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Electric Circuits and Networks

Book Description

Electric Circuits and Networks is designed to serve as a textbook for a two-semester undergraduate course on basic electric circuits and networks. The book builds on the subject from its basic principles. Spread over seventeen chapters, the book can be taught with varying degree of emphasis on its six subsections based on the course requirement. Written in a student-friendly manner, its narrative style places adequate stress on the principles that govern the behaviour of electric circuits and networks.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Layout at a Glance
  6. List of Reviewers
  7. Preface
  8. Part One - Basic Concepts
    1. 1 - Circuit Variables and Circuit Elements
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 1.1 - ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE, POTENTIAL AND VOLTAGE
      3. 1.2 - A VOLTAGE SOURCE WITH A RESISTANCE CONNECTED AT ITS TERMINALS
      4. 1.3 - TWO-TERMINAL CAPACITANCE
      5. 1.4 - TWO-TERMINAL INDUCTANCE
      6. 1.5 - IDEAL INDEPENDENT TWO-TERMINAL ELECTRICAL SOURCES
      7. 1.6 - POWER AND ENERGY RELATIONS FOR TWO-TERMINAL ELEMENTS
      8. 1.7 - CLASSIFICATION OF TWO-TERMINAL ELEMENTS
      9. 1.8 - MULTI-TERMINAL CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
      10. 1.9 - SUMMARY
      11. 1.10 - PROBLEMS
    2. 2 - Basic Circuit Laws
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 2.1 - KIRCHHOFF'S VOLTAGE LAW (KVL)
      3. 2.2 - KIRCHHOFF'S CURRENT LAW (KCL)
      4. 2.3 - INTERCONNECTIONS OF IDEAL SOURCES
      5. 2.4 - ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE-LOOP CIRCUIT
      6. 2.5 - ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE-NODE-PAIR CIRCUIT
      7. 2.6 - ANALYSIS OF MULTI-LOOP, MULTI-NODE CIRCUITS
      8. 2.7 - SUMMARY
      9. 2.8 - PROBLEMS
    3. 3 - Single Element Circuits
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 3.1 - THE RESISTOR
      3. 3.2 - THE INDUCTOR
      4. 3.3 - SERIES CONNECTION OF INDUCTORS
      5. 3.4 - PARALLEL CONNECTION OF INDUCTORS
      6. 3.5 - THE CAPACITOR
      7. 3.6 - SERIES CONNECTION OF CAPACITORS
      8. 3.7 - PARALLEL CONNECTION OF CAPACITORS
      9. 3.8 - SUMMARY
      10. 3.9 - QUESTIONS
      11. 3.10 - PROBLEMS
  9. Part Two - Analysis of Memoryless Circuits
    1. 4 - Nodal Analysis and Mesh Analysis of Memoryless Circuits
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 4.1 - THE CIRCUIT ANALYSIS PROBLEM
      3. 4.2 - NODAL ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS CONTAINING RESISTORS WITH INDEPENDENT CURRENT SOURCES
      4. 4.3 - NODAL ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS CONTAINING INDEPENDENT VOLTAGE SOURCES
      5. 4.4 - SOURCE TRANSFORMATION THEOREM AND ITS USE IN NODAL ANALYSIS
      6. 4.5 - NODAL ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS CONTAINING DEPENDENT CURRENT SOURCES
      7. 4.6 - NODAL ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS CONTAINING DEPENDENT VOLTAGE SOURCES
      8. 4.7 - MESH ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS WITH RESISTORS AND INDEPENDENT VOLTAGE SOURCES
      9. 4.8 - MESH ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS WITH INDEPENDENT CURRENT SOURCES
      10. 4.9 - MESH ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS CONTAINING DEPENDENT SOURCES
      11. 4.10 - SUMMARY
      12. 4.11 - PROBLEMS
    2. 5 - Circuit Theorems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 5.1 - LINEARITY OF A CIRCUIT AND SUPERPOSITION THEOREM
      3. 5.2 - STAR-DELTA TRANSFORMATION THEOREM
      4. 5.3 - SUBSTITUTION THEOREM
      5. 5.4 - COMPENSATION THEOREM
      6. 5.5 - THEVENIN'S THEOREM AND NORTON'S THEOREM
      7. 5.6 - DETERMINATION OF EQUIVALENTS FOR CIRCUITS WITH DEPENDENT SOURCES
      8. 5.7 - RECIPROCITY THEOREM
      9. 5.8 - MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM
      10. 5.9 - MILLMAN'S THEOREM
      11. 5.10 - SUMMARY
      12. 5.11 - PROBLEMS
    3. 6 - The Operational Amplifier as a Circuit Element
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 6.1 - IDEAL AMPLIFIERS AND THEIR FEATURES
      3. 6.2 - THE ROLE OF DC POWER SUPPLY IN AMPLIFIERS
      4. 6.3 - THE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
      5. 6.4 - NEGATIVE FEEDBACK IN OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS
      6. 6.5 - THE PRINCIPLES OF ‘VIRTUAL SHORT’ AND ‘ZERO INPUT CURRENT’
      7. 6.6 - ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS USING THE IOA MODEL
      8. 6.7 - OFFSET MODEL FOR AN OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
      9. 6.8 - EFFECT OF NON-IDEAL PROPERTIES OF OPAMP ON CIRCUIT PERFORMANCE
      10. 6.9 - SUMMARY
      11. 6.10 - QUESTIONS
      12. 6.11 - PROBLEMS
  10. Part Three - Sinusoidal Steady-State in Dynamic Circuits
    1. 7 - Power And Energy in Periodic Waveforms
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 7.1 - WHY SINUSOIDS?
