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Electric Power Distribution Engineering, Third Edition, 3rd Edition

Book Description

A quick scan of any bookstore, library, or online bookseller will produce a multitude of books covering power systems. However, few, if any, are totally devoted to power distribution engineering, and none of them are true textbooks. Filling this vacuum in the power system engineering literature, Electric Power Distribution System Engineering broke new ground.

Written in the classic, self-learning style of the original, Electric Power Distribution Engineering, Third Edition is updated and expanded with:

  • Over 180 detailed numerical examples
  • More than 170 end-of-chapter problems
  • New MATLAB® applications

The Third Edition also features new chapters on:

  • Distributed generation
  • Renewable energy (e.g., wind and solar energies)
  • Modern energy storage systems
  • Smart grids and their applications

Designed specifically for junior- or senior-level electrical engineering courses, the book covers all aspects of distribution engineering from basic system planning and concepts through distribution system protection and reliability. Drawing on decades of experience to provide a text that is as attractive to students as it is useful to professors and practicing engineers, the author demonstrates how to design, analyze, and perform modern distribution system engineering. He takes special care to cover industry terms and symbols, providing a glossary and clearly defining each term when it is introduced. The discussion of distribution planning and design considerations goes beyond the usual analytical and qualitative analysis to emphasize the economical explication and overall impact of the distribution design considerations discussed.

Table of Contents

  1. Preliminaries
  2. Dedication
  3. Preface
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Author
  6. Chapter 1 Distribution System Planning and Automation
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Distribution System Planning
    3. 1.3 Factors Affecting System Planning
      1. 1.3.1 Load Forecasting
      2. 1.3.2 Substation Expansion
      3. 1.3.3 Substation Site Selection
      4. 1.3.4 Other Factors
    4. 1.4 Present Distribution System Planning Techniques
    5. 1.5 Distribution System Planning Models
      1. 1.5.1 Computer Applications
      2. 1.5.2 New Expansion Planning
      3. 1.5.3 Augmentation and Upgrades
      4. 1.5.4 Operational Planning
      5. 1.5.5 Benefits of Optimization Applications
    6. 1.6 Distribution System Planning in the Future
      1. 1.6.1 Economic Factors
      2. 1.6.2 Demographic Factors
      3. 1.6.3 Technological Factors
    7. 1.7 Future Nature of Distribution Planning
      1. 1.7.1 Increasing Importance of Good Planning
      2. 1.7.2 Impacts of Load Management (or Demand-Side Management)
      3. 1.7.3 Cost/Benefit Ratio for Innovation
      4. 1.7.4 New Planning Tools
    8. 1.8 Central Role of the Computer in Distribution Planning
      1. 1.8.1 System Approach
      2. 1.8.2 Database Concept
      3. 1.8.3 New Automated Tools
    9. 1.9 Impact of Dispersed Storage and Generation
    10. 1.10 Distribution System Automation
      1. 1.10.1 Distribution Automation and Control Functions
      2. 1.10.2 Level of Penetration of Distribution Automation
      3. 1.10.3 Alternatives of Communication Systems
    11. 1.11 Summary and Conclusions
    12. References
      1. Figure 1.1
      2. Figure 1.2
      3. Figure 1.3
      4. Figure 1.4
      5. Figure 1.5
      6. Figure 1.6
      7. Figure 1.7
      8. Figure 1.8
      9. Figure 1.9
      10. Figure 1.10
      11. Figure 1.11
      12. Figure 1.12
      13. Figure 1.13
      14. Figure 1.14
      15. Figure 1.15
      16. Figure 1.16
      17. Figure 1.17
      1. Table 1.1
      2. Table 1.2
      3. Table 1.3
      4. Table 1.4
      5. Table 1.5
      6. Table 1.6
  7. Chapter 2 Load Characteristics
    1. 2.1 Basic Definitions
    2. 2.2 Relationship between the Load and Loss Factors
    3. 2.3 Maximum Diversified Demand
    4. 2.4 Load Forecasting
      1. 2.4.1 Box–Jenkins Methodology
      2. 2.4.2 Small-Area Load Forecasting
      3. 2.4.3 Spatial Load Forecasting
    5. 2.5 Load Management
    6. 2.6 Rate Structure
      1. 2.6.1 Customer Billing
      2. 2.6.2 Fuel Cost Adjustment
    7. 2.7 Electric Meter Types
      1. 2.7.1 Electronic (or Digital) Meters
      2. 2.7.2 Reading Electric Meters
      3. 2.7.3 Instantaneous Load Measurements Using Electromechanical Watthour Meters
    8. Problems
    9. References
      1. Figure 2.1
      2. Figure 2.2
      3. Figure 2.3
      4. Figure 2.4
      5. Figure 2.5
      6. Figure 2.6
      7. Figure 2.7
      8. Figure 2.8
