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Electric Power Transmission and Distribution

Book Description

Electric Power Transmission and Distribution is a comprehensive text, designed for undergraduate courses in power systems and transmission and distribution. Written in a simple, easy-to-understand manner, this book introduces the reader to electrical, mechanical and economic aspects of the design and construction of electric power transmission and distribution systems. Some key features of the book include a comprehensive chapter on voltage control; in-depth coverage on transmission-line parameters, performance of short, medium and long transmission lines; exclusive chapters on substations and economical design of power- and distribution systems; precise explanations, supported by examples; photographs that enable students to visualize the components of transmission systems; solved problems using MATLAB; 'Chapter at a Glance' at the end of every chapter to strengthen the learning process.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. 1: Transmission and Distribution: AN Introduction
    1. 1.1 - OVERVIEW
    2. 1.2 - VARIOUS LEVELS OF POWER TRANSMISSION
    3. 1.3 - CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
      1. 1.3.1 - Hydro Power Stations
      2. 1.3.2 - Thermal Power Stations
      3. 1.3.3 - Nuclear Power Stations
      4. 1.3.4 - Diesel Power Stations
    4. 1.4 - LOAD FORECASTING
      1. 1.4.1 - Purpose of Load Forecasting
      2. 1.4.2 - Classification of Load Forecasting
      3. 1.4.3 - Forecasting Procedure
      4. 1.4.4 - Load Characteristics
    5. 1.5 - LOAD MODELLING
      1. 1.5.1 - Characteristics of Load Models
    6. 1.6 - STAR-CONNECTED LOADS
      1. 1.6.1 - Constant Power Model
      2. 1.6.2 - Constant Current Model
      3. 1.6.3 - Constant Impedance Model
    7. 1.7 - DEREGULATION
      1. 1.7.1 - Need for Restructuring
      2. 1.7.2 - Motivation for Restructuring the Power Industry
    8. 1.8 - DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION
  7. 2: Transmission-Line Parameters
    1. 2.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 2.2 - CONDUCTOR MATERIALS
    3. 2.3 - TYPES OF CONDUCTORS
    4. 2.4 - BUNDLED CONDUCTORS
    5. 2.5 - RESISTANCE
    6. 2.6 - CURRENT DISTORTION EFFECT
      1. 2.6.1 - Skin Effect
      2. 2.6.2 - Proximity Effect
      3. 2.6.3 - Spirality Effect
    7. 2.7 - INDUCTANCE
      1. 2.7.1 - Inductance of a Conductor Due to Internal Flux
      2. 2.7.2 - Inductance of a Conductor Due to External Flux
    8. 2.8 - INDUCTANCE OF A SINGLE-PHASE TWO-WIRE SYSTEM
    9. 2.9 - FLUX LINKAGES WITH ONE SUB-CONDUCTOR OF A COMPOSITE CONDUCTOR
    10. 2.10 - INDUCTANCE OF A SINGLE-PHASE SYSTEM (WITH COMPOSITE CONDUCTORS)
    11. 2.11 - INDUCTANCE OF THREE-PHASE LINES
      1. 2.11.1 - Equivalent (Symmetrical) Spacing
      2. 2.11.2 - Unsymmetrical Spacing (Untransposed)
      3. 2.11.3 - Transposition of Overhead Lines
      4. 2.11.4 - Unsymmetrical Spacing (Transposed)
    12. 2.12 - INDUCTANCE OF THREE-PHASE DOUBLE CIRCUIT LINE
      1. 2.12.1 - Inductance of Three-Phase Double-Circuit Line with Symmetrical Spacing (Hexagonal)
      2. 2.12.2 - Inductance of a Three-Phase Transposed Double-Circuit Line with Unsymmetrical Spacing
    13. 2.13 - CAPACITANCE
    14. 2.14 - POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS DUE TO A CHARGE
    15. 2.15 - CAPACITANCE OF A SINGLE-PHASE LINE (TWO-WIRE LINE)
    16. 2.16 - POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO CONDUCTORS OF A GROUP OF CHARGED CONDUCTORS
    17. 2.17 - CAPACITANCE OF THREE-PHASE LINES
      1. 2.17.1 - Equilateral Spacing