      3. 7.2 - THE SINUSOIDAL SOURCE FUNCTION
      4. 7.3 - INSTANTANEOUS POWER IN PERIODIC WAVEFORMS
      5. 7.4 - AVERAGE POWER IN PERIODIC WAVEFORMS
      6. 7.5 - EFFECTIVE VALUE (RMS VALUE) OF PERIODIC WAVEFORMS
      7. 7.6 - THE POWER SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE
      8. 7.7 - SUMMARY
      9. 7.8 - QUESTIONS
      10. 7.9 - PROBLEMS
    2. 8 - The Sinusoidal Steady-State Response
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 8.1 - TRANSIENT STATE AND STEADY-STATE IN CIRCUITS
      3. 8.2 - THE COMPLEX EXPONENTIAL FORCING FUNCTION
      4. 8.3 - SINUSOIDAL STEADY-STATE RESPONSE USING COMPLEX EXPONENTIAL INPUT
      5. 8.4 - THE PHASOR CONCEPT
      6. 8.5 - TRANSFORMING A CIRCUIT INTO A PHASOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
      7. 8.6 - SINUSOIDAL STEADY-STATE RESPONSE FROM PHASOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
      8. 8.7 - CIRCUIT THEOREMS IN SINUSOIDAL STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS
      9. 8.8 - PHASOR DIAGRAMS
      10. 8.9 - APPARENT POWER, ACTIVE POWER, REACTIVE POWER AND POWER FACTOR
      11. 8.10 - COMPLEX POWER UNDER SINUSOIDAL STEADY-STATE CONDITION
      12. 8.11 - SINUSOIDAL STEADY-STATE IN CIRCUITS WITH COUPLED COILS
      13. 8.12 - SUMMARY
      14. 8.13 - QUESTIONS
      15. 8.14 - PROBLEMS
    3. 9 - Sinusoidal Steady-State in Three-Phase Circuits
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 9.1 - THREE-PHASE SYSTEM VERSUS SINGLE-PHASE SYSTEM
      3. 9.2 - THREE-PHASE SOURCES AND THREE-PHASE POWER
      4. 9.3 - ANALYSIS OF BALANCED THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS
      5. 9.4 - ANALYSIS OF UNBALANCED THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS
      6. 9.5 - SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
      7. 9.6 - SUMMARY
      8. 9.7 - QUESTIONS
      9. 9.8 - PROBLEMS
  11. Part Four - Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Circuits
    1. 10 - Simple
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 10.1 - THE SERIES
      3. 10.2 - SERIES
      4. 10.3 - SERIES
      5. 10.4 - STEP RESPONSE OF AN
      6. 10.5 - FEATURES OF
      7. 10.6 - STEADY-STATE RESPONSE AND FORCED RESPONSE
      8. 10.7 - LINEARITY AND SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE IN DYNAMIC CIRCUITS
      9. 10.8 - UNIT IMPULSE RESPONSE OF SERIES
      10. 10.9 - SERIES
      11. 10.10 - GENERAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURE FOR SINGLE TIME CONSTANT
      12. 10.11 - SUMMARY
      13. 10.12 - QUESTIONS
      14. 10.13 - PROBLEMS
    2. 11 - RC and RLC Circuits in Time-Domain
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 11.1 -
      3. 11.2 - ZERO-INPUT RESPONSE OF
      4. 11.3 - ZERO-STATE RESPONSE OF
      5. 11.4 - PERIODIC STEADY-STATE IN A SERIES
      6. 11.5 - SINUSOIDAL STEADY-STATE FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FIRST-ORDER
      7. 11.6 - THE SERIES
      8. 11.7 - IMPULSE RESPONSE OF SERIES
      9. 11.8 - STEP RESPONSE OF SERIES
