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Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme

Book Description

With 200 pages of new content, the fifth edition of this popular guide gives new or veteran project managers a comprehensive overview of all of the best-of-breed project management approaches and tools today, including Traditional (Linear and Incremental), Agile (Iterative and Adaptive), and Extreme. Step-by-step instruction and practical case studies show you how to use these tools effectively to achieve better outcomes of projects at hand. Plus, the book provides full coverage on managing continuous process improvement, procurement management, managing distressed projects, and managing multiple team projects. The companion Web site includes exercises and solutions that accompany the project management instruction in the book.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. Credits
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Preface to the Fifth Edition
  6. Introduction
    1. The Contemporary Project Environment
      1. High Speed
      2. High Change
      3. Lower Cost
      4. Increasing Levels of Complexity
      5. More Uncertainty
    2. Challenges to Effective Project Management
      1. Flexibility and Adaptability
      2. Deep Understanding of the Business and Its Systems
      3. Take Charge of the Project and Its Management
      4. Project Management Is Organized Common Sense
    3. Why I Wrote This Book
      1. Education Market
      2. Training Market
      3. Professional Market
    4. How This Book Is Organized
      1. Part I: Defining and Using the Project Management Process Groups
      2. Part II: Establishing Project Management Life Cycles and Strategies
      3. Part III: Building an Effective Project Management Infrastructure
      4. Part IV: Managing the Realities of Projects
    5. The Rationale for Using this Book Organization
      1. A Bottom Up Learning Experience
      2. Learning about Process Groups
      3. Learning about how Process Groups Form Life Cycle Processes
      4. Learning about Forming Strategies for Effective Life Cycle Management
      5. Learning How the Organization Can Support Effective Project Management
      6. Learning How to Adapt to the Realities of Projects
    6. How to Use this Book
      1. Introductory (Chapters 1-7)
      2. Intermediate (Chapters 1-12)
      3. Advanced (Chapters 8-17)
    7. Who Should Use This Book
      1. Practicing Professionals
      2. Undergraduate, Graduate and Adjunct Faculty
      3. Corporate Trainers
    8. Introducing the Case Study: Pizza Delivered Quickly (PDQ)
      1. Pizza Factory Locator Subsystem
      2. Order Entry Subsystem
      3. Order Submit Subsystem
      4. Logistics Subsystem
      5. Routing Subsystem
      6. Inventory Management Subsystem
    9. What's on the Web Site
      1. Slide Presentation
      2. Individual, Team, and Class Exercises
    10. Putting It All Together
  7. I. Defining and Using Project Management Process Groups
    1. 1. What Is a Project?
      1. 1.1. Defining a Project
        1. 1.1.1. Sequence of Activities
        2. 1.1.2. Unique Activities
        3. 1.1.3. Complex Activities
        4. 1.1.4. Connected Activities
        5. 1.1.5. One Goal
        6. 1.1.6. Specified Time
        7. 1.1.7. Within Budget
        8. 1.1.8. According to Specification
      2. 1.2. What Is a Program?
        1. 1.2.1. Establishing Temporary Program Offices
        2. 1.2.2. Establishing Permanent Program Offices
      3. 1.3. Understanding the Scope Triangle
        1. 1.3.1. Scope
        2. 1.3.2. Quality
        3. 1.3.3. Cost
        4. 1.3.4. Time
        5. 1.3.5. Resources
      4. 1.4. Envisioning the Scope Triangle as a System in Balance
      5. 1.5. Managing the Creeps
        1. 1.5.1. Scope Creep
        2. 1.5.2. Hope Creep
        3. 1.5.3. Effort Creep
        4. 1.5.4. Feature Creep
      6. 1.6. Applying the Scope Triangle
        1. 1.6.1. Problem Resolution
        2. 1.6.2. Scope Change Impact Analysis
      7. 1.7. The Importance of Classifying Projects
        1. 1.7.1. Establishing a Rule for Classifying Projects
        2. 1.7.2. Classification by Project Characteristics
        3. 1.7.3. Classification by Project Type
      8. 1.8. Putting It All Together
      9. 1.9. Discussion Questions
    2. 2. Understanding The Project Management Process Groups
      1. 2.1. Understanding the Fundamentals of Project Management
        1. 2.1.1. What Business Situation Is Being Addressed?
