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Electrical Technology, Volume 1

Book Description

Electrical Technology is a textbook that will serve the needs of undergraduate students of engineering. This first volume consists of 30 chapters and introduces the fundamentals of the subject through a discussion on system of units and fundamentals of electrons and gradually moves to advanced topics such as Complex Algebra, Fourier Series, Circuits and Networks, which helps engineering students understand the subject better and build a concrete foundation of their concepts.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Part A: Electrical Fundamentals
  7. Chapter 1: Systems of Units
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Scientific Notation
    3. 1.3 Fundamental and Derived Units
    4. 1.4 Standards and Units
    5. 1.5 Systems of Units
    6. 1.6 The SI System of Units
    7. 1.7 Importance of SI System
    8. 1.8 Definitions
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    11. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  8. Chapter 2: Electrons in Action
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Conduction in Solids
    3. 2.3 Bonding in Atoms
    4. 2.4 Energy Bands
    5. 2.5 Electrons in Action
    6. 2.6 Direction of Current Flow
    7. 2.7 Diffusion Current Momentarily
    8. 2.8 Drift Velocity
    9. 2.9 The Nature of Electric Current
    10. 2.10 Effects of Electricity
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    13. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  9. Chapter 3: Electric Circuit
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Electric Circuit
    3. 3.3 Current
    4. 3.4 Electromotive Force
    5. 3.5 Reference Zero
    6. 3.6 Safety Precautions While Handling Electric Circuits
    7. 3.7 Insulators
    8. 3.8 Semiconductors
    9. 3.9 Conductors
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    12. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  10. Chapter 4: Simple d.c. Circuits
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 The Basic Circuit
    3. 4.3 Resistors
    4. 4.4 Resistivity (Specific Resistance)
    5. 4.5 Types of Resistors
    6. 4.6 Resistor Tolerance and Wattage
    7. 4.7 Ohm’s Law
    8. 4.8 Lumped Resistance and Distributed Resistance
    9. 4.9 Leakage Resistance
    10. 4.10 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance
    11. 4.11 Zero Ohm Resistors
    12. 4.12 Chip Resistors
    13. 4.13 Resistor Networks
    14. 4.14 Simulated Resistors
    15. 4.15 Adjustable Resistors
    16. 4.16 Variable Resistors
    17. 4.17 Types of Electric Circuits
    18. 4.18 Resistances in Series
    19. 4.19 Voltage Division Formula
    20. 4.20 Dominant Resistance
    21. 4.21 Resistors in Parallel
    22. 4.22 Current Division Formula
    23. 4.23 Dominant Resistance
    24. 4.24 Series-Parallel (Complex) Circuits
    25. Summary
    26. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    27. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  11. Chapter 5: Networks (d.c.)
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Ohm’s Law
    3. 5.3 Kirchhoff’s Laws
    4. 5.4 Voltage Drop and Polarity
    5. 5.5 Equipotential Points
    6. 5.6 The Bridge Network
    7. 5.7 Networks
    8. 5.8 Superposition Theorem
    9. 5.9 Voltage and Current Sources
    10. 5.10 Dependent Voltage Sources
    11. 5.11 Millman’s Theorem
    12. 5.12 Thevenin’s Theorem
    13. 5.13 Thevenizing a Circuit
    14. 5.14 Norton’s Theorem
    15. 5.15 Nortonizing a Circuit
    16. 5.16 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
    17. 5.17 Efficiency
    18. 5.18 Δ ⇌ Y Transformation
    19. 5.19 Balanced Networks
    20. 5.20 Network Reduction
    21. 5.21 Mesh Currents
    22. 5.22 Node-Voltages
    23. Summary
    24. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    25. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  12. Chapter 6: Mesh-Current and Node-Voltage Analysis
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Matrices and Determinants
    3. 6.3 Network Analysis by Mesh Current
    4. 6.4 Network Analysis by Node-Pair Voltages
    5. 6.5 The Resistance Matrix
    6. 6.6 The Conductance Matrix
    7. 6.7 The Super Mesh
    8. 6.8 The Super Node
    9. 6.9 Nodal Analysis Vs Mesh Analysis—A Comparison
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    12. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  13. Chapter 7: Electrochemical Action
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Primary Cells
    3. 7.3 Electrolysis
    4. 7.4 Faraday’s Laws
    5. 7.5 Simple Voltaic Cell
    6. 7.6 e.m.f. of a Cell
    7. 7.7 Local Action
    8. 7.8 Polarization
    9. 7.9 Internal Resistance
    10. 7.10 Characteristics of a Good Cell
    11. 7.11 The Leclanche Cell
    12. 7.12 The Dry Cell
    13. 7.13 Secondary Batteries/Cells
    14. 7.14 Elements of Secondary Cells