      2. 2.17.2 - Capacitance of an Unsymmetrical Three-Phase System (Transposed)
    18. 2.18 - CAPACITANCE OF A THREE-PHASE DOUBLE-CIRCUIT LINE
      1. 2.18.1 - Hexagonal Spacing
      2. 2.18.2 - Flat Vertical Spacing (Unsymmetrical Spacing)
    19. 2.19 - EFFECT OF EARTH ON TRANSMISSION LINE CAPACITANCE
      1. 2.19.1 - Capacitance of a Single Conductor
      2. 2.19.2 - Capacitance of a Single-Phase Transmission Line
      3. 2.19.3 - Capacitance of Three-Phase Line
  8. 3: Performance of Short and Medium Transmission Lines
    1. 3.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 3.2 - REPRESENTATION OF LINES
    3. 3.3 - CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSMISSION LINES
    4. 3.4 - SHORT TRANSMISSION LINE
      1. 3.4.1 - Effect of Power Factor On Regulation and Efficiency
    5. 3.5 - GENERALISED NETWORK CONSTANTS
    6. 3.6 - A, B, C, D CONSTANTS FOR SHORT TRANSMISSION LINES
    7. 3.7 - MEDIUM TRANSMISSION LINE
      1. 3.7.1 - Load End Capacitance Method
      2. 3.7.2 - Nominal-T Method
      3. 3.7.3 - Nominal-π Method
  9. 4: Performance of Long Transmission Lines
    1. 4.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 4.2 - RIGOROUS SOLUTION
    3. 4.3 - INTERPRETATION OF THE LONG LINE EQUATIONS
      1. 4.3.1 - Propagation Constant
      2. 4.3.2 - Wave Length and Velocity of Propagation
    4. 4.4 - EVALUATION OF TRANSMISSION LINE CONSTANTS
    5. 4.5 - REGULATION
    6. 4.6 - EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT REPRESENTATION OF LONG LINES
      1. 4.6.1 - Representation of a Long Line by Equivalent- π Model
      2. 4.6.2 - Representation of a Long Line by Equivalent-T Model
    7. 4.7 - TUNED TRANSMISSION LINES
    8. 4.8 - CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE
    9. 4.9 - SURGE IMPEDANCE LOADING (SIL)
    10. 4.10 - FERRANTI EFFECT
    11. 4.11 - CONSTANT VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION
    12. 4.12 - CHARGING CURRENT IN LINES
      1. 4.12.1 - Power Loss Due to Charging Current (or Open-Circuited Line)
    13. 4.13 - LINE LOADABILITY
    14. 4.14 - POWER FLOW THROUGH A TRANSMISSION LINE
    15. 4.15 - CIRCLE DIAGRAM
      1. 4.15.1 - Receiving-End Phasor Diagram
      2. 4.15.2 - Receiving-End Power Circle Diagram
      3. 4.15.3 - Analytical Method for Receiving-End Power Circle Diagram
      4. 4.15.4 - Sending-End Power Circle Diagram
      5. 4.15.5 - Analytical Method for Sending-End Power Circle Diagram
  10. 5: Transmission Line Transients
    1. 5.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 5.2 - TYPES OF SYSTEM TRANSIENTS
    3. 5.3 - TRAVELLING WAVES ON A TRANSMISSION LINE
    4. 5.4 - THE WAVE EQUATION
    5. 5.5 - EVALUATION OF SURGE IMPEDANCE
    6. 5.6 - IMPORTANCE OF SURGE IMPEDANCE
    7. 5.7 - TRAVELLING WAVE
    8. 5.8 - EVALUATION OF VELOCITY OF WAVE PROPAGATION
    9. 5.9 - REFLECTION AND REFRACTION COEFFICIENT (LINE TERMINATED THROUGH A RESISTANCE)
      1. 5.9.1 - Line Open-Circuited at the Receiving End
      2. 5.9.2 - Line Short-Circuited at the Receiving End
    10. 5.10 - LINE CONNECTED TO A CABLE
    11. 5.11 - REFLECTION AND REFRACTION AT A T-JUNCTION
    12. 5.12 - REACTANCE TERMINATION
      1. 5.12.1 - Line Terminated Through Capacitance
      2. 5.12.2 - Line Terminated Through Inductance
    13. 5.13 - BEWLEY'S LATTICE DIAGRAM
    14. 5.14 - ATTENUATION OF TRAVELLING WAVES
  11. 6: Corona
    1. 6.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 6.2 - THEORY OF CORONA FORMATION (CORONA DISCHARGE)
    3. 6.3 - ELECTRIC STRESS
    4. 6.4 - CRITICAL DISRUPTIVE VOLTAGE
    5. 6.5 - VISUAL CRITICAL VOLTAGE
    6. 6.6 - POWER LOSS DUE TO CORONA
    7. 6.7 - FACTORS AFFECTING CORONA LOSS
      1. 6.7.1 - Electrical Factors