        2. 2.1.2. What Do You Need to Do?
        3. 2.1.3. What Will You Do?
        4. 2.1.4. How Will You Do It?
        5. 2.1.5. How Will You Know You Did It?
        6. 2.1.6. How Well Did You Do?
      2. 2.2. Defining the Five Process Groups
        1. 2.2.1. The Scoping Process Group
        2. 2.2.2. The Planning Process Group
        3. 2.2.3. The Launching Process Group
        4. 2.2.4. The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
        5. 2.2.5. The Closing Process Group
      3. 2.3. Defining the Nine Knowledge Areas
        1. 2.3.1. Mapping Knowledge Areas to Process Groups
          1. 2.3.1.1. What the Mapping Means
          2. 2.3.1.2. How to Use the Mapping
        2. 2.3.2. Definition of a Project Management Life Cycle
          1. 2.3.2.1. Using Process Groups to Define PMLCs
          2. 2.3.2.2. A Look Ahead: Mapping Process Groups to Form Complex PMLCs
        3. 2.3.3. Integration Management
        4. 2.3.4. Scope Management
        5. 2.3.5. Time Management
        6. 2.3.6. Cost Management
        7. 2.3.7. Quality Management
          1. 2.3.7.1. Quality Planning Process
          2. 2.3.7.2. Quality Assurance Process
          3. 2.3.7.3. Quality Control Process
        8. 2.3.8. Human Resource Management
          1. 2.3.8.1. Projects as Motivation and Development Tools
            1. 2.3.8.1.1. Motivators
            2. 2.3.8.1.2. Hygiene Factors
            3. 2.3.8.1.3. Motivating Factors
            4. 2.3.8.1.4. Challenge
            5. 2.3.8.1.5. Recognition
            6. 2.3.8.1.6. Job Design
        9. 2.3.9. Communications Management
          1. 2.3.9.1. Who Are the Project Stakeholders?
          2. 2.3.9.2. What Do They Need to Know about the Project?
          3. 2.3.9.3. How Should Their Needs Be Met?
        10. 2.3.10. Risk Management
          1. 2.3.10.1. Risk Identification
          2. 2.3.10.2. Risk Assessment
          3. 2.3.10.3. Risk Mitigation
          4. 2.3.10.4. Risk Monitoring
        11. 2.3.11. Procurement Management
          1. 2.3.11.1. Vendor Solicitation
          2. 2.3.11.2. Vendor Evaluation
          3. 2.3.11.3. Vendor Selection
          4. 2.3.11.4. Vendor Contracting
          5. 2.3.11.5. Vendor Management
      4. 2.4. Putting It All Together
      5. 2.5. Discussion Questions
    3. 3. How to Scope a Project
      1. 3.1. Using Tools, Templates, and Processes to Scope a Project
      2. 3.2. Managing Client Expectations
      3. 3.3. Wants versus Needs
      4. 3.4. Conducting Conditions of Satisfaction
        1. 3.4.1. Establishing Clarity of Purpose
        2. 3.4.2. Specifying Business Outcomes
        3. 3.4.3. Conducting COS Milestone Reviews
      5. 3.5. Planning and Conducting the Project Scoping Meeting
        1. 3.5.1. Purpose
        2. 3.5.2. Attendees
        3. 3.5.3. Agenda
        4. 3.5.4. Deliverables
      6. 3.6. Gathering Requirements
        1. 3.6.1. What Are Requirements?
        2. 3.6.2. Types of Requirements
          1. 3.6.2.1. Functional Requirements
          2. 3.6.2.2. Non-Functional Requirements
          3. 3.6.2.3. Global Requirements
          4. 3.6.2.4. Product and/or Project Constraints
        3. 3.6.3. Approaches to Gathering Requirements
      7. 3.7. Building the Requirements Breakdown Structure
      8. 3.8. Using the RBS to Choose a Best-Fit PMLC Model
      9. 3.9. Diagramming Business Processes
        1. 3.9.1. What Is a Business Process?