    15. 7.15 The Electrolyte
    16. 7.16 Capacity of Cells
    17. 7.17 Internal Resistance of Secondary Cells
    18. 7.18 Makeup of Cells
    19. 7.19 Charging and Discharging of Lead-Acid Secondary Batteries
    20. 7.20 Constant Current Charging
    21. 7.21 Constant Voltage Charging
    22. 7.22 Efficiencies of a Cell
    23. 7.23 Faults
    24. 7.24 Alkaline Cells
    25. 7.25 Nife Nickel Cadmium Alkaline Cell
    26. 7.26 Mercury Cell
    27. 7.27 Silver-Oxide Cell
    28. 7.28 Grouping of Cells
    29. 7.29 Grouping Cells for Maximum Current
    30. Summary
    31. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    32. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  14. Chapter 8: Electromagnetism
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Attraction and Repulsion
    3. 8.3 The Inverse Square Law
    4. 8.4 Lines of Force
    5. 8.5 Magnetic Flux
    6. 8.6 Permeability
    7. 8.7 Permeability (B-H) Curves
    8. 8.8 The Domain Theory of Magnetism
    9. 8.9 Electromagnetism
    10. 8.10 Direction of Magnetic Field
    11. 8.11 Magnetizing Force of Electromagnetic Fields
    12. 8.12 Indicating the Direction of Current Flow
    13. 8.13 Rule of Direction
    14. 8.14 Electrodynamic Forces
    15. 8.15 Forces between Magnetic Poles
    16. 8.16 Magnetic Moment
    17. 8.17 Flux Density of a Solenoid
    18. 8.18 Magnetic Circuit
    19. 8.19 Magnetic Induction
    20. 8.20 Magnetic Shields
    21. 8.21 Reluctance
    22. 8.22 Series Magnetic Circuits
    23. 8.23 Parallel Magnetic Circuit
    24. 8.24 Electromagnets
    25. 8.25 Electromagnetic Relays
    26. Summary
    27. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    28. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  15. Chapter 9: Inductors
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Inductance
    3. 9.3 Factors Determining Inductance
    4. 9.4 Energy Stored in the Magnetic Field of an Inductor
    5. 9.5 Losses in Inductors
    6. 9.6 Toroids
    7. 9.7 Inductor Types
    8. 9.8 Time-Constant
    9. 9.9 Graphical Derivation of the Transient Characteristics of an R-L Circuit
    10. 9.10 Universal Time Constant
    11. 9.11 Inductors in Series and Parallel
    12. 9.12 Transient Behaviour
    13. Summary
    14. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    15. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  16. Chapter 10: Hysteresis
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 The B-H Curve
    3. 10.3 Hysteresis Loop
    4. 10.4 Hysteresis Loss
    5. 10.5 Determination of B-H Curve
    6. 10.6 Determination of Hysteresis Loop
    7. 10.7 Hysteresis Loss
    8. 10.8 Eddy Currents
    9. 10.9 Eddy Current Losses
    10. 10.10 Separation of Hysteresis and Eddy Current Losses
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    13. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  17. Chapter 11: Magnetic Materials
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Magnetic Materials
    3. 11.3 Non-Magnetic Alloys
    4. 11.4 Ferrites
    5. 11.5 Magnetic Materials with Rectangular Hysteresis Loops
    6. 11.6 Grain-Oriented Magnetic Material
    7. 11.7 Permanent Magnets
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    10. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  18. Chapter 12: Electrostatics
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Electrification by Friction
    3. 12.3 Application of Electron Theory
    4. 12.4 Coulomb’s Law
    5. 12.5 Permittivity
    6. 12.6 Electrostatic Induction
    7. 12.7 The Gold-Leaf Electroscope
    8. 12.8 Electric Fields
    9. 12.9 Electric Flux
    10. 12.10 Potential
    11. 12.11 Equipotential Lines
    12. 12.12 Gauss’s Law
    13. 12.13 Dielectric Strength
    14. 12.14 The Electric Field Due to a Line of Charge
    15. 12.15 The Electric Field Due to a Charged Disk
    16. Summary
    17. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    18. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  19. Chapter 13: Capacitors and d.c. Transients
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Capacitance
    3. 13.3 Capacitor Action
    4. 13.4 Permittivity
    5. 13.5 Factors Determining Capacitance
    6. 13.6 Energy Stored in the Electric Field between the Capacitor Plates
    7. 13.7 Power Factor (Capacitors)
    8. 13.8 Types of Capacitors
    9. 13.9 Capacitor Colourcode
    10. 13.10 Time Constant
    11. 13.11 Graphical Derivation of the Transient Characteristics of an R-C Circuit
    12. 13.12 Universal Time Constant
    13. 13.13 Connecting Capacitors in Series
    14. 13.14 Connecting Capacitors in Parallel
    15. Summary
    16. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    17. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  20. Chapter 14: Dielectric Materials
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Dielectric Materials
    3. 14.3 Permittivity (Dielectric Constant)
    4. 14.4 Power Factor
