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Electrical Technology, Vol2: Machines and Measurements, 1/e

Book Description

Electrical Technology: Machines and Measurements is the second volume of the book on Electrical Technology and all undergraduate students of electrical and electronics engineering shall find this indispensible. This book covers electric machines including AC and DC machines, various electrical instruments and measurements. The concepts are clearly explained and are supplemented with relevant examples in every chapter.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Part B: Electric Machines
    1. Chapter 31. Electromechanical Energy Conversion
      1. 31.1 Introduction
      2. 31.2 Energy Conversion Devices
      3. 31.3 Related Fundamental Laws
      4. 31.4 D.c. Motor and Generator Mechanical Construction
      5. 31.5 Elementary Generator
      6. 31.6 Average e.m.f. Generated in a Quarter Revolution
      7. 31.7 Fundamental d.c. Generator Equation for Average e.m.f. Between Brushes
      8. 31.8 Biot-Savart Relationship
      9. 31.9 Motor Action Versus Generator Action
      10. 31.10 Power Flow Diagrams
      11. 31.11 Conversion Process in a Machine
      12. 31.12 Linear and Rotary Motion
      13. 31.13 Methods of Analysis
      14. 31.14 Energy Balance
      15. 31.15 Rotary Motion
      16. 31.16 Doubly Excited Rotating Machines
      17. Summary
      18. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      19. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    2. Chapter 32. D.C. Generators
      1. 32.1 Introduction
      2. 32.2 Mechanical Construction
      3. 32.3 Armature Structure
      4. 32.4 Commutator and Brushes
      5. 32.5 Armature Windings
      6. 32.6 Commutation
      7. 32.7 Armature Reaction
      8. 32.8 E.M.F. Equation
      9. 32.9 Separately Excited Generator
      10. 32.10 Basic Generator Types
      11. 32.11 Schematic Diagram and Equivalent Circuit
      12. 32.12 Characteristics of d.c. Generators
      13. 32.13 Generator Losses
      14. 32.14 Polarity of Brushes
      15. 32.15 Voltage Regulation
      16. 32.16 Paralleling of Generators
      17. Summary
      18. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      19. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    3. Chapter 33. D.C. Motors
      1. 33.1 Introduction
      2. 33.2 Development and Measurement of Torque
      3. 33.3 Prony Brake
      4. 33.4 Two-Scale Prony Brake
      5. 33.5 Dynamometer
      6. 33.6 Back Electromotive Force in a Motor
      7. 33.7 Classification of Motors
      8. 33.8 Construction
      9. 33.9 Characteristics of d.c. Motors
      10. 33.10 Relation between Torque and Speed of a Motor
      11. 33.11 Direct-Current, Motor Starting Problems
      12. 33.12 D.c. Starting Switch
      13. 33.13 D.c. Motor Reversing
      14. Summary
      15. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      16. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    4. Chapter 34. Efficiency of Direct Current Machinery
      1. 34.1 Introduction
      2. 34.2 Basic Efficiency Relationships
      3. 34.3 Types of Losses in d.c. Machines
      4. 34.4 Motor Enclosures
      5. 34.5 Maintenance and Accessibility
      6. 34.6 Cooling and Ventilation
      7. Summary
      8. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      9. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    5. Chapter 35. D.C. Motor Control
      1. 35.1 Introduction
      2. 35.2 Control Devices
      3. 35.3 Pilot Control Devices
      4. 35.4 Manual d.c. Motor Starters
      5. 35.5 Automatic Direct-Current Motor Starters
      6. 35.6 Comparison of Manual Versus Automatic Starter
      7. 35.7 Reversing Control of Direct Current Motors
      8. 35.8 Retardation and Stopping
      9. 35.9 Ward-Leonard System
      10. Summary
      11. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      12. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    6. Chapter 36. Transformers—Single Phase
      1. 36.1 Introduction
      2. 36.2 Mutual Coupling
      3. 36.3 Series Connection of Mutually-Coupled Coils
      4. 36.4 Parallel Connection of Mutually Coupled Coils
      5. 36.5 The Dot Convention
      6. 36.6 Preventing Mutual Inducance
      7. 36.7 Transformer
      8. 36.8 Transformer Construction
      9. 36.9 Ideal Transformer
      10. 36.10 Transformation Ratio
      11. 36.11 General Transformer Equation
      12. 36.12 Practical Transformer
      13. 36.13 Transformer Ratings
      14. 36.14 Transformer Equivalent Circuits
      15. 36.15 Secondary Voltage Phasor Relations
      16. 36.16 Transformer Voltage Regulation
      17. 36.17 Maximum Power Transfer
      18. 36.18 Losses in Transformers
      19. 36.19 Short Circuit Test
      20. 36.20 Open Circuit Test