        2. 3.9.2. Creating a Business Process Diagram
        3. 3.9.3. Business Process Diagram Formats
        4. 3.9.4. Context Diagrams
        5. 3.9.5. Business Process Work Flow Diagrams
      10. 3.10. Prototyping Your Solution
      11. 3.11. Use Cases
        1. 3.11.1. Use Case Diagrams
        2. 3.11.2. Use Case Flow of Events
      12. 3.12. Validating the Business Case
      13. 3.13. Outsourcing to Vendors and Contractors
      14. 3.14. Procurement Management Life Cycle
        1. 3.14.1. Vendor Solicitation
          1. 3.14.1.1. Publishing a Request for Information
          2. 3.14.1.2. Advertising
          3. 3.14.1.3. Renting a Targeted List
          4. 3.14.1.4. Asking Previous Vendors
          5. 3.14.1.5. Attending Trade Shows
          6. 3.14.1.6. Preparing and Distributing a Request for Proposal
          7. 3.14.1.7. Managing RFP Questions and Responses
          8. 3.14.1.8. Responding to Bidder Questions
        2. 3.14.2. Vendor Evaluation
          1. 3.14.2.1. Establishing Vendor Evaluation Criteria
            1. 3.14.2.1.1. Forced Ranking
            2. 3.14.2.1.2. Paired Comparisons
          2. 3.14.2.2. Evaluating Responses to the RFP
        3. 3.14.3. Vendor Selection
        4. 3.14.4. Vendor Contracting
          1. 3.14.4.1. No Award
          2. 3.14.4.2. Single Award
          3. 3.14.4.3. Multiple Awards
        5. 3.14.5. Contract Management
          1. 3.14.5.1. Types of Contracts
            1. 3.14.5.1.1. Fixed Price
            2. 3.14.5.1.2. Time and Materials
            3. 3.14.5.1.3. Retainer
            4. 3.14.5.1.4. Cost Plus
          2. 3.14.5.2. Discussion Points for Negotiating the Final Contract
          3. 3.14.5.3. Final Contract Negotiation
        6. 3.14.6. Vendor Management
          1. 3.14.6.1. Expectation Setting — Getting Started
          2. 3.14.6.2. Monitoring Progress and Performance
            1. 3.14.6.2.1. Monitoring Requirements Change Requests
            2. 3.14.6.2.2. Monitoring the Performance of Standard Project Activities
          3. 3.14.6.3. Transitioning from Vendor to Client
          4. 3.14.6.4. Closing Out a Vendor Contract
      15. 3.15. Writing an Effective Project Overview Statement
        1. 3.15.1. Parts of the POS
          1. 3.15.1.1. Stating the Problem or Opportunity
          2. 3.15.1.2. Establishing the Project Goal
          3. 3.15.1.3. Defining the Project Objectives
          4. 3.15.1.4. Identifying Success Criteria
          5. 3.15.1.5. Listing Assumptions, Risks, and Obstacles
        2. 3.15.2. Attachments
          1. 3.15.2.1. Risk Analysis
          2. 3.15.2.2. Financial Analyses
      16. 3.16. Gaining Approval to Plan the Project
        1. 3.16.1. Participants in the Approval Process
        2. 3.16.2. Approval Criteria
        3. 3.16.3. Project Approval Status
      17. 3.17. Putting It All Together
      18. 3.18. Discussion Questions
    4. 4. How to Plan a Project
      1. 4.1. Tools, Templates, and Processes Used to Plan a Project
      2. 4.2. The Importance of Planning
      3. 4.3. Using Application Software Packages to Plan a Project
        1. 4.3.1. Determining the Need for a Software Package?
        2. 4.3.2. Project Planning Tools
          1. 4.3.2.1. Sticky Notes
          2. 4.3.2.2. Marking Pens
          3. 4.3.2.3. Whiteboard
        3. 4.3.3. How Much Time Should Planning Take?
