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Electrical Engineering: Know It All by Dan Bensky, Walt Kester, Tim Williams, John Bird, Clive Maxfield

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Chapter 11

Analog Electronics

Mike Tooley and Tim Williams

The operational amplifier is the basic building block for analog circuits, and progress in op-amp performance is the “litmus test” for analog IC electronics technology in much the same way as progress in memory devices is for digital electronics technology. This chapter will be devoted to op-amps and comparators, with a tailpiece on voltage references.

11.1 Operational Amplifiers Defined

Operational amplifiers (Figure 11.1) are analog integrated circuits designed for linear amplification that offer near-ideal characteristics (virtually infinite voltage gain and input resistance coupled with low output resistance and wide bandwidth).

Figure 11.1 A typical operational amplifier. This device ...

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