      21. 36.21 Transformer Efficiency
      22. 36.22 Autotransformer
      23. 36.23 Power Transformers
      24. 36.24 Instrument Transformers
      25. 36.25 Pulse Transformers
      26. 36.26 Transformer Connections
      27. Summary
      28. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      29. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    7. Chapter 37. Three-phase Transformers
      1. 37.1 Introduction
      2. 37.2 Three-phase Connections of Single-phase Transformers
      3. 37.3 Three-phase Transformers
      4. 37.4 Paralleling Three-phase Transformer Banks
      5. 37.5 Harmonic Suppression in Three-phase Connections
      6. Summary
      7. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      8. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    8. Chapter 38. Synchronous Generators—Alternators
      1. 38.1 Introduction
      2. 38.2 Physical Construction of d.c. Machines
      3. 38.3 Alternator Windings
      4. 38.4 Synchronous Alternator
      5. 38.5 Stator Windings
      6. 38.6 Distribution Factor
      7. 38.7 Basic Voltage Generation Formula
      8. 38.8 Alternator Performance
      9. 38.9 Alternator Percentage Regulation
      10. 38.10 Relation between Generated Voltage and Terminal Voltage of an Alternator at Various Load Power Factor
      11. 38.11 Equivalent Circuit
      12. 38.12 Parallel Operation
      13. 38.13 Alternator Synchronizing Procedure
      14. Summary
      15. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      16. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    9. Chapter 39. Synchronous Motors
      1. 39.1 Introduction
      2. 39.2 General
      3. 39.3 Synchronous Motor Construction
      4. 39.4 Synchronous Motor Operation
      5. 39.5 Starting Synchronous Motors
      6. 39.6 Synchronous Motor Power Factor Control
      7. 39.7 Synchronous Motor V Curve
      8. 39.8 Synchronous Capacitors
      9. Summary
      10. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      11. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    10. Chapter 40. Induction Motors (Three Phase)
      1. 40.1 Introduction
      2. 40.2 The Rotating Magnetic Field
      3. 40.3 Speed of the Rotating Magnetic Field
      4. 40.4 Direction of Rotation
      5. 40.5 Slip and its Effect on Rotor Frequency and Voltage
      6. 40.6 Construction of a Three-phase Induction Motor
      7. 40.7 Rotor Impedance and Current
      8. 40.8 Locus of the Current
      9. 40.9 Losses and Efficiency
      10. 40.10 Air Gap Power
      11. 40.11 Maximum Torque
      12. 40.12 Induction Motor Torque-Speed Characteristics
      13. 40.13 Wrim and Scim: A Comparison
      14. 40.14 Starting Techniques for Induction Motors
      15. 40.15 Determination of Induction Motor Parameters
      16. Summary
      17. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      18. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    11. Chapter 41. Induction Motors (Single Phase)
      1. 41.1 Introduction
      2. 41.2 Classes of Induction Motors
      3. 41.3 Getting the Rotor Started
      4. 41.4 Construction
      5. 41.5 Phase Splitting
      6. 41.6 Locked-Rotor Torque
      7. 41.7 Resistance-Start Split-Phase Motors
      8. 41.8 Capacitor-Start Split-Phase Motors
      9. 41.9 Reversing Single-Phase Induction Motors
      10. 41.10 Dual-Voltage Operation
      11. 41.11 Shaded-Pole Motors
      12. Summary
      13. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      14. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    12. Chapter 42. Specialized Motors
      1. 42.1 Introduction
      2. 42.2 Reluctance-Start Induction Motor
      3. 42.3 Hysteresis Motors
      4. 42.4 Stepper Motors
      5. 42.5 LIM
      6. 42.6 Universal Motors
      7. Summary
      8. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      9. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    13. Chapter 43. Servos and Synchros
      1. 43.1 Introduction
      2. 43.2 Operational Amplifiers
      3. 43.3 Practical Issues
      4. 43.4 D.c. Servomotors
      5. 43.5 A.c. Servomotors
      6. 43.6 Synchros
      7. Summary
      8. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      9. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    14. Chapter 44. Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Systems
      1. 44.1 Introduction
      2. 44.2 Control System
      3. 44.3 Servomechanisms
      4. 44.4 Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Systems
      5. 44.5 Automation
      6. 44.6 Components of a Control System
      7. 44.7 Transfer Function
      8. 44.8 Regulators and Servomechanisms
      9. 44.9 Transient Periods
      10. 44.10 Damping
      11. 44.11 The Basic Feedback Control System
      12. 44.12 The Integrator
      13. 44.13 Steady-State Operation of a Compound Generator