        4. 4.3.4. Running the Planning Session
      4. 4.4. Planning and Conducting Joint Project Planning Sessions
        1. 4.4.1. Planning the JPPS
          1. 4.4.1.1. Attendees
          2. 4.4.1.2. Facilities
          3. 4.4.1.3. Equipment
          4. 4.4.1.4. The Complete Planning Agenda
          5. 4.4.1.5. Deliverables
        2. 4.4.2. Conducting the JPPS
      5. 4.5. Building the Work Breakdown Structure
        1. 4.5.1. Uses for the WBS
          1. 4.5.1.1. Thought-Process Tool
          2. 4.5.1.2. Architectural-Design Tool
          3. 4.5.1.3. Planning Tool
          4. 4.5.1.4. Project-Status-Reporting Tool
        2. 4.5.2. Generating the WBS
          1. 4.5.2.1. Top-Down Approach
            1. 4.5.2.1.1. Team Approach
            2. 4.5.2.1.2. Subteam Approach
          2. 4.5.2.2. Bottom-Up Approach
        3. 4.5.3. Using the WBS for Large Projects
        4. 4.5.4. Iterative Development of the WBS
        5. 4.5.5. Six Criteria to Test for Completeness in the WBS
          1. 4.5.5.1. Status and Completion Are Measurable
          2. 4.5.5.2. The Activity Is Bounded
          3. 4.5.5.3. The Activity Has a Deliverable
          4. 4.5.5.4. Time and Cost Are Easily Estimated
          5. 4.5.5.5. Activity Duration Is Within Acceptable Limits
          6. 4.5.5.6. Work Assignments Are Independent
          7. 4.5.5.7. The Seventh Criteria for Judging Completeness
          8. 4.5.5.8. Exceptions to the Completion Criteria Rule
            1. 4.5.5.8.1. Stopping Before Completion Criteria Are Met
            2. 4.5.5.8.2. Decomposing Beyond Completion of the Criteria
        6. 4.5.6. Approaches to Building the WBS
          1. 4.5.6.1. Noun-Type Approaches
            1. 4.5.6.1.1. Physical Decomposition
            2. 4.5.6.1.2. Functional Decomposition
          2. 4.5.6.2. Verb-Type Approaches
            1. 4.5.6.2.1. Design-Build-Test-Implement
            2. 4.5.6.2.2. Objectives
          3. 4.5.6.3. Organizational Approaches
            1. 4.5.6.3.1. Geographic
            2. 4.5.6.3.2. Departmental
            3. 4.5.6.3.3. Business Process
          4. 4.5.6.4. Selecting the Best Approach
        7. 4.5.7. Representing the WBS
      6. 4.6. Estimating
        1. 4.6.1. Estimating Duration
        2. 4.6.2. Resource Loading versus Task Duration
        3. 4.6.3. Variation in Task Duration
        4. 4.6.4. Six Methods for Estimating Task Duration
          1. 4.6.4.1. Extrapolating Based on Similarity to Other Activities
          2. 4.6.4.2. Studying Historical Data
          3. 4.6.4.3. Seeking Expert Advice
          4. 4.6.4.4. Applying the Delphi Technique
          5. 4.6.4.5. Applying the Three-Point Technique
          6. 4.6.4.6. Applying the Wide-Band Delphi Technique
        5. 4.6.5. Estimation Life Cycles
        6. 4.6.6. Estimating Resource Requirements
          1. 4.6.6.1. People as Resources
            1. 4.6.6.1.1. Skills Matrices
            2. 4.6.6.1.2. Skill Categories
            3. 4.6.6.1.3. Skill Levels
          2. 4.6.6.2. Resource Breakdown Structure
          3. 4.6.6.3. Determining Resource Requirements
        7. 4.6.7. Resource Planning
        8. 4.6.8. Estimating Cost
          1. 4.6.8.1. Cost Budgeting
          2. 4.6.8.2. Cost Control
      7. 4.7. Constructing the Project Network Diagram
        1. 4.7.1. Envisioning a Complex Project Network Diagram
        2. 4.7.2. Benefits to Network-Based Scheduling
        3. 4.7.3. Building the Network Diagram Using the Precedence Diagramming Method