    5. 14.5 Insulation Resistance (or Insulance)
    6. 14.6 Dielectric Absorption
    7. 14.7 Dielectric Strength
    8. 14.8 Thermal Effects
    9. 14.9 Loss Angle
    10. 14.10 Dielectric Materials (General)
    11. 14.11 The Dielectric Phenomenon
    12. 14.12 Dielectric Breakdown
    13. Summary
    14. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    15. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  21. Chapter 15: Field Theory
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 The Electric Field
    3. 15.3 Vectors
    4. 15.4 Electric Field Lines
    5. 15.5 Field Plotting by Curvilinear Squares
    6. 15.6 Effect of Fringing
    7. 15.7 Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitator
    8. 15.8 Capacitance of a Multiplate Capacitator
    9. 15.9 Capacitance between Concentric Cylinders
    10. 15.10 Dielectric Stress
    11. 15.11 Concentric Cable Field Plotting
    12. 15.12 Capacitance of an Isolated Twin Line
    13. 15.13 Energy Stored in an Electric Field (Alternate Method)
    14. 15.14 Induced e.m.f. and Inductance
    15. 15.15 Inductance Due to Internal Linkages at Low Frequency
    16. 15.16 Inductance of a Pair of Concentric Cylinders
    17. 15.17 Energy Stored in an Electromagnetic Field
    18. 15.18 Magnetic Energy Stored in an Inductor
    19. Summary
    20. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    21. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  22. Chapter 16: Single Phase Alternating Voltage and Current
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Comparison of a.c. and d.c.
    3. 16.3 The Sine Wave
    4. 16.4 Basic a.c. Generator
    5. 16.5 Phasor Diagrams
    6. 16.6 Addition of Sinusoidal Waveforms
    7. 16.7 Alternate Treatment: a.c. Values
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    10. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  23. Chapter 17: Three-phase Circuits and Systems
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Why Three Phase?
    3. 17.3 Generating Three-Phase Voltage
    4. 17.4 Phase and Line Voltages
    5. 17.5 Star Connection
    6. 17.6 Delta Connection
    7. 17.7 Y– Δ Change Over Switch
    8. 17.8 Supply of Three-Phase Electrical Energy
    9. 17.9 Balanced and Unbalanced Loads
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    12. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  24. Chapter 18: Complex Algebra
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 The J-Operator
    3. 18.3 Inductive Reactance
    4. 18.4 Capacitive Reactance
    5. 18.5 Rectangular and Polar Notation
    6. 18.6 Rules of Complex Algebra
    7. 18.7 Admittance, Conductance, and Susceptance
    8. 18.8 Impedance and Admittance Triangles
    9. Summary
    10. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  25. Chapter 19: Work, Power and Energy
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Work Done by an Electric Current
    3. 19.3 Methods of Heating Rooms
    4. 19.4 Heating Water
    5. 19.5 Power
    6. 19.6 Power in a Resistance
    7. 19.7 Power in a.c. Circuits
    8. 19.8 Three-Phase Power
    9. 19.9 Energy
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    12. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  26. Chapter 20: Power Factor Correction
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 The Need for Correction
    3. 20.3 Power Factor Correction
    4. 20.4 Types of Compensation
    5. Summary
    6. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    7. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  27. Chapter 21: LCR Circuits
    1. 21.1 Introduction
    2. 21.2 Inductive Reactance
    3. 21.3 Capacitive Reactance
    4. 21.4 Filtering
    5. 21.5 Basic Series a.c. Circuits
    6. 21.6 The Concept of Impedance
    7. 21.7 Series Connected Impedances
    8. 21.8 Polar Notation
    9. 21.9 Parallel Connected Impedances
    10. 21.10 Components of Current
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    13. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  28. Chapter 22: Resonance
    1. 22.1 Introduction
    2. 22.2 Series Resonance
    3. 22.3 Q-Quality Factor of a Series Circuit
    4. 22.4 Selectivity and Bandwidth
    5. 22.5 Parallel Resonance
    6. 22.6 Parallel Resonant Circuits
    7. 22.7 Quality Factor of a Parallel Network
    8. 22.8 Impedances in Parallel
    9. 22.9 Resonant Filters
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    12. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  29. Chapter 23: The Fourier Series
    1. 23.1 Introduction
    2. 23.2 Complex Waveforms
    3. 23.3 Synthesis of Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms
    4. 23.4 The Fourier Series
    5. 23.5 Analyzing a Complex Waveform
    6. 23.6 Summary of Properties of Fourier Analysis
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    9. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  30. Chapter 24: Networks (a.c.)