      9. Figure 2.9
      10. Figure 2.10
      11. Figure 2.11
      12. Figure 2.12
      13. Figure 2.13
      14. Figure 2.14
      15. Figure 2.15
      16. Figure 2.16
      17. Figure 2.17
      18. Figure 2.18
      19. Figure 2.19
      20. Figure 2.20
      21. Figure 2.21
      22. Figure 2.22
      23. Figure 2.23
      24. Figure 2.24
      25. Figure 2.25
      1. Table 2.1
      2. Table 2.2
      3. Table 2.3
      4. Table 2.4
      5. Table 2.5
      6. Table P.2.1
  8. Chapter 3 Application of Distribution Transformers
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Types of Distribution Transformers
    3. 3.3 Regulation
    4. 3.4 Transformer Efficiency
    5. 3.5 Terminal or Lead Markings
    6. 3.6 Transformer Polarity
    7. 3.7 Distribution Transformer Loading Guides
    8. 3.8 Equivalent Circuits of a Transformer
    9. 3.9 Single-Phase Transformer Connections
      1. 3.9.1 General
      2. 3.9.2 Single-Phase Transformer Paralleling
    10. 3.10 Three-Phase Connections
      1. 3.10.1 Δ–Δ Transformer Connection
      2. 3.10.2 Open-Δ Open-Δ Transformer Connection
      3. 3.10.3 Y–Y Transformer Connection
      4. 3.10.4 Y–Δ Transformer Connection
      5. 3.10.5 Open-Y Open-Δ Transformer Connection
      6. 3.10.6 Δ–Y Transformer Connection
    11. 3.11 Three-Phase Transformers
    12. 3.12 T or Scott Connection
    13. 3.13 Autotransformer
    14. 3.14 Booster Transformers
    15. 3.15 Amorphous Metal Distribution Transformers
    16. 3.16 Nature of Zero-Sequence Currents
    17. 3.17 Zigzag Power Transformers
    18. 3.18 Grounding Transformers Used in the Utility Systems
    19. 3.19 Protection Scheme of a Distribution Feeder Circuit
    20. Problems
    21. References
      1. Figure 3.1
      2. Figure 3.2
      3. Figure 3.3
      4. Figure 3.4
      5. Figure 3.5
      6. Figure 3.6
      7. Figure 3.7
      8. Figure 3.8
      9. Figure 3.9
      10. Figure 3.10
      11. Figure 3.11
      12. Figure 3.12
      13. Figure 3.13
      14. Figure 3.14
      15. Figure 3.15
      16. Figure 3.16
      17. Figure 3.17
      18. Figure 3.18
      19. Figure 3.19
      20. Figure 3.20
      21. Figure 3.21
      22. Figure 3.22
      23. Figure 3.23
      24. Figure 3.24
      25. Figure 3.25
      26. Figure 3.26
      27. Figure 3.27
      28. Figure 3.28
      29. Figure 3.29
      30. Figure 3.30
      31. Figure 3.31
      32. Figure 3.32
      33. Figure 3.33
      34. Figure 3.34
      35. Figure 3.35
      36. Figure 3.36
      37. Figure 3.37
      38. Figure 3.38
      39. Figure 3.39
      40. Figure 3.40
      41. Figure 3.41
      42. Figure 3.42
      43. Figure 3.43
      44. Figure 3.44
      45. Figure 3.45
      46. Figure 3.46
      47. Figure 3.47
      48. Figure 3.48
      49. Figure 3.49
      50. Figure 3.50
      51. Figure 3.51
      52. Figure 3.52
      53. Figure 3.53
      54. Figure 3.54
      55. Figure 3.55
      56. Figure 3.56
      57. Figure 3.57
      58. Figure 3.58
      59. Figure 3.59
      60. Figure 3.60
      61. Figure 3.61
      62. Figure 3.62
      63. Figure 3.63
      64. Figure 3.64
      65. Figure 3.65
      66. Figure 3.66
      67. Figure 3.67
      68. Figure 3.68
      69. Figure 3.69
      70. Figure 3.70
      71. Figure 3.71
      72. Figure 3.72
      73. Figure 3.73
      74. Figure 3.74
      75. Figure 3.75
      76. Figure 3.76
      77. Figure 3.77
      78. Figure 3.78
      79. Figure 3.79
      80. Figure 3.80
      81. Figure 3.81
      82. Figure 3.82
      83. Figure 3.83
      84. Figure 3.84
      85. Figure 3.85
      86. Figure 3.86
      87. Figure 3.87
      88. Figure 3.88
      89. Figure P3.1
      90. Figure P3.3
      91. Figure P3.6
      92. Figure P3.7
      93. Figure P3.8
      1. Table 3.1
      2. Table 3.2
      3. Table 3.3
      4. Table 3.4
      5. Table 3.5
      6. Table 3.6
  9. Chapter 4 Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Subtransmission
      1. 4.2.1 Subtransmission Line Costs
    3. 4.3 Distribution Substations
      1. 4.3.1 Substation Costs
    4. 4.4 Substation Bus Schemes
    5. 4.5 Substation Location
    6. 4.6 Rating of a Distribution Substation
    7. 4.7 General Case: Substation Service Area with n Primary Feeders
    8. 4.8 Comparison of the Four- and Six-Feeder Patterns
    9. 4.9 Derivation of the K Constant
    10. 4.10 Substation Application Curves
    11. 4.11 Interpretation of Percent Voltage Drop Formula
    12. 4.12 Capability of Facilities
    13. 4.13 Substation Grounding
      1. 4.13.1 Electric Shock and Its Effects on Humans
      2. 4.13.2 Ground Resistance
      3. 4.13.3 Reduction of Factor C<span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cSubscript">s</span>
      4. 4.13.4 Soil Resistivity Measurements