        4. 4.7.4. Dependencies
        5. 4.7.5. Constraints
          1. 4.7.5.1. Technical Constraints
          2. 4.7.5.2. Management Constraints
          3. 4.7.5.3. Interproject Constraints
          4. 4.7.5.4. Date Constraints
        6. 4.7.6. Using the Lag Variable
        7. 4.7.7. Creating an Initial Project Network Schedule
          1. 4.7.7.1. Critical Path
            1. 4.7.7.1.1. Calculating Critical Path
            2. 4.7.7.1.2. Computing Slack
          2. 4.7.7.2. Near-Critical Path
        8. 4.7.8. Analyzing the Initial Project Network Diagram
        9. 4.7.9. Compressing the Schedule
        10. 4.7.10. Management Reserve
      8. 4.8. Planning for Project Risk: The Risk Management Life Cycle
        1. 4.8.1. Risk Identification
          1. 4.8.1.1. Risk Categories
            1. 4.8.1.1.1. Technical Risks
            2. 4.8.1.1.2. Project Management Risks
            3. 4.8.1.1.3. Organizational Risks
            4. 4.8.1.1.4. External Risks
            5. 4.8.1.1.5. Risk Assessment Template
          2. 4.8.1.2. Candidate Risk Drivers
        2. 4.8.2. Risk Assessment
          1. 4.8.2.1. Static Risk Assessment
          2. 4.8.2.2. Dynamic Risk Assessment
        3. 4.8.3. Risk Mitigation
        4. 4.8.4. Risk Monitoring and Control
      9. 4.9. Writing an Effective Project Proposal
        1. 4.9.1. Contents of the Project Proposal
          1. 4.9.1.1. Executive Summary
          2. 4.9.1.2. Background
          3. 4.9.1.3. Objective
          4. 4.9.1.4. Overview of the Approach to Be Taken
          5. 4.9.1.5. Detailed Statement of the Work
          6. 4.9.1.6. Time and Cost Summary
          7. 4.9.1.7. Appendices
        2. 4.9.2. Format of the Project Proposal
      10. 4.10. Gaining Approval to Launch the Project
      11. 4.11. Putting It All Together
      12. 4.12. Discussion Questions
    5. 5. How to Launch a Project
      1. 5.1. Tools, Templates, and Processes Used to Launch a Project
      2. 5.2. Recruiting the Project Team
        1. 5.2.1. Core Team Members
          1. 5.2.1.1. When to Select the Core Team Members
          2. 5.2.1.2. Selection Criteria
        2. 5.2.2. Client Team
          1. 5.2.2.1. When to Select the Client Team
          2. 5.2.2.2. Selection Criteria
        3. 5.2.3. Contract Team Members
          1. 5.2.3.1. Implications of Adding Contract Team Members
          2. 5.2.3.2. Selection Criteria
        4. 5.2.4. Balancing a Team
          1. 5.2.4.1. Assimilating
          2. 5.2.4.2. Diverging
          3. 5.2.4.3. Accommodating
          4. 5.2.4.4. Converging
        5. 5.2.5. Developing a Team Deployment Strategy
        6. 5.2.6. Developing a Team Development Plan
      3. 5.3. Conducting the Project Kick-Off Meeting
        1. 5.3.1. Sponsor-Led Part
        2. 5.3.2. Project Manager–Led Part
        3. 5.3.3. Purpose of the Project Kick-Off Meeting
          1. 5.3.3.1. Attendees
          2. 5.3.3.2. Facilities and Equipment
          3. 5.3.3.3. The Working Session Agenda
            1. 5.3.3.3.1. Introducing the Project Team Members to Each Other
            2. 5.3.3.3.2. Writing the Project Definition Statement
            3. 5.3.3.3.3. Reviewing the Project Plan
            4. 5.3.3.3.4. Finalizing the Project Schedule
            5. 5.3.3.3.5. Writing Work Packages
      4. 5.4. Establishing Team Operating Rules
        1. 5.4.1. Situations that Require Team Operating Rules
          1. 5.4.1.1. Problem Solving
          2. 5.4.1.2. Decision Making
