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Effective TV Production, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Effective TV Production gives a succinct but thorough overview of the production process. Whatever your role in television, this book outlines the main functions of your job, placing them in the context of all other operations and showing how they are interrelated.



The book shows how, within the often severe limitations of time and money, it is possible to originate interesting and competitive television programmes. It describes the essentials of good camerawork and relates them to considerations of audio, staging, lighting, make-up and wardrobe techniques and the way in which a production is developed in approach and style form the initial stages to the moment of shooting.

This edition is substantially revised to reflect developments in technology and contemporary production styles.

Gerald Millerson'd books on television have long been acknowledged as among the best ever published.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Introduction to the Third Edition
  7. Television Today
    1. The scale of operations
    2. Live or taped
  8. Television Production
    1. Opportunities and limitations
    2. Style
  9. The Production Team
  10. The Director’s Role
    1. The director’s task
    2. The director’s approach
  11. TV Camera Units
    1. Single camera units
    2. Multi-camera units
  12. A Studio Tour
    1. Studio features
    2. TV cameras
    3. Support areas
  13. Production Control
    1. Typical features
    2. Control room layout
  14. The TV/Video Camera
    1. The camera head
    2. Main features
    3. The zoom lens system
    4. Types of viewfinder
  15. Camera Controls
    1. Camera adjustments
    2. Camera movements
  16. Camera Facilities
    1. The camera lens
    2. The viewfinder
    3. Indicators
    4. Audio
  17. Supporting the Camera
    1. Hand-held cameras
    2. The pan head/panning head
    3. The tripod
    4. The pedestal
    5. Crane arms
  18. What Are ‘Lens Angles’?
    1. Zoom ratio
    2. Image size
    3. Lens angle and perspective
  19. Wide-Angle Lens
    1. Advantages
    2. Disadvantages
  20. Narrow-Angle Lens
    1. Advantages
    2. Disadvantages
    3. Camera handling
    4. Depth of field
  21. Using The Zoom Lens
    1. Zoom lens controls
    2. Take care!
  22. Why Zoom?
    1. The effect of zooming
    2. How the zoom lens can help
    3. Dramatic zooms
  23. Defining The Shot
    1. Getting the shot
    2. Changing the shot size
    3. Terms
    4. Camera height
  24. Choosing the Shot
    1. Why change the shot?
    2. Viewing conditions
    3. The picture’s purpose
    4. Pictorial variations
  25. Close Shots
    1. Cameraman’s problems
    2. Production problems
  26. Long Shots
    1. Using long shots
    2. Operational problems in continuous production
    3. Cameras in shot
  27. Moving The Camera
    1. Camera moves
    2. Focusing
  28. Motivated Camera Movement
    1. Motivation
    2. Panning
    3. Changing the viewpoint
  29. Composing the Picture
    1. General approaches
    2. Arranging people
    3. Framing
    4. Camera height
  30. Clarifying the Shot
    1. Improving clarity
    2. Clarify detail
  31. The Production Switcher – Vision Mixer
    1. Switcher operation
    2. Additional features
  32. Choosing Picture Transitions
    1. Selecting the right transition
    2. The cut
    3. The fade
    4. The mix (dissolve)
    5. Wipes
  33. Intercut Shots
    1. Guiding the audience
    2. Typical treatment
    3. Shooting people
  34. Choosing Microphones
    1. Microphone design
    2. Positioning the microphone
  35. Audio Control
    1. The purpose of audio control
    2. Audio control techniques
  36. Methods of Sound Pickup
    1. Local sound
    2. Following action
  37. Practical Sound Pickup
    1. Local sound pickup
    2. Using the sound boom
  38. Practical Sound Problems
    1. Ideal sound
    2. Relative volumes
    3. Distracting sound
    4. Sound and the picture
  39. Scenery
    1. The function of scenery
    2. Devising scenic treatment
    3. Typical design considerations
  40. The Aims of Lighting
    1. Technically speaking
    2. Artistically speaking
    3. Basic lighting approaches
  41. Lighting Problems
    1. Lighting and sound
    2. Shadows
    3. Subject position
    4. Overbright surfaces
    5. Precision lighting
  42. The Aims of Makeup
    1. The value of makeup
    2. The magic of makeup
    3. General practice
  43. Clothes on TV
    1. Problem clothing
  44. The Need for Production Techniques
    1. Why have techniques?
  45. Production Treatment
    1. Back to basics
    2. Formality and informality
    3. The right approach
  46. Styles and Formats
    1. Presentational emphasis
  47. Basic Productional Methods
    1. ‘Live’ production
    2. ‘Live on tape’
    3. Basic retakes
    4. Discontinuous recording
    5. Isolated (ISO) camera
    6. Dedicated VTRs
    7. Single camera recording
  48. Single-Camera Production
    1. Intermittent shooting
    2. Continuous shooting
    3. Shooting static subjects
  49. Multi-Camera Production
    1. Why have a second camera?
    2. Are there disadvantages?
  50. Changing Shot – Moving Performer
    1. Performer movement
    2. Group shots
  51. Changing Shot – Camera and Switching
    1. Changes by camerawork
    2. Changes by switching
    3. Visual changes
  52. Shooting the Moving Subject
    1. Framing restrictions
    2. Camera movements
    3. Viewpoint changes