        1. 4.13.4.1 Wenner Four-Pin Method
        2. 4.13.4.2 Three-Pin or Driven Ground Rod Method
    14. 4.14 Substation Grounding
    15. 4.15 Ground Conductor Sizing Factors
    16. 4.16 Mesh Voltage Design Calculations
    17. 4.17 Step Voltage Design Calculations
    18. 4.18 Types of Ground Faults
      1. 4.18.1 Line-to-Line-to-Ground Fault
      2. 4.18.2 Single Line-to-Ground Fault
    19. 4.19 Ground Potential Rise
    20. 4.20 Transmission Line Grounds
    21. 4.21 Types of Grounding
    22. 4.22 Transformer Classifications
    23. Problems
    24. References
      1. Figure 4.1
      2. Figure 4.2
      3. Figure 4.3
      4. Figure 4.4
      5. Figure 4.5
      6. Figure 4.6
      7. Figure 4.7
      8. Figure 4.8
      9. Figure 4.9
      10. Figure 4.10
      11. Figure 4.11
      12. Figure 4.12
      13. Figure 4.13
      14. Figure 4.14
      15. Figure 4.15
      16. Figure 4.16
      17. Figure 4.17
      18. Figure 4.18
      19. Figure 4.19
      20. Figure 4.20
      21. Figure 4.21
      22. Figure 4.22
      23. Figure 4.23
      24. Figure 4.24
      25. Figure 4.25
      26. Figure 4.26
      27. Figure 4.27
      28. Figure 4.28
      29. Figure 4.29
      30. Figure 4.30
      31. Figure 4.31
      32. Figure 4.32
      33. Figure 4.33
      34. Figure 4.34
      35. Figure 4.35
      36. Figure 4.36
      37. Figure 4.37
      38. Figure 4.38
      39. Figure 4.39
      40. Figure 4.40
      41. Figure 4.41
      42. Figure 4.42
      43. Figure 4.43
      44. Figure 4.44
      45. Figure 4.45
      46. Figure 4.46
      47. Figure 4.47
      48. Figure 4.48
      49. Figure 4.49
      50. Figure 4.50
      51. Figure 4.51
      52. Figure 4.52
      53. Figure 4.53
      54. Figure 4.54
      55. Figure 4.55
      56. Figure 4.56
      57. Figure 4.57
      58. Figure 4.58
      59. Figure 4.59
      60. Figure 4.60
      1. Table 4.1
      2. Table 4.2
      3. Table 4.3
      4. Table 4.4
      5. Table 4.5
      6. Table 4.6
      7. Table 4.7
      8. Table 4.8
      9. Table 4.9
      10. Table 4.10
      11. Table 4.11
      12. Table 4.12
      13. Table 4.13
  10. Chapter 5 Design Considerations of Primary Systems
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Radial-Type Primary Feeder
    3. 5.3 Loop-Type Primary Feeder
    4. 5.4 Primary Network
    5. 5.5 Primary-Feeder Voltage Levels
    6. 5.6 Primary-Feeder Loading
    7. 5.7 Tie Lines
    8. 5.8 Distribution Feeder Exit: Rectangular-Type Development
    9. 5.9 Radial-Type Development
    10. 5.10 Radial Feeders with Uniformly Distributed Load
    11. 5.11 Radial Feeders with Nonuniformly Distributed Load
    12. 5.12 Application of the A, B, C, D General Circuit Constants to Radial Feeders
    13. 5.13 Design of Radial Primary Distribution Systems
      1. 5.13.1 Overhead Primaries
      2. 5.13.2 Underground Residential Distribution
    14. 5.14 Primary System Costs
    15. Problems
    16. References
      1. Figure 5.1
      2. Figure 5.2
      3. Figure 5.3
      4. Figure 5.4
      5. Figure 5.5
      6. Figure 5.6
      7. Figure 5.7
      8. Figure 5.8
      9. Figure 5.9
      10. Figure 5.10
      11. Figure 5.11
      12. Figure 5.12
      13. Figure 5.13
      14. Figure 5.14
      15. Figure 5.15
      16. Figure 5.16
      17. Figure 5.17
      18. Figure 5.18
      19. Figure 5.19
      20. Figure 5.20
      21. Figure 5.21
      22. Figure 5.22
      23. Figure 5.23
      24. Figure 5.24
      25. Figure 5.25
      26. Figure 5.26
      27. Figure 5.27
      28. Figure 5.28
      29. Figure 5.29
      30. Figure 5.30
      31. Figure 5.31
      32. Figure 5.32
      33. Figure 5.33
      34. Figure 5.34
      35. Figure 5.35
      36. Figure 5.36
      37. Figure 5.37
      1. Table 5.1
      2. Table 5.2
      3. Table 5.3
  11. Chapter 6 Design Considerations of Secondary Systems
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Secondary Voltage Levels
    3. 6.3 Present Design Practice
    4. 6.4 Secondary Banking
    5. 6.5 Secondary Networks
      1. 6.5.1 Secondary Mains
      2. 6.5.2 Limiters
      3. 6.5.3 Network Protectors
      4. 6.5.4 High-Voltage Switch
      5. 6.5.5 Network Transformers
      6. 6.5.6 Transformer Application Factor
    6. 6.6 Spot Networks
    7. 6.7 Economic Design of Secondaries
      1. 6.7.1 Patterns and Some of the Variables
      2. 6.7.2 Further Assumptions
      3. 6.7.3 General TAC Equation
      4. 6.7.4 Illustrating the Assembly of Cost Data
      5. 6.7.5 Illustrating the Estimation of Circuit Loading
      6. 6.7.6 Developed Total Annual Cost Equation
      7. 6.7.7 Minimization of the Total Annual Costs
      8. 6.7.8 Other Constraints
    8. 6.8 Unbalanced Load and Voltages
    9. 6.9 Secondary System Costs
    10. Problems
    11. References