      14. 44.14 Automatic Frequency Control
      15. Summary
      16. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      17. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    15. Chapter 45. Inverters and Converters
      1. 45.1 Introduction
      2. 45.2 Converting Machines
      3. 45.3 Rectifiers: a.c. to d.c. Conversion
      4. 45.4 Three-phase Full-wave Rectifiers
      5. 45.5 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)
      6. 45.6 Inverters Changing d.c. Voltage to a.c. Voltage
      7. Summary
      8. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      9. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    16. Chapter 46. Controlled Rectifiers
      1. 46.1 Introduction
      2. 46.2 Direct Thyratron Control
      3. 46.3 Thyristor Control of Motors
      4. 46.4 Thyristor Control of Motor
      5. 46.5 Universal Motor Control
      6. 46.6 Complete Control System
      7. Summary
      8. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      9. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    17. Chapter 47. Per-unit System
      1. 47.1 Introduction
      2. 47.2 Resistance as Per Unit Quantity
      3. 47.3 Impedance as a Per-unit Quantity
      4. 47.4 Per-unit Quantities for Three-phase Circuits
      5. 47.5 Per-unit System-Transformer Calculations
      6. Summary
      7. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      8. Conventional Questions (CQ)
  7. Part C: Electrical Measurements
    1. Chapter 48. Measurements and Error
      1. 48.1 Introduction
      2. 48.2 Definitions
      3. 48.3 Accuracy to Measure Electron Performance
      4. 48.4 Factors Affecting Accuracy
      5. 48.5 Measurement Systems
      6. 48.6 Calibration
      7. Summary
      8. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      9. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    2. Chapter 49. Meter Movement
      1. 49.1 Introduction
      2. 49.2 Design Principles
      3. 49.3 Meters
      4. 49.4 Moving-Coil Instruments
      5. 49.5 Classification of Measuring Instruments
      6. 49.6 Gravity Control
      7. 49.7 Moving-Iron Instruments
      8. 49.8 Polarized Moving-Iron Instrument
      9. 49.9 Dynamometer-Type Instruments
      10. 49.10 Induction-Type Instruments
      11. 49.11 Hot-Wire Instruments
      12. 49.12 Thermocouple Instruments
      13. 49.13 Galvanometers
      14. 49.14 The Electrostatic Voltmeter
      15. Summary
      16. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      17. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    3. Chapter 50. Ammeters, Voltmeters and Ohmmeters
      1. 50.1 Introduction
      2. 50.2 Special Features
      3. 50.3 Ammeters
      4. 50.4 Voltmeters
      5. 50.5 Ohmmeters
      6. 50.6 Measurement of Insulation Resistance
      7. Summary
      8. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      9. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    4. Chapter 51. Watt Meters and Energy Meters
      1. 51.1 Introduction
      2. 51.2 Watt Meters
      3. 51.3 Dynamometer-Type Watt Meter
      4. 51.4 Compensating Coil
      5. 51.5 Induction-Type Watt Meters
      6. 51.6 Energy Meters
      7. 51.7 General Classification
      8. 51.8 Direct Current Types
      9. 51.9 Alternating Current Types (Induction Watt-Hour Meters)
      10. 51.10 Poly-Phase Induction Watt-Hour Meters
      11. 51.11 Errors in Energy Meters
      12. 51.12 Measurement of Power in Three-phase Circuits
      13. 51.13 Measurement of Three-phase Power
      14. Summary
      15. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      16. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    5. Chapter 52. Multimeters—V.O.Ms
      1. 52.1 Introduction
      2. 52.2 Direct Current Ranges
      3. 52.3 Direct Voltage Ranges
      4. 52.4 Multi-Range Ohmmeters
      5. 52.5 Alternating Current Ranges
      6. 52.6 Alternating Voltage Ranges
      7. 52.7 V.O.M. Specifications
      8. 52.8 The Simpson Model 260 Multi-Meter
      9. 52.9 Digital Multi-Meters
      10. Summary
      11. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      12. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    6. Chapter 53. The Oscilloscope
      1. 53.1 Introduction
      2. 53.2 CRT
      3. 53.3 Intensity
      4. 53.4 Fluorescent Screen
      5. 53.5 Focusing
      6. 53.6 Deflection
      7. 53.7 Time Base
      8. 53.8 Graticules
      9. 53.9 Block Diagram
      10. Summary
      11. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
      12. Conventional Questions (CQ)
    7. Chapter 54. Oscilloscope Techniques
      1. 54.1 Introduction
      2. 54.2 Preliminary Checks
      3. 54.3 Screen Pattern Obtained with Deflection Voltages
      4. 54.4 Voltage and Current Measurements
      5. Summary
  8. Copyright
  9. Back Cover