      2. 6.7.2 - Atmospheric Factors
      3. 6.7.3 - Factors Related to the Conductors
    8. 6.8 - METHODS FOR REDUCING CORONA LOSS
    9. 6.9 - ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CORONA
    10. 6.10 - EFFECT OF CORONA ON LINE DESIGN
    11. 6.11 - RADIO INTERFERENCE
    12. 6.12 - AUDIO NOISE
    13. 6.13 - INTERFERENCE WITH COMMUNICATION LINES
      1. 6.13.1 - Electromagnetic Effect
      2. 6.13.2 - Electrostatic Effect
    14. 6.14 - CORONA PHENOMENA IN HVDC LINES
  12. 7: Mechanical Design of Transmission Line
    1. 7.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 7.2 - FACTORS AFFECTING MECHANICAL DESIGN
    3. 7.3 - LINE SUPPORTS
      1. 7.3.1 - Wooden Poles
      2. 7.3.2 - Tubular Steel Poles
      3. 7.3.3 - RCC Poles
      4. 7.3.4 - Latticed Steel Towers
    4. 7.4 - SAG
      1. 7.4.1 - Calculation of Sag at Equal Supports
      2. 7.4.2 - Effect of Ice Covering and Wind Pressure
      3. 7.4.3 - Safety Factor
      4. 7.4.4 - Calculation of Sag at Different Level Supports
    5. 7.5 - STRINGING CHART
    6. 7.6 - EFFECTS AND PREVENTION OF VIBRATIONS (VIBRATIONS AND DAMPERS)
    7. 7.7 - SAG TEMPLATE
    8. 7.8 - CONDUCTOR SPACING AND GROUND CLEARANCE
  13. 8: Overhead Line Insulators
    1. 8.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 8.2 - INSULATOR MATERIALS
    3. 8.3 - TYPES OF INSULATORS
      1. 8.3.1 - Pin Type Insulators
      2. 8.3.2 - Suspension Type Insulator
      3. 8.3.3 - Strain Insulator
      4. 8.3.4 - Shackle Type Insulator
    4. 8.4 - POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OVER A STRING OF SUSPENSION INSULATORS
      1. 8.4.1 - Mathematical Expression for Voltage Distribution
    5. 8.5 - STRING EFFICIENCY
    6. 8.6 - METHODS OF IMPROVING STRING EFFICIENCY
      1. 8.6.1 - Selection of m
      2. 8.6.2 - Grading of Units
      3. 8.6.3 - Guard Ring or Static Shielding
    7. 8.7 - ARCING HORN
    8. 8.8 - TESTING OF INSULATORS
      1. 8.8.1 - Flashover Tests
      2. 8.8.2 - Performance Test
      3. 8.8.3 - Routine Tests
    9. 8.9 - CAUSES OF FAILURE OF INSULATORS
  14. 9: Underground Cables
    1. 9.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 9.2 - GENERAL CONSTRUCTION OF A CABLE
    3. 9.3 - TYPES OF CABLES
      1. 9.3.1 - Low Tension Cables
      2. 9.3.2 - High Tension Cables
      3. 9.3.3 - Super Tension Cables
      4. 9.3.4 - Extra High Tension Cables
    4. 9.4 - ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF UNDERGROUND CABLES OVER OVERHEAD LINES
    5. 9.5 - PROPERTIES OF INSULATING MATERIALS FOR CABLES
      1. 9.5.1 - Insulating Materials
    6. 9.6 - INSULATION RESISTANCE OF CABLES
    7. 9.7 - CAPACITANCE OF A SINGLE-CORE CABLE
    8. 9.8 - DIELECTRIC STRESS IN A CABLE
    9. 9.9 - ECONOMICAL CORE DIAMETER
    10. 9.10 - GRADING OF CABLES
      1. 9.10.1 - Capacitance Grading
      2. 9.10.2 - Intersheath Grading
      3. 9.10.3 - Practical Aspects of Cable Grading
    11. 9.11 - POWER FACTOR IN CABLES (DIELECTRIC POWER FACTOR)
    12. 9.12 - CAPACITANCE OF A THREE-CORE CABLE
      1. 9.12.1 - Measurement of Cc and Cs
    13. 9.13 - HEATING OF CABLES
      1. 9.13.1 - Generation of Heat Within the Cables
    14. 9.14 - THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
      1. 9.14.1 - Current Capacity
    15. 9.15 - TESTING OF CABLES
      1. 9.15.1 - Acceptance Tests at Works
      2. 9.15.2 - Sample Tests at Working
      3. 9.15.3 - Performance Tests
      4. 9.15.4 - Tests On Oil-Filled and Gas-Filled Cables
      5. 9.15.5 - Tests When Installed
      6. 9.15.6 - Tests On Pressurized Cables
    16. 9.16 - LAYING OF CABLES
      1. 9.16.1 - Direct System
      2. 9.16.2 - Draw-In System