      1. Figure 6.1
      2. Figure 6.2
      3. Figure 6.3
      4. Figure 6.4
      5. Figure 6.5
      6. Figure 6.6
      7. Figure 6.7
      8. Figure 6.8
      9. Figure 6.9
      10. Figure 6.10
      11. Figure 6.11
      12. Figure 6.12
      13. Figure 6.13
      14. Figure 6.14
      15. Figure 6.15
      16. Figure 6.16
      17. Figure 6.17
      1. Table 6.1
      2. Table 6.2
      3. Table 6.3
      4. Table 6.4
      5. Table 6.5
  12. Chapter 7 Voltage-Drop and Power-Loss Calculations
    1. 7.1 Three-Phase Balanced Primary Lines
    2. 7.2 Non-three-phase Primary Lines
      1. 7.2.1 Single-Phase Two-Wire Laterals with Ungrounded Neutral
      2. 7.2.2 Single-Phase Two-Wire Ungrounded Laterals
      3. 7.2.3 Single-Phase Two-Wire Laterals with Multigrounded Common Neutrals
      4. 7.2.4 Two-Phase Plus Neutral (Open-Wye) Laterals
    3. 7.3 Four-Wire Multigrounded Common Neutral Distribution System
    4. 7.4 Percent Power (or Copper) Loss
    5. 7.5 Method to Analyze Distribution Costs
      1. 7.5.1 Annual Equivalent of Investment Cost
      2. 7.5.2 Annual Equivalent of Energy Cost
      3. 7.5.3 Annual Equivalent of Demand Cost
      4. 7.5.4 Levelized Annual Cost
    6. 7.6 Economic Analysis of Equipment Losses
    7. Problems
    8. References
      1. Figure 7.1
      2. Figure 7.2
      3. Figure 7.3
      4. Figure 7.4
      5. Figure 7.5
      6. Figure 7.6
      7. Figure 7.7
      8. Figure 7.8
      9. Figure 7.9
      10. Figure 7.10
      11. Figure 7.11
      12. Figure 7.12
      13. Figure 7.13
      14. Figure 7.14
      15. Figure 7.15
      16. Figure 7.16
      17. Figure 7.17
      18. Figure 7.18
      19. Figure P7.1
      20. Figure P7.7
      21. Figure P7.11
      1. Table 7.1
      2. Table 7.2
      3. Table 7.3
      4. Table 7.4
      5. Table 7.5
      6. Table 7.6
      7. Table 7.7
  13. Chapter 8 Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems
    1. 8.1 Basic Definitions
    2. 8.2 Power Capacitors
    3. 8.3 Effects of Series and Shunt Capacitors
      1. 8.3.1 Series Capacitors
        1. 8.3.1.1 Overcompensation
        2. 8.3.1.2 Leading Power Factor
      2. 8.3.2 Shunt Capacitors
    4. 8.4 Power Factor Correction
      1. 8.4.1 General
      2. 8.4.2 Concept of Leading and Lagging Power Factors
      3. 8.4.3 Economic Power Factor
      4. 8.4.4 Use of a Power Factor Correction Table
      5. 8.4.5 Alternating Cycles of a Magnetic Field
      6. 8.4.6 Power Factor of a Group of Loads
      7. 8.4.7 Practical Methods Used by the Power Industry for Power Factor Improvement Calculations
      8. 8.4.8 Real Power-Limited Equipment
      9. 8.4.9 Computerized Method to Determine the Economic Power Factor
    5. 8.5 Application of Capacitors
      1. 8.5.1 Capacitor Installation Types
      2. 8.5.2 Types of Controls for Switched Shunt Capacitors
      3. 8.5.3 Types of Three-Phase Capacitor-Bank Connections
    6. 8.6 Economic Justification for Capacitors
      1. 8.6.1 Benefits due to Released Generation Capacity
      2. 8.6.2 Benefits due to Released Transmission Capacity
      3. 8.6.3 Benefits due to Released Distribution Substation Capacity
      4. 8.6.4 Benefits due to Reduced Energy Losses
      5. 8.6.5 Benefits due to Reduced Voltage Drops
      6. 8.6.6 Benefits due to Released Feeder Capacity
      7. 8.6.7 Financial Benefits due to Voltage Improvement
      8. 8.6.8 Total Financial Benefits due to Capacitor Installations
    7. 8.7 Practical Procedure to Determine the Best Capacitor Location
    8. 8.8 Mathematical Procedure to Determine the Optimum Capacitor Allocation
      1. 8.8.1 Loss Reduction due to Capacitor Allocation
        1. 8.8.1.1 Case 1: One Capacitor Bank
        2. 8.8.1.2 Case 2: Two Capacitor Banks
        3. 8.8.1.3 Case 3: Three Capacitor Banks
        4. 8.8.1.4 Case 4: Four Capacitor Banks
        5. 8.8.1.5 Case 5: n Capacitor Banks
      2. 8.8.2 Optimum Location of a Capacitor Bank
      3. 8.8.3 Energy Loss Reduction due to Capacitors
      4. 8.8.4 Relative Ratings of Multiple Fixed Capacitors
      5. 8.8.5 General Savings Equation for Any Number of Fixed Capacitors
    9. 8.9 Further Thoughts on Capacitors and Improving Power Factors
    10. 8.10 Capacitor Tank–Rupture Considerations
    11. 8.11 Dynamic Behavior of Distribution Systems
      1. 8.11.1 Ferroresonance
      2. 8.11.2 Harmonics on Distribution Systems
    12. Problems
    13. References
      1. Figure 8.1
      2. Figure 8.2
      3. Figure 8.3
      4. Figure 8.4
      5. Figure 8.5
      6. Figure 8.6
      7. Figure 8.7
      8. Figure 8.8
      9. Figure 8.9
      10. Figure 8.10
      11. Figure 8.11
      12. Figure 8.12
      13. Figure 8.13
      14. Figure 8.14
      15. Figure 8.15
      16. Figure 8.16
      17. Figure 8.17