      10. 11.9 - STANDARD TIME-DOMAIN SPECIFICATIONS FOR SECOND-ORDER CIRCUITS
      11. 11.10 - EXAMPLES ON IMPULSE AND STEP RESPONSE OF SERIES
      12. 11.11 - FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF SERIES
      13. 11.12 - THE PARALLEL
      14. 11.13 - SUMMARY
      15. 11.14 - QUESTIONS
      16. 11.15 - PROBLEMS
    3. 12 - Higher Order Circuits in Time-Domain
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 12.1 - ANALYSIS OF MULTI-MESH AND MULTI-NODE DYNAMIC CIRCUITS
      3. 12.2 - GENERALISATIONS FOR AN
      4. 12.3 - TIME-DOMAIN CONVOLUTION INTEGRAL
      5. 12.4 - SUMMARY
      6. 12.5 - QUESTIONS
      7. 12.6 - PROBLEMS
  12. Part Five - Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Circuits
    1. 13 - Dynamic Circuits with Periodic Input – Analysis by Fourier Series
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 13.1 - PERIODIC WAVEFORMS IN CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
      3. 13.2 - THE EXPONENTIAL FOURIER SERIES
      4. 13.3 - TRIGONOMETRIC FOURIER SERIES
      5. 13.4 - CONDITIONS FOR EXISTENCE OF FOURIER SERIES
      6. 13.5 - WAVEFORM SYMMETRY AND FOURIER SERIES COEFFICIENTS
      7. 13.6 - PROPERTIES OF FOURIER SERIES AND SOME EXAMPLES
      8. 13.7 - DISCRETE MAGNITUDE AND PHASE SPECTRUM
      9. 13.8 - RATE OF DECAY OF HARMONIC AMPLITUDE
      10. 13.9 - ANALYSIS OF PERIODIC STEADY-STATE USING FOURIER SERIES
      11. 13.10 - NORMALISED POWER IN A PERIODIC WAVEFORM AND PARSEVAL'S THEOREM
      12. 13.11 - POWER AND POWER FACTOR IN AC SYSTEM WITH DISTORTED WAVEFORMS
      13. 13.12 - SUMMARY
      14. 13.13 - QUESTIONS
      15. 13.14 - PROBLEMS
    2. 14 - Dynamic Circuits with Aperiodic a Inputs – Analysis by Fourier Transforms
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 14.1 - APERIODIC WAVEFORMS
      3. 14.2 - FOURIER TRANSFORM OF AN APERIODIC WAVEFORM
      4. 14.3 - CONVERGENCE OF FOURIER TRANSFORMS
      5. 14.4 - SOME BASIC PROPERTIES OF FOURIER TRANSFORMS
      6. 14.5 - SYMMETRY PROPERTIES OF FOURIER TRANSFORMS
      7. 14.6 - TIME-SCALING PROPERTY AND FOURIER TRANSFORM OF IMPULSE FUNCTION
      8. 14.7 - FOURIER TRANSFORMS OF PERIODIC WAVEFORMS
      9. 14.8 - FOURIER TRANSFORMS OF SOME SEMI-INFINITE DURATION WAVEFORMS
      10. 14.9 - ZERO-STATE RESPONSE BY FREQUENCY–DOMAIN ANALYSIS
      11. 14.10 - THE SYSTEM FUNCTION AND SIGNAL DISTORTION
      12. 14.11 - PARSEVAL'S RELATION FOR A FINITE-ENERGY WAVEFORM
      13. 14.12 - SUMMARY
      14. 14.13 - QUESTIONS
      15. 14.14 - PROBLEMS
    3. 15 - Analysis of Dynamic Circuits by Laplace Transforms
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 15.1 - CIRCUIT RESPONSE TO COMPLEX EXPONENTIAL INPUT
      3. 15.2 - EXPANSION OF A SIGNAL IN TERMS OF COMPLEX EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS
      4. 15.3 - LAPLACE TRANSFORMS OF SOME COMMON RIGHT-SIDED FUNCTIONS
      5. 15.4 - THE S-DOMAIN SYSTEM FUNCTION H(S)
      6. 15.5 - POLES AND ZEROS OF SYSTEM FUNCTION AND EXCITATION FUNCTION
      7. 15.6 - METHOD OF PARTIAL FRACTIONS FOR INVERTING LAPLACE TRANSFORMS