      3. 9.16.3 - Solid Systems
    17. 9.17 - CABLE FAULTS
    18. 9.18 - DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY OF CABLES
  15. 10: Power Factor Improvement
    1. 10.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 10.2 - POWER FACTOR
      1. 10.2.1 - Causes of Low Power Factor
      2. 10.2.2 - Effects or Disadvantages of Low Power Factor
    3. 10.3 - ADVANTAGES OF POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT
    4. 10.4 - METHODS OF IMPROVING POWER FACTOR
      1. 10.4.1 - Static Capacitor
      2. 10.4.2 - Synchronous Condenser
      3. 10.4.3 - Phase Advancers
    5. 10.5 - MOST ECONOMICAL POWER FACTOR WHEN THE KILOWATT DEMAND IS CONSTANT
    6. 10.6 - MOST ECONOMICAL POWER FACTOR WHEN THE kVA MAXIMUM DEMAND IS CONSTANT
  16. 11: Voltage Control
    1. 11.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 11.2 - NECESSITY OF VOLTAGE CONTROL
    3. 11.3 - GENERATION AND ABSORPTION OF REACTIVE POWER
    4. 11.4 - LOCATION OF VOLTAGE CONTROL EQUIPMENT
    5. 11.5 - METHODS OF VOLTAGE CONTROL
      1. 11.5.1 - Excitation Control
      2. 11.5.2 - Shunt Capacitors and Reactors
      3. 11.5.3 - Series Capacitors
      4. 11.5.4 - Tap Changing Transformers
      5. 11.5.5 - Booster Transformers
      6. 11.5.6 - Synchronous Condensers
    6. 11.6 - RATING OF SYNCHRONOUS PHASE MODIFIER
  17. 12: Electric Power Supply Systems
    1. 12.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 12.2 - COMPARISON OF CONDUCTOR EFFICIENCIES FOR VARIOUS SYSTEMS
      1. 12.2.1 - Overhead Lines
      2. 12.2.2 - Cable Systems
    3. 12.3 - CHOICE OF SYSTEM FREQUENCY
    4. 12.4 - CHOICE OF SYSTEM VOLTAGE
    5. 12.5 - ADVANTAGES OF HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION
    6. 12.6 - EFFECT OF SUPPLY VOLTAGE
    7. 12.7 - ECONOMIC SIZE OF CONDUCTOR (KELVIN'S LAW)
      1. 12.7.1 - Modification of Kelvin's Law
      2. 12.7.2 - Practical Limitations to the Application of Kelvin's Law
  18. 13: Substations
    1. 13.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 13.2 - FACTORS GOVERNING THE SELECTION OF SITE
    3. 13.3 - CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTATION
      1. 13.3.1 - According to Service
      2. 13.3.2 - According to Design
    4. 13.4 - MERITS AND DEMERITS OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SUBSTATIONS
    5. 13.5 - SUBSTATION EQUIPMENT
    6. 13.6 - TYPES OF BUS BAR ARRANGEMENTS
      1. 13.6.1 - Single Bus Bar
      2. 13.6.2 - Single-Bus Bar System with Sectionalization
      3. 13.6.3 - Double Bus Bar with Single Breaker
      4. 13.6.4 - Double Bus Bar with Two Circuit Breakers
      5. 13.6.5 - Breakers and a Half with Two Main Buses
      6. 13.6.6 - Main and Transfer Bus Bar
      7. 13.6.7 - Double Bus Bar with Bypass Isolator
      8. 13.6.8 - Ring Bus
    7. 13.7 - POLE AND PLINTH-MOUNTED TRANSFORMER SUBSTATIONS
    8. 13.8 - OPTIMAL SUBSTATION LOCATION
      1. 13.8.1 - Perpendicular Bisector Rule
    9. 13.9 - BASIC TERMS OF EARTHING
    10. 13.10 - GROUNDING OR NEUTRAL EARTHING
    11. 13.11 - EARTHING OF SUBSTATIONS
    12. 13.12 - METHODS OF NEUTRAL GROUNDING
      1. 13.12.1 - Solid Grounding or Effective Grounding
      2. 13.12.2 - Resistance Grounding
      3. 13.12.3 - Reactance Grounding
      4. 13.12.4 - Peterson-Coil Grounding
      5. 13.12.5 - Grounding Transformer
    13. 13.13 - GROUNDING GRID
  19. 14: Distribution Systems
    1. 14.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 14.2 - PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION
      1. 14.2.1 - Primary Distribution
      2. 14.2.2 - Secondary Distribution
    3. 14.3 - DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