      18. Figure 8.18
      19. Figure 8.19
      20. Figure 8.20
      21. Figure 8.21
      22. Figure 8.22
      23. Figure 8.23
      24. Figure 8.24
      25. Figure 8.25
      26. Figure 8.26
      27. Figure 8.27
      28. Figure 8.28
      29. Figure 8.29
      30. Figure 8.30
      31. Figure 8.31
      32. Figure 8.32
      33. Figure 8.33
      34. Figure 8.34
      35. Figure 8.35
      36. Figure 8.36
      37. Figure 8.37
      38. Figure 8.38
      39. Figure 8.39
      40. Figure 8.40
      41. Figure 8.41
      42. Figure 8.42
      43. Figure 8.43
      44. Figure 8.44
      45. Figure 8.45
      46. Figure 8.46
      47. Figure 8.47
      48. Figure 8.48
      49. Figure 8.49
      50. Figure 8.50
      51. Figure 8.51
      52. Figure 8.52
      1. Table 8.1
      2. Table 8.2
      3. Table 8.3
      4. Table 8.4
      5. Table 8.5
      6. Table 8.6
      7. Table P8.5
  14. Chapter 9 Distribution System Voltage Regulation
    1. 9.1 Basic Definitions
    2. 9.2 Quality of Service and Voltage Standards
    3. 9.3 Voltage Control
    4. 9.4 Feeder Voltage Regulators
    5. 9.5 Line-Drop Compensation
    6. 9.6 Distribution Capacitor Automation
    7. 9.7 Voltage Fluctuations
      1. 9.7.1 Shortcut Method to Calculate the Voltage Dips due to a Single-Phase Motor Start
      2. 9.7.2 Shortcut Method to Calculate the Voltage Dips due to a Three-Phase Motor Start
    8. Problems
    9. References
      1. Figure 9.1
      2. Figure 9.2
      3. Figure 9.3
      4. Figure 9.4
      5. Figure 9.5
      6. Figure 9.6
      7. Figure 9.7
      8. Figure 9.8
      9. Figure 9.9
      10. Figure 9.10
      11. Figure 9.11
      12. Figure 9.12
      13. Figure 9.13
      14. Figure 9.14
      15. Figure 9.15
      16. Figure 9.16
      17. Figure 9.17
      18. Figure 9.18
      19. Figure 9.19
      20. Figure 9.20
      21. Figure 9.21
      22. Figure 9.22
      23. Figure P9.10
      24. Figure P9.12
      25. Figure P9.13
      1. Table 9.1
      2. Table 9.2
      3. Table 9.3
      4. Table 9.4
      5. Table 9.5
      6. Table 9.6
      7. Table 9.7
      8. Table P9.10
  15. Chapter 10 Distribution System Protection
    1. 10.1 Basic Definitions
    2. 10.2 Overcurrent Protection Devices
      1. 10.2.1 Fuses
      2. 10.2.2 Automatic Circuit Reclosers
      3. 10.2.3 Automatic Line Sectionalizers
      4. 10.2.4 Automatic Circuit Breakers
    3. 10.3 Objective of Distribution System Protection
    4. 10.4 Coordination of Protective Devices
    5. 10.5 Fuse-to-Fuse Coordination
    6. 10.6 Recloser-to-Recloser Coordination
    7. 10.7 Recloser-to-Fuse Coordination
    8. 10.8 Recloser-to-Substation Transformer High-Side Fuse Coordination
    9. 10.9 Fuse-to-Circuit-Breaker Coordination
    10. 10.10 Recloser-to-Circuit-Breaker Coordination
    11. 10.11 Fault-Current Calculations
      1. 10.11.1 Three-Phase Faults
      2. 10.11.2 Line-to-Line Faults
      3. 10.11.3 Single Line-to-Ground Faults
      4. 10.11.4 Components of the Associated Impedance to the Fault
      5. 10.11.5 Sequence-Impedance Tables for the Application of Symmetrical Components
    12. 10.12 Fault-Current Calculations in Per Units
    13. 10.13 Secondary-System Fault-Current Calculations
      1. 10.13.1 Single-Phase 120/240 V Three-Wire Secondary Service
      2. 10.13.2 Three-Phase 240/120 or 480/240 V Wye–Delta or Delta–Delta Four-Wire Secondary Service
      3. 10.13.3 Three-Phase 240/120 or 480/240 V Open-Wye Primary and Four-Wire Open-Delta Secondary Service
      4. 10.13.4 Three-Phase 208Y/120 V, 480Y/277 V, or 832Y/480 V Four-Wire Wye–Wye Secondary Service
    14. 10.14 High-Impedance Faults
    15. 10.15 Lightning Protection
      1. 10.15.1 A Brief Review of Lightning Phenomenon
      2. 10.15.2 Lightning Surges
      3. 10.15.3 Lightning Protection
      4. 10.15.4 Basic Lightning Impulse Level
      5. 10.15.5 Determining the Expected Number of Strikes on a Line
    16. 10.16 Insulators
    17. Problems
    18. References
      1. Figure 10.1
      2. Figure 10.2
      3. Figure 10.3
      4. Figure 10.4
      5. Figure 10.5
      6. Figure 10.6
      7. Figure 10.7
      8. Figure 10.8
      9. Figure 10.9
      10. Figure 10.10
      11. Figure 10.11
      12. Figure 10.12
      13. Figure 10.13
      14. Figure 10.14
      15. Figure 10.15
      16. Figure 10.16
      17. Figure 10.17
      18. Figure 10.18
      19. Figure 10.19
      20. Figure 10.20
      21. Figure 10.21
      22. Figure 10.22
      23. Figure 10.23
      24. Figure 10.24
      25. Figure 10.25
      26. Figure 10.26
      27. Figure 10.27
      28. Figure 10.28
      29. Figure 10.29
      30. Figure 10.30
      31. Figure 10.31
      32. Figure 10.32
      33. Figure 10.33
      34. Figure 10.34
      35. Figure 10.35