            1. 5.4.1.2.1. Selecting the Appropriate Decision-Making Model
            2. 5.4.1.2.2. Decision Making and the Learning Styles Inventory
          3. 5.4.1.3. Conflict Resolution
          4. 5.4.1.4. Consensus Building
          5. 5.4.1.5. Brainstorming
          6. 5.4.1.6. Team Meetings
            1. 5.4.1.6.1. Daily Status Meetings
            2. 5.4.1.6.2. Problem Resolution Meetings
            3. 5.4.1.6.3. Project Review Meetings
        2. 5.4.2. Team War Room
          1. 5.4.2.1. Physical Layout
          2. 5.4.2.2. Variations
          3. 5.4.2.3. Operational Uses
      5. 5.5. Managing Scope Changes
        1. 5.5.1. The Scope Change Management Process
        2. 5.5.2. Management Reserve
        3. 5.5.3. Scope Bank
      6. 5.6. Managing Team Communications
        1. 5.6.1. Establishing a Communications Model
          1. 5.6.1.1. Timing
          2. 5.6.1.2. Content
          3. 5.6.1.3. Choosing Effective Channels
        2. 5.6.2. Managing Communication beyond the Team
          1. 5.6.2.1. Managing Communications with the Sponsor
          2. 5.6.2.2. Upward Communication Filtering and "Good News"
          3. 5.6.2.3. Communicating with Other Stakeholders
      7. 5.7. Assigning Resources
        1. 5.7.1. Leveling Resources
        2. 5.7.2. Acceptably Leveled Schedule
      8. 5.8. Resource-Leveling Strategies
        1. 5.8.1. Utilizing Available Slack
        2. 5.8.2. Shifting the Project Finish Date
        3. 5.8.3. Smoothing
        4. 5.8.4. Alternative Methods of Scheduling Tasks
          1. 5.8.4.1. Further Decomposition of Tasks
          2. 5.8.4.2. Stretching Tasks
          3. 5.8.4.3. Assigning Substitute Resources
        5. 5.8.5. Cost Impact of Resource Leveling
      9. 5.9. Finalizing the Project Schedule
      10. 5.10. Writing Work Packages
        1. 5.10.1. Purpose of a Work Package
        2. 5.10.2. Format of a Work Package
          1. 5.10.2.1. Work Package Assignment Sheet
          2. 5.10.2.2. Work Package Description Report
      11. 5.11. Putting It All Together
      12. 5.12. Discussion Questions
    6. 6. How to Monitor and Control a Project
      1. 6.1. Tools, Templates, and Processes Used to Monitor and Control a Project
      2. 6.2. Establishing Your Progress Reporting System
        1. 6.2.1. Types of Project Status Reports
          1. 6.2.1.1. Current Period Reports
          2. 6.2.1.2. Cumulative Reports
          3. 6.2.1.3. Exception Reports
          4. 6.2.1.4. Stoplight Reports
          5. 6.2.1.5. Variance Reports
        2. 6.2.2. How and What Information to Update
        3. 6.2.3. Frequency of Gathering and Reporting Project Progress
        4. 6.2.4. Variances
          1. 6.2.4.1. Positive Variances
          2. 6.2.4.2. Negative Variances
      3. 6.3. Applying Graphical Reporting Tools
        1. 6.3.1. Gantt Charts
        2. 6.3.2. Stoplight Reports
        3. 6.3.3. Burn Charts
        4. 6.3.4. Milestone Trend Charts
        5. 6.3.5. Earned Value Analysis
        6. 6.3.6. Integrating Milestone Trend Charts and Earned Value Analysis
          1. 6.3.6.1. Integrating Earned Value
          2. 6.3.6.2. Integrating Milestone Trend Data
      4. 6.4. Managing the Scope Bank
      5. 6.5. Building and Maintaining the Issues Log
      6. 6.6. Managing Project Status Meetings
        1. 6.6.1. Who Should Attend Status Meetings?
        2. 6.6.2. When Are Status Meetings Held?
        3. 6.6.3. What Is the Purpose of a Status Meeting?
        4. 6.6.4. What Is the Status Meeting Format?