    4. 14.4 - DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES
      1. 14.4.1 - Factors Effecting Distribution-System Losses
      2. 14.4.2 - Methods for the Reduction of Line Losses
    5. 14.5 - CLASSIFICATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
      1. 14.5.1 - Type of Current
      2. 14.5.2 - Type of Construction
      3. 14.5.3 - Type of Service
      4. 14.5.4 - Number of Wires
      5. 14.5.5 - Scheme of Connection
    6. 14.6 - RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
    7. 14.7 - RING OR LOOP DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
    8. 14.8 - INTERCONNECTED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
    9. 14.9 - DC DISTRIBUTION
      1. 14.9.1 - Distributor Fed at One End with Concentrated Loads
      2. 14.9.2 - Distributor Fed at Both Ends with Concentrated Loads
      3. 14.9.3 - Uniformly Loaded Distributor Fed at One End
      4. 14.9.4 - Uniformly Distributed Load Fed at Both Ends at the Same Voltage
      5. 14.9.5 - Uniformly Distributed Load Fed at Both Ends at Different Voltages
    10. 14.10 - RING DISTRIBUTION
      1. 14.10.1 - Advantages of Using Interconnector
    11. 14.11 - STEPPED DISTRIBUTOR
    12. 14.12 - AC DISTRIBUTION
      1. 14.12.1 - Power Factor Referred to the Receiving-End
      2. 14.12.2 - Power Factor Referred to Respective Load Voltages
    13. 14.13 - AC THREE-PHASE DISTRIBUTION
  20. 15: Ehv and Hvdc Transmission Lines
    1. 15.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 15.2 - NEED OF EHV TRANSMISSION LINES
    3. 15.3 - ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EHV LINES
    4. 15.4 - METHODS OF INCREASING TRANSMISSION CAPABILITY OF EHV LINES
    5. 15.5 - HVDC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
    6. 15.6 - COMPARISON BETWEEN AC AND DC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
      1. 15.6.1 - Economic Advantages
      2. 15.6.2 - Technical Advantages
    7. 15.7 - ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HVDC SYSTEMS
    8. 15.8 - HVDC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
      1. 15.8.1 - Monopolar Link
      2. 15.8.2 - Bipolar Link
      3. 15.8.3 - Homopolar Link
    9. 15.9 - RECTIFICATION
    10. 15.10 - THREE-PHASE BRIDGE CONVERTER
    11. 15.11 - INVERSION
    12. 15.12 - COMPONENTS OF HVDC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
    13. 15.13 - HARMONIC FILTERS
    14. 15.14 - APPLICATION OF HVDC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
  21. 16: Flexible AC Transmission Systems
    1. 16.1 - INTRODUCTION
    2. 16.2 - FACTS
    3. 16.3 - FACTS CONTROLLERS
      1. 16.3.1 - Shunt-Connected Controllers
      2. 16.3.2 - Series-Connected Controllers
      3. 16.3.3 - Combined Shunt and Series-Connected Controllers
    4. 16.4 - CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS
      1. 16.4.1 - FACTS Devices
      2. 16.4.2 - Benefits of Control of Power Systems
      3. 16.4.3 - FACTS Technology: Opportunities
    5. 16.5 - BASIC RELATIONSHIP FOR POWER-FLOW CONTROL
      1. 16.5.1 - Shunt Compensator
      2. 16.5.2 - Thyristor-Controlled Reactor (TCR)
      3. 16.5.3 - Thyristor-Switched Capacitor (TSC)
      4. 16.5.4 - Series Compensator
      5. 16.5.5 - Unified Power-Flow Controller (UPFC)
    6. 16.6 - “FACTS” FOR MINIMIZING GRID INVESTMENTS
    7. 16.7 - VOLTAGE STABILITY
      1. 16.7.1 - Voltage Stability – What is it?
      2. 16.7.2 - Derivation of Voltage Stability Index
  22. Appendix 1: Datasheets
  23. Appendix 2: Answers to Problems
  24. Appendix 3: Answers to Odd Questions
  25. Appendix 4: Solutions Using MATLAB Programs
  26. Glossary
  27. Bibliography
  28. Acknowledgement
  29. Copyright