      36. Figure 10.36
      37. Figure 10.37
      38. Figure 10.38
      39. Figure 10.39
      40. Figure 10.40
      41. Figure 10.41
      42. Figure P10.1
      1. Table 10.1
      2. Table 10.2
      3. Table 10.3
      4. Table 10.4
      5. Table 10.5
      6. Table 10.6
      7. Table 10.7
      8. Table 10.8
      9. Table 10.9
      10. Table 10.10
      11. Table 10.11
      12. Table 10.12
      13. Table 10.13
      14. Table 10.14
  16. Chapter 11 Distribution System Reliability
    1. 11.1 Basic Definitions
    2. 11.2 National Electric Reliability Council
    3. 11.3 Appropriate Levels of Distribution Reliability
    4. 11.4 Basic Reliability Concepts and Mathematics
      1. 11.4.1 General Reliability Function
      2. 11.4.2 Basic Single-Component Concepts
    5. 11.5 Series Systems
      1. 11.5.1 Unrepairable Components in Series
      2. 11.5.2 Repairable Components in Series
    6. 11.6 Parallel Systems
      1. 11.6.1 Unrepairable Components in Parallel
      2. 11.6.2 Repairable Components in Parallel
    7. 11.7 Series and Parallel Combinations
    8. 11.8 Markov Processes
      1. 11.8.1 Chapman–Kolmogorov Equations
      2. 11.8.2 Classification of States in Markov Chains
    9. 11.9 Development of the State-Transition Model to Determine the Steady-State Probabilities
    10. 11.10 Distribution Reliability Indices
    11. 11.11 Sustained Interruption Indices
      1. 11.11.1 SAIFI
      2. 11.11.2 SAIDI
      3. 11.11.3 CAIDI
      4. 11.11.4 CTAIDI
      5. 11.11.5 CAIFI
      6. 11.11.6 ASAI
      7. 11.11.7 ASIFI
      8. 11.11.8 ASIDI
      9. 11.11.9 CEMIn
    12. 11.12 Other Indices (Momentary)
      1. 11.12.1 MAIFI
      2. 11.12.2 MAIFIE
      3. 11.12.3 CEMSMIn
    13. 11.13 Load- and Energy-Based Indices
      1. 11.13.1 ENS
      2. 11.13.2 AENS
      3. 11.13.3 ACCI
    14. 11.14 Usage of Reliability Indices
    15. 11.15 Benefits of Reliability Modeling in System Performance
    16. 11.16 Economics of Reliability Assessment
    17. Problems
    18. References
      1. Figure 11.1
      2. Figure 11.2
      3. Figure 11.3
      4. Figure 11.4
      5. Figure 11.5
      6. Figure 11.6
      7. Figure 11.7
      8. Figure 11.8
      9. Figure 11.9
      10. Figure 11.10
      11. Figure 11.11
      12. Figure 11.12
      13. Figure 11.13
      14. Figure 11.14
      15. Figure 11.15
      16. Figure 11.16
      17. Figure 11.17
      18. Figure 11.18
      19. Figure 11.19
      20. Figure 11.20
      21. Figure 11.21
      22. Figure 11.22
      23. Figure 11.23
      24. Figure 11.24
      25. Figure P11.12
      26. Figure P11.13
      27. Figure P11.14
      1. Table 11.1
      2. Table 11.2
      3. Table 11.3
      4. Table 11.4
      5. Table 11.5
      6. Table 11.6
      7. Table P11.29A
      8. Table P11.29B
      9. Table P11.30A
      10. Table P11.30B
      11. Table P11.30C
  17. Chapter 12 Electric Power Quality
    1. 12.1 Basic Definitions
    2. 12.2 Definition of Electric Power Quality
    3. 12.3 Classification of Power Quality
    4. 12.4 Types of Disturbances
      1. 12.4.1 Harmonic Distortion
      2. 12.4.2 CBEMA and ITI Curves
    5. 12.5 Measurements of Electric Power Quality
      1. 12.5.1 RMS Voltage and Current
      2. 12.5.2 Distribution Factors
      3. 12.5.3 Active (Real) and Reactive Power
      4. 12.5.4 Apparent Power
      5. 12.5.5 Power Factor
      6. 12.5.6 Current and Voltage Crest Factors
      7. 12.5.7 Telephone Interference and the I · T Product
    6. 12.6 Power in Passive Elements
      1. 12.6.1 Power in a Pure Resistance
      2. 12.6.2 Power in a Pure Inductance
      3. 12.6.3 Power in a Pure Capacitance
    7. 12.7 Harmonic Distortion Limits
      1. 12.7.1 Voltage Distortion Limits
      2. 12.7.2 Current Distortion Limits
    8. 12.8 Effects of Harmonics
    9. 12.9 Sources of Harmonics
    10. 12.10 Derating Transformers
      1. 12.10.1 K-Factor
      2. 12.10.2 Transformer Derating
    11. 12.11 Neutral Conductor Overloading
    12. 12.12 Capacitor Banks and Power Factor Correction
    13. 12.13 Short-Circuit Capacity or MVA
    14. 12.14 System Response Characteristics
      1. 12.14.1 System Impedance
      2. 12.14.2 Capacitor Impedance
    15. 12.15 Bus Voltage Rise and Resonance
    16. 12.16 Harmonic Amplification
    17. 12.17 Resonance
      1. 12.17.1 Series Resonance
      2. 12.17.2 Parallel Resonance
      3. 12.17.3 Effects of Harmonics on the Resonance
      4. 12.17.4 Practical Examples of Resonance Circuits
    18. 12.18 Harmonic Control Solutions
      1. 12.18.1 Passive Filters
      2. 12.18.2 Active Filters
    19. 12.19 Harmonic Filter Design
      1. 12.19.1 Series-Tuned Filters
      2. 12.19.2 Second-Order Damped Filters
    20. 12.20 Load Modeling in the Presence of Harmonics
