, wave-power generator
        1. 4.2.4.1. Recovery of the primary energy
          1. 4.2.4.1.1. Historical background
          2. 4.2.4.1.2. Classification and technologies of converters
        2. 4.2.4.2. Electromechanical conversion with limited linear motion
          1. 4.2.4.2.1. Immersed float system
          2. 4.2.4.2.2. Surface float system
          3. 4.2.4.2.3. Principle of the linear generator
        3. 4.2.4.3. Electromechanical rotary conversion
          1. 4.2.4.3.1. Oscillating water columns
          2. 4.2.4.3.2. Breaking wave system
          3. 4.2.4.3.3. Systems with bodies moved by the swell:
        4. 4.2.4.4. Characteristics of the electric production
      6. 4.2.5. Production by sea currents
        1. 4.2.5.1. System of mechanical conversion: underwater turbines
        2. 4.2.5.2. Electromechanical conversion
          1. 4.2.5.2.1. Horizontal axis rotor turbine in the current direction
          2. 4.2.5.2.2. Turbines with a rotor axis perpendicular to the current:
          3. 4.2.5.2.3. Oscillating systems
          4. 4.2.5.2.4. Fairing systems
          5. 4.2.5.2.5. Paddle wheel systems
        3. 4.2.5.3. Comparison between wind power and tidal power production
      7. 4.2.6. Tidal production
        1. 4.2.6.1. Historical background
        2. 4.2.6.2. Conversion of the potential energy
          1. 4.2.6.2.1. Electromechanical system
          2. 4.2.6.2.2. Characteristics of electric production
          3. 4.2.6.2.3. Comparison of the potential tidal production with run-of-the-river hydropower
      8. 4.2.7. Exercise: Estimation of the production of a simple effect tidal power
    3. 4.3. Bibliography
  10. Chapter 5. Thermal Power Generation
    1. 5.1. Introduction
    2. 5.2. Geothermal power
      1. 5.2.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2.2. The resource
      3. 5.2.3. Fluid characteristics
      4. 5.2.4. The principle of geothermal power plants
      5. 5.2.5. Thermodynamic conversion
        1. 5.2.5.1. Introduction: Carnot cycle
        2. 5.2.5.2. Rankine and Hirn cycles
        3. 5.2.5.3. Choosing the heat transfer fluid
      6. 5.2.6. Steam turbine
      7. 5.2.7. The alternator
        1. 5.2.7.1. Equivalent diagram and modeling
        2. 5.2.7.2. Control of the active and reactive powers
    3. 5.3. Thermodynamic solar power generation
      1. 5.3.1. Introduction
      2. 5.3.2. The principle of concentration
      3. 5.3.3. Cylindro-parabolic design
      4. 5.3.4. The solar tower
      5. 5.3.5. Parabolic dish design
      6. 5.3.6. Comparison of solar thermodynamic generations
    4. 5.4. Cogeneration by biomass
      1. 5.4.1. Origin of biomass – energy interests
      2. 5.4.2. Cogeneration principle
    5. 5.5. Bibliography
  11. Chapter 6. Integration of the Decentralized Production into the Electrical Network
    1. 6.1. From a centralized network to a decentralized network
      1. 6.1.1. The transport network
      2. 6.1.2. The distribution network
      3. 6.1.3. Services for the electric system
        1. 6.1.3.1. Frequency control
        2. 6.1.3.2. Voltage control
      4. 6.1.4. Towards network decentralization
    2. 6.2. Connection voltage
    3. 6.3. Connection constraints
      1. 6.3.1. Voltage control
        1. 6.3.1.1. Connection to the distribution network
        2. 6.3.1.2. Connection to the transport network
      2. 6.3.2. Frequency control
      3. 6.3.3. Quality of the electric wave
        1. 6.3.3.1. Current harmonics
        2. 6.3.3.2. Voltage fluctuations
      4. 6.3.4. Short-circuit power
      5. 6.3.5. Protection of the electric system
      6. 6.3.6. Coupling of the production facilities to the network
      7. 6.3.7. Other constraints
    4. 6.4. Limitations of the penetration level
      1. 6.4.1. Participation in ancillary services
      2. 6.4.2. Untimely disconnections
      3. 6.4.3. Production prediction
      4. 6.4.4. Network hosting capacity
    5. 6.5. Perspectives for better integration into the networks
      1. 6.5.1. Actions at the source level
      2. 6.5.2. Actions on the network level
        1. 6.5.2.1. Congestion treatment
        2. 6.5.2.2. Smart grids
        3. 6.5.2.3. Network architecture
        4. 6.5.2.4. Shared or multiple storage services
      3. 6.5.3. Actions on the consumer level
        1. 6.5.3.1. Positive energy buildings (commercial buildings, residential areas, habitat, micro grids)
        2. 6.5.3.2. Electric vehicles
    6. 6.6. Bibliography
  12. List of Authors
  13. Index