      8. 15.7 - SOME THEOREMS ON LAPLACE TRANSFORMS
      9. 15.8 - SOLUTION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS BY LAPLACE TRANSFORMS
      10. 15.9 - THE S-DOMAIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
      11. 15.10 - TOTAL RESPONSE OF CIRCUITS USING S-DOMAIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
      12. 15.11 - NETWORK FUNCTIONS AND POLE-ZERO PLOTS
      13. 15.12 - IMPULSE RESPONSE OF NETWORK FUNCTIONS FROM POLE-ZERO PLOTS
      14. 15.13 - SINUSOIDAL STEADY-STATE FREQUENCY RESPONSE FROM POLE-ZERO PLOTS
      15. 15.14 - ANALYSIS OF COUPLED COILS USING LAPLACE TRANSFORMS
      16. 15.15 - SUMMARY
      17. 15.16 - PROBLEMS
  13. Part Six - Introduction to Network Analysis
    1. 16 - Two-Port Networks and Passive Filters
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 16.1 - DESCRIBING EQUATIONS AND PARAMETER SETS FOR TWO-PORT NETWORKS
      3. 16.2 - EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR A TWO-PORT NETWORK
      4. 16.3 - TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS (ABCD PARAMETERS) OF A TWO-PORT NETWORK
      5. 16.4 - INTER-RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIOUS PARAMETER SETS
      6. 16.5 - INTERCONNECTIONS OF TWO-PORT NETWORKS
      7. 16.6 - RECIPROCITY AND SYMMETRY IN TWO-PORT NETWORKS
      8. 16.7 - STANDARD SYMMETRIC T AND PI EQUIVALENTS
      9. 16.8 - IMAGE PARAMETER DESCRIPTION OF A RECIPROCAL TWO-PORT NETWORK
      10. 16.9 - CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE AND PROPAGATION CONSTANT OF SYMMETRIC T AND PI NETWORKS UNDER SINUSOIDAL STEADY-STATE
      11. 16.10 - CONSTANT-K LOW-PASS FILTER
      12. 16.11 - M-DERIVED LOW-PASS FILTER SECTIONS FOR IMPROVED ATTENUATION
      13. 16.12 - M-DERIVED HALF-SECTIONS FOR FILTER TERMINATION
      14. 16.13 - CONSTANT-K AND M-DERIVED HIGH-PASS FILTERS
      15. 16.14 - CONSTANT-K BAND-PASS FILTER
      16. 16.15 - CONSTANT-K BAND-STOP FILTER
      17. 16.16 - RESISTIVE ATTENUATORS
      18. 16.17 - SUMMARY
      19. 16.18 - QUESTIONS
      20. 16.19 - PROBLEMS
    2. 17 - Introduction to Network Topology
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 17.1 - LINEAR ORIENTED GRAPHS
      3. 17.2 - THE INCIDENCE MATRIX OF A LINEAR ORIENTED GRAPH
      4. 17.3 - KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS IN INCIDENCE MATRIX FORMULATION
      5. 17.4 - NODAL ANALYSIS OF NETWORKS
      6. 17.5 - THE CIRCUIT MATRIX OF A LINEAR ORIENTED GRAPH
      7. 17.6 - KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS IN FUNDAMENTAL CIRCUIT MATRIX FORMULATION
      8. 17.7 - LOOP ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS
      9. 17.8 - THE CUT-SET MATRIX OF A LINEAR ORIENTED GRAPH
      10. 17.9 - KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS IN FUNDAMENTAL CUT-SET FORMULATION
      11. 17.10 - NODE-PAIR ANALYSIS OF NETWORKS
      12. 17.11 - ANALYSIS USING GENERALISED BRANCH MODEL
      13. 17.12 - TELLEGEN'S THEOREM
      14. 17.13 - SUMMARY
      15. 17.14 - PROBLEMS
  14. Answers to Selected Problems
  15. Acknowledgements
  16. Copyright