      1. 12.20.1 Impedance in the Presence of Harmonics
      2. 12.20.2 Skin Effect
      3. 12.20.3 Load Models
    21. Problems
    22. References
      1. Figure 12.1
      2. Figure 12.2
      3. Figure 12.3
      4. Figure 12.4
      5. Figure 12.5
      6. Figure 12.6
      7. Figure 12.7
      8. Figure 12.8
      9. Figure 12.9
      10. Figure 12.10
      11. Figure 12.11
      12. Figure 12.12
      13. Figure 12.13
      14. Figure 12.14
      15. Figure 12.15
      16. Figure 12.16
      1. Table 12.1
      2. Table 12.2
      3. Table 12.3
      4. Table 12.4
      5. Table 12.5
      6. Table 12.6
      7. Table 12.7
      8. Table 12.8
      9. Table 12.9
      10. Table 12.10
      11. Table 12.11
      12. Table 12.12
      13. Table P12.5
  18. Chapter 13 Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Renewable Energy
    3. 13.3 Impact of Dispersed Storage and Generation
    4. 13.4 Integrating Renewables into Power Systems
    5. 13.5 Distributed Generation
    6. 13.6 Renewable Energy Penetration
    7. 13.7 Active Distribution Network
    8. 13.8 Concept of Microgrid
    9. 13.9 Wind Energy and Wind Energy Conversion System
      1. 13.9.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy Conversion Systems
      2. 13.9.2 Advantages of a Wind Energy Conversion System
      3. 13.9.3 Disadvantages of a Wind Energy Conversion System
      4. 13.9.4 Categories of Wind Turbines
      5. 13.9.5 Types of Generators Used in Wind Turbines
      6. 13.9.6 Wind Turbine Operating Systems
        1. 13.9.6.1 Constant-Speed Wind Turbines
        2. 13.9.6.2 Variable-Speed Wind Turbines
      7. 13.9.7 Meteorology of Wind
        1. 13.9.7.1 Power in the Wind
      8. 13.9.8 Effects of a Wind Force
      9. 13.9.9 Impact of Tower Height on Wind Power
      10. 13.9.10 Wind Measurements
      11. 13.9.11 Characteristics of a Wind Generator
      12. 13.9.12 Efficiency and Performance
      13. 13.9.13 Efficiency of a Wind Turbine
        1. 13.9.13.1 Generator Efficiency
        2. 13.9.13.2 Gearbox
        3. 13.9.13.3 Overall Efficiency
        4. 13.9.13.4 Other Factors to Define the Efficiency
      14. 13.9.14 Grid Connection
      15. 13.9.15 Some Further Issues Related to Wind Energy
      16. 13.9.16 Development of Transmission System for Wind Energy in the United States
      17. 13.9.17 Energy Storage
      18. 13.9.18 Wind Power Forecasting
    10. 13.10 Solar Energy
      1. 13.10.1 Solar Energy Systems
      2. 13.10.2 Crystalline Silicon
      3. 13.10.3 Effect of Sunlight on Solar Cell’s Performance
      4. 13.10.4 Effects of Changing Strength of the Sun on a Solar Cell
      5. 13.10.5 Temperature’s Effect on Cell Characteristics
      6. 13.10.6 Efficiency of Solar Cells
      7. 13.10.7 Interconnection of Solar Cells
      8. 13.10.8 Overall System Configuration
      9. 13.10.9 Thin-Film PV
      10. 13.10.10 Concentrating PV
      11. 13.10.11 PV Balance of Systems
      12. 13.10.12 Types of Conversion Technologies
      13. 13.10.13 Linear CSP Systems
      14. 13.10.14 Power Tower CSP Systems
      15. 13.10.15 Dish/Engine CSP Systems
      16. 13.10.16 PV Applications
        1. 13.10.16.1 Utility-Interactive PV Systems
        2. 13.10.16.2 Stand-Alone PV Systems
    11. Problems
    12. References
    13. General References
      1. Figure 13.1
      2. Figure 13.2
      3. Figure 13.3
      4. Figure 13.4
      5. Figure 13.5
      6. Figure 13.6
      7. Figure 13.7
      8. Figure 13.8
      9. Figure 13.9
      10. Figure 13.10
      11. Figure 13.11
      12. Figure 13.12
      13. Figure 13.13
      14. Figure 13.14
      15. Figure 13.15
      16. Figure 13.16
      17. Figure 13.17
      18. Figure 13.18
      19. Figure 13.19
      20. Figure 13.20
      21. Figure 13.21
      22. Figure 13.22
      23. Figure 13.23
      24. Figure 13.24
      25. Figure 13.25
      26. Figure 13.26
      27. Figure 13.27
      28. Figure 13.28
      29. Figure 13.29
      30. Figure 13.30
      31. Figure 13.31
      32. Figure 13.32
      33. Figure 13.33
      34. Figure 13.34
      1. Table 13.1
      2. Table 13.2
      3. Table 13.3
      4. Table 13.4
      5. Table 13.5
      6. Table 13.6
      7. Table 13.7
      8. Table P17.1
  19. Chapter 14 Energy Storage Systems for Electric Power Utility Systems
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Storage Systems
    3. 14.3 Storage Devices
      1. 14.3.1 Large Hydro
      2. 14.3.2 Compressed Air Storage
      3. 14.3.3 Pumped Hydro
      4. 14.3.4 Hydrogen
      5. 14.3.5 High-Power Flywheels
      6. 14.3.6 High-Power Flow Batteries
      7. 14.3.7 High-Power Supercapacitors
      8. 14.3.8 Super Conducting Magnetic Energy Storage
      9. 14.3.9 Heat or Cold Storage
    4. 14.4 Battery Types