    1. 24.1 Introduction
    2. 24.2 Voltage Division
    3. 24.3 Current Division
    4. 24.4 Superposition Theorem
    5. 24.5 Thevenin’s Theorem
    6. 24.6 Constant Voltage Generator
    7. 24.7 Constant-Current Generator
    8. 24.8 Norton’s Theorem
    9. 24.9 Procedure for Solving a Network Using Thevenin’s Theorem
    10. 24.10 Procedure for Solving a Network Using Norton’s Theorem
    11. 24.11 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
    12. 24.12 Millman’s Theorem
    13. 24.13 Reciprocity Theorem
    14. 24.14 Duality
    15. 24.15 A.c. Circuit Analysis
    16. 24.16 Mesh-Current and Nodal Analysis
    17. Summary
    18. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    19. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  31. Chapter 25: Delta ⇌ Wye Transformations
    1. 25.1 Introduction
    2. 25.2 Delta and Star Connections
    3. 25.3 [∇ – Y]/[Y – ∇]Transformations
    4. Summary
    5. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    6. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  32. Chapter 26: Attenuators and Filters
    1. 26.1 Introduction
    2. 26.2 The Decibel
    3. 26.3 Characteristic Impedance
    4. 26.4 Symmetrical T-Attenuator
    5. 26.5 Symmetrical Π-Attenuator
    6. 26.6 Insertion Loss
    7. 26.7 Asymmetrical T - and Π - Sections
    8. 26.8 The L-Section Attenuator
    9. 26.9 Cascading Two-Port Networks
    10. 26.10 Filters
    11. 26.11 Types of Filters
    12. 26.12 Active and Passive Filters
    13. 26.13 Frequency Response
    14. 26.14 Symmetrical Networks
    15. 26.15 Equivalence of Balanced and Unbalanced Sections
    16. 26.16 Maclaurin’s Theorem
    17. 26.17 Circular Functions
    18. 26.18 Hyperbolic Functions
    19. 26.19 Theorem Connecting α and Z0
    20. 26.20 Prototype (Constant K) Filter Sections
    21. 26.21 M-Derived Filters
    22. Summary
    23. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    24. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  33. Chapter 27: Transmission Lines
    1. 27.1 Introduction
    2. 27.2 The Infinite Line
    3. 27.3 Short Line Terminated in Z0
    4. 27.4 Transmission Line Parameters
    5. 27.5 Phase Delay, Wavelength and Velocity of Propagation
    6. 27.6 Current and Voltage along an Infinite Line
    7. 27.7 Propagation Constant
    8. 27.8 Line Constants
    9. 27.9 Conditions for Minimum Attenuation
    10. 27.10 Distortion
    11. 27.11 Loading
    12. 27.12 Reflection
    13. 27.13 Open-Circuit Termination
    14. 27.14 Short-Circuit Termination
    15. 27.15 Standing Waves
    16. Summary
    17. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    18. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  34. Chapter 28: First and Second Order Systems
    1. 28.1 Introduction
    2. 28.2 First Order Systems
    3. 28.3 Solving the Equation
    4. 28.4 General Procedure
    5. 28.5 Signal Waveforms
    6. 28.6 Second-Order Circuits
    7. 28.7 The Characteristic Equation
    8. 28.8 The Complex Plane
    9. 28.9 Impedance Concepts
    10. 28.10 Initial and Final Conditions
    11. 28.11 The Admittance Concept
    12. 28.12 Forced Response
    13. 28.13 Complete Response
    14. 28.14 Components of the Complete Response
    15. 28.15 Characteristics of the Components
    16. 28.16 Network Functions for the One-Port and Two-Port
    17. Summary
    18. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    19. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  35. Chapter 29: Laplace Transform
    1. 29.1 Introduction
    2. 29.2 Flowchart for Mathematical Procedure
    3. 29.3 The Laplace Transformation
    4. 29.4 Basic Theorems of Linearity
    5. 29.5 Step Function
    6. 29.6 Exponential Function
    7. 29.7 Sine and Cosine Functions
    8. 29.8 Laplace Transform Operations
    9. 29.9 Inverse Laplace Transformation
    10. 29.10 Use of Partial Fractions for Inverse Laplace Transforms
    11. 29.11 Inverse Laplace Transforms and the Solution of Differential Equations
    12. 29.12 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
    13. Summary
    14. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    15. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  36. Chapter 30: Coupled Circuits
    1. 30.1 Introduction
    2. 30.2 Degree of Coupling
    3. 30.3 Classification of Coupled Circuits
    4. 30.4 Category (i)
    5. 30.5 Impedance of Coupled Circuits
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
    8. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  37. Copyright
  38. Back Cover