  53. Production Formats
    1. Regular formats
    2. The different approach
  54. Basic Production Styles
    1. The ‘stylized routine’ approach
    2. The ‘exploratory’ approach
    3. The ‘pizazz’ approach
  55. Developing a TV Production
  56. Planning Visual Treatment
    1. Planned viewpoints
    2. Storyboard approach
  57. Shot Development
    1. Setting up the shot
    2. Changing the viewpoint
    3. Developing shots
  58. Pictorial Variety
    1. Introducing variety
  59. What Facilities Are Needed?
    1. A matter of degree
    2. Alternative methods
    3. Tempting facilities
    4. What does the viewer see?
    5. Coping without facilities
  60. Is Planning Really Necessary?
    1. Unplanned production
    2. No need to plan
    3. Plan to make it happen
    4. Planning principles
  61. Production Approaches
    1. Unplanned production
    2. Outline planning
    3. Working to a script
  62. Organizing Production Mechanics
    1. Production resources
    2. Will it work?
    3. Typical considerations in technical planning
  63. Plans And Elevations
    1. The studio plan
    2. How the studio plan is used
    3. Elevations
  64. Developing the Staging Plan
    1. Organizing the studio layout
    2. Will it work?
  65. Planning Shots
    1. Working it out
    2. Shot proportions
  66. Scripting for Television
    1. Script formats
    2. When is it written?
    3. Script style
    4. Getting the ideas across
    5. Script mechanics
  67. Production Paperwork
    1. Scripts
    2. Running order/show format
    3. Camera cards/shot sheets/crib cards/shot list
  68. Pre-Studio Rehearsal
    1. Preliminaries
    2. Pre-rehearsal/outside rehearsal
    3. Pre-studio rehearsal hints – initial blocking
  69. Studio Rehearsals
    1. Rehearsal begins – blocking
    2. Final stages
    3. Effective studio rehearsal
    4. Rehearse/record
  70. The Floor Manager
    1. Rehearsal preparations
    2. Rehearsals begin
    3. Videotaping
  71. Guiding the Crew
    1. Attitude to the crew
    2. General points
    3. Typical shot calls by the director’s assistant
  72. Production Timing
    1. Live productions
    2. Hints on timing
    3. Methods of timing
  73. Visual Padding
    1. The problem
    2. Solutions
  74. How to Direct Audience Attention
    1. Methods of directing
    2. Attention
    3. Look out for distractions
    4. Varying concentration
  75. Creating and Controlling Interest
    1. Interesting pictures
    2. Progressive build-up
    3. Elaborate presentation
  76. Influencing Audience Attitude
    1. Program openings
    2. Staging complexity
    3. Background associations
    4. Prevailing key
    5. Subject importance
    6. Further factors
  77. Confusing or Frustrating Techniques
    1. The frustrated audience
    2. Promises, promises!
    3. Annoying attitudes
    4. Unseen happenings
    5. Wrong camera
    6. Puzzling shots
  78. Stretching the Facilities
    1. Useful devices
  79. Economy Thinking
    1. Economical staging
    2. Economy through camera treatment
    3. Graphics and titling
  80. Sound Ideas
    1. The roles of sound
    2. Interrelating picture and sound
    3. Using audio recordings
  81. Unorthodox Treatment
    1. Camera treatment
    2. Switcher treatment
    3. Electronic treatment
    4. Sound treatment
    5. Lighting treatment
  82. Continuity
    1. Regular continuity problems
    2. Deliberate discontinuity
  83. Using Titling
    1. Titling methods
    2. Titling design and presentation
    3. Electronic enhancement
  84. Using Graphics
    1. Forms of graphics
    2. Simple graphics
    3. Care with camera graphics
    4. Computer graphics
  85. Using Film
    1. Directing techniques
    2. Televising film
    3. Library shots
    4. The basics of film making
  86. Using Videotape
    1. Principles
    2. Editing the videotape
    3. The editing process
  87. Electronic Insertion
    1. Keyed insertion
    2. Chromakey (CSO)
    3. Take care
    4. Typical applications
  88. Guiding the Talent
    1. Inexperienced talent
    2. Experienced talent
    3. General points
  89. Cuing
    1. Forms of cuing
    2. Film cuing
  90. Prompting
    1. Approaches to presentation
    2. Forms of prompting
  91. The Commentary
    1. The commentator’s role
    2. Scripted commentary
    3. Unscripted commentary
    4. Cuing
  92. The Single Performer
    1. Relationship with the audience
    2. Action
    3. Shots
  93. Interviews
    1. In the studio
    2. Location interviews
  94. Talk Shows
    1. Controlling the program
    2. Layout
    3. Typical shots
  95. Newscasts
    1. General setup
    2. Basic organization
  96. The Illustrated Talk
    1. Gathering material
    2. Typical staging formats
    3. Presentation hints
  97. Demonstrations
    1. Organizing demonstrations
    2. Demonstrations in closeup
  98. Music and Dance
    1. Approaches
    2. The soloist
    3. Pop music
  99. Quiz and Game Shows
    1. Game shows
    2. Quiz shows
    3. Organization
  100. TV Drama
    1. Film and TV drama.
    2. TV drama techniques
  101. The Studio Audience
    1. Controlling the audience
    2. Effect on performers
    3. Accommodating the audience
  102. Reminders on Effective Directing
    1. Rehearse/record
  103. A Check List of Common Errors
  104. Shooting on Location
    1. Types of location unit
    2. Preparations
    3. Organization
  105. Color
    1. Color is subjective
    2. Color is different on the screen
    3. Comments on color
  106. Appendix–Calculating Shots
  107. Further Reading
  108. Glossary