      1. 14.4.1 Secondary Batteries
      2. 14.4.2 Sodium–Sulfur Batteries
      3. 14.4.3 Flow Battery Technology
        1. 14.4.3.1 Zinc–Bromine Flow Battery
        2. 14.4.3.2 Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
      4. 14.4.4 Lithium-Ion Batteries
        1. 14.4.4.1 Lithium–Titanate Batteries
        2. 14.4.4.2 Lithium Ion Phosphate Batteries
      5. 14.4.5 Lead–Acid Batteries
        1. 14.4.5.1 Advanced Lead–Acid Batteries
      6. 14.4.6 Nickel–Cadmium Batteries
    5. 14.5 Operational Problems in Battery Usage
    6. 14.6 Fuel Cells
      1. 14.6.1 Types of Fuel Cells
        1. 14.6.1.1 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
        2. 14.6.1.2 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
        3. 14.6.1.3 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
        4. 14.6.1.4 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
    7. References
      1. Figure 14.1
      2. Figure 14.2
      3. Figure 14.3
      4. Figure 14.4
      5. Figure 14.5
      1. Table 14.1
  20. Chapter 15 Concept of Smart Grid and Its Applications
    1. 15.1 Basic Definitions
    2. 15.2 Introduction
    3. 15.3 Need for Establishment of Smart Grid
    4. 15.4 Smart Grid Applications versus Business Objectives
    5. 15.5 Roots of the Motivation for the Smart Grid
    6. 15.6 Distribution Automation
    7. 15.7 Active Distribution Networks
    8. 15.8 Integration of Smart Grid with the Distribution Management System
    9. 15.9 Volt/VAR Control in Distribution Networks
      1. 15.9.1 Traditional Approach to Volt/VAR Control in the Distribution Networks
      2. 15.9.2 SCADA Approach to Control Volt/VAR in the Distribution Networks
      3. 15.9.3 Integrated Volt/VAR Control Optimization
    10. 15.10 Existing Electric Power Grid
    11. 15.11 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
    12. 15.12 Advanced SCADA Concepts
      1. 15.12.1 Substation Controllers
    13. 15.13 Advanced Developments for Integrated Substation Automation
    14. 15.14 Evolution of Smart Grid
    15. 15.15 Smart Microgrids
    16. 15.16 Topology of a Microgrid
    17. 15.17 Future of a Smart Grid
    18. 15.18 Standards of Smart Grids
    19. 15.19 Asset Management
    20. 15.20 Existing Challenges to the Application of the Concept of Smart Grids
    21. 15.21 Evolution of Smart Grid
    22. References
      1. Figure 15.1
      2. Figure 15.2
      3. Figure 15.3
      4. Figure 15.4
      5. Figure 15.5
      6. Figure 15.6
      7. Figure 15.7
      8. Figure 15.8
      9. Figure 15.9
      10. Figure 15.10
      11. Figure 15.11
      12. Figure 15.12
      13. Figure 15.13
      14. Figure 15.14
      15. Figure 15.15
      16. Figure 15.16
      17. Figure 15.17
      18. Figure 15.18
      19. Figure 15.19
      20. Figure 15.20
      21. Figure 15.21
      22. Figure 15.22
      23. Figure 15.23
      24. Figure 15.24
      25. Figure 15.25
      26. Figure 15.26
      27. Figure 15.27
      28. Figure 15.28
      29. Figure 15.29
      30. Figure 15.30
      31. Figure 15.31
      32. Figure 15.32
      33. Figure 15.33
      34. Figure 15.34
      35. Figure 15.35
      36. Figure 15.36
      37. Figure 15.37
      38. Figure 15.38
      39. Figure 15.39
      40. Figure 15.40
      1. Table 15.1
      2. Table 15.2
      3. Table 15.3
  21. Appendix A: Impedance Tables for Lines, Transformers, and Underground Cables
    1. References
      1. Table A.1
      2. Table A.2
      3. Table A.3
      4. Table A.4
      5. Table A.5
      6. Table A.6
      7. Table A.7
      8. Table A.8
      9. Table A.9
      10. Table A.10
      11. Table A.11
      12. Table A.12
      13. Table A.13
      14. Table A.14
      15. Table A.15
      16. Table A.16
      17. Table A.17
      18. Table A.18
      19. Table A.19
      20. Table A.20
      21. Table A.21
      22. Table A.22
      23. Table A.23
      24. Table A.24
      25. Table A.25
  22. Appendix B: Graphic Symbols Used in Distribution System Design
      1. Table B.1
  23. Appendix C: Standard Device Numbers Used in Protection Systems
  24. Appendix D: The Per-Unit System
    1. D.1 Introduction
    2. D.2 Single-Phase System
    3. D.3 Converting From Per-Unit Values to Physical Values
    4. D.4 Change Of Base
    5. D.5 Three-Phase Systems
    6. D.6 Problems
      1. Table D.1
  25. Appendix E: Glossary for Distribution System Terminology
    1. References
  26. Notation
    1. Capital English Letters
    2. Lowercase English Letters
    3. Capital Greek Letters
    4. Lowercase Greek Letters
    5. Subscripts
  27. Answers to Selected Problems
    1. Chapter 2
    2. Chapter 3
    3. Chapter 4
    4. Chapter 5
    5. Chapter 6
    6. Chapter 7
    7. Chapter 8
    8. Chapter 9
    9. Chapter 10
    10. Chapter 11