        5. 6.6.5. The 15-Minute Daily Status Meeting
        6. 6.6.6. Problem Management Meetings
      7. 6.7. Defining a Problem Escalation Strategy
        1. 6.7.1. Project Manager-Based Strategies
        2. 6.7.2. Resource Manager-Based Strategies
        3. 6.7.3. Client-Based Strategies
        4. 6.7.4. The Escalation Strategy Hierarchy
      8. 6.8. Gaining Approval to Close the Project
      9. 6.9. Putting It All Together
      10. 6.10. Discussion Questions
    7. 7. How to Close a Project
      1. 7.1. Tools, Templates, and Processes Used to Close a Project
      2. 7.2. Writing and Maintaining Client Acceptance Procedures
      3. 7.3. Closing a Project
      4. 7.4. Getting Client Acceptance
        1. 7.4.1. Ceremonial Acceptance
        2. 7.4.2. Formal Acceptance
      5. 7.5. Installing Project Deliverables
        1. 7.5.1. Phased Approach
        2. 7.5.2. Cut-Over Approach
        3. 7.5.3. Parallel Approach
        4. 7.5.4. By-Business-Unit Approach
      6. 7.6. Documenting the Project
        1. 7.6.1. Reference for Future Changes in Deliverables
        2. 7.6.2. Historical Record for Estimating Duration and Cost on Future Projects, Activities, and Tasks
        3. 7.6.3. Training Resource for New Project Managers
        4. 7.6.4. Input for Further Training and Development of the Project Team
        5. 7.6.5. Input for Performance Evaluation by the Functional Managers of the Project Team Members
      7. 7.7. Conducting the Post-Implementation Audit
      8. 7.8. Writing the Final Report
      9. 7.9. Celebrating Success
      10. 7.10. Putting It All Together
      11. 7.11. Discussion Questions
  8. II. Establishing Project Management Life Cycles and Strategies
    1. 8. Project Management Landscape
      1. 8.1. Assessing Goal and Solution Clarity and Completeness
        1. 8.1.1. Traditional Project Management (TPM) Approaches
          1. 8.1.1.1. Low Complexity
          2. 8.1.1.2. Few Scope Change Requests
          3. 8.1.1.3. Well-Understood Technology Infrastructure
          4. 8.1.1.4. Low Risk
          5. 8.1.1.5. Experienced and Skilled Project Teams
          6. 8.1.1.6. Plan-driven TPM Projects
        2. 8.1.2. Agile Project Management (APM) Approaches
          1. 8.1.2.1. A Critical Problem without a Known Solution
          2. 8.1.2.2. A Previously Untapped Business Opportunity
          3. 8.1.2.3. APM Projects Are Critical to the Organization
          4. 8.1.2.4. Meaningful Client Involvement Is Essential
          5. 8.1.2.5. APM Projects Use Small Co-located Teams
        3. 8.1.3. Extreme Project Management (xPM) Approaches
          1. 8.1.3.1. The xPM Project Is a Research and Development Project
          2. 8.1.3.2. The xPM Project Is Very High Risk
        4. 8.1.4. Emertxe Project Management (MPx) Approaches
          1. 8.1.4.1. A New Technology without a Known Application
          2. 8.1.4.2. A Solution Out Looking for a Problem to Solve
      2. 8.2. Understanding the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain of Projects
        1. 8.2.1. Requirements
        2. 8.2.2. Flexibility
        3. 8.2.3. Adaptability
        4. 8.2.4. Change
        5. 8.2.5. Risk vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain
        6. 8.2.6. Team Cohesiveness vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain
        7. 8.2.7. Communications vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain
        8. 8.2.8. Client Involvement vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain
          1. 8.2.8.1. The Client's Comfort Zone
          2. 8.2.8.2. Ownership by the Client
          3. 8.2.8.3. Client Sign-Off
        9. 8.2.9. Specification vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain
        10. 8.2.10. Change vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain
        11. 8.2.11. Business Value vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain
      3. 8.3. Additional Factors Affecting the Choice of Best-Fit PMLC Model
        1. 8.3.1. Total Cost
        2. 8.3.2. Duration
        3. 8.3.3. Market Stability
        4. 8.3.4. Technology
        5. 8.3.5. Business Climate
        6. 8.3.6. Number of Departments Affected
        7. 8.3.7. Organizational Environment
        8. 8.3.8. Team Skills and Competencies
      4. 8.4. Introducing Project Management Life Cycles
        1. 8.4.1. Traditional Project Management Approaches
          1. 8.4.1.1. Linear Project Management Life Cycle Model
          2. 8.4.1.2. Incremental Project Management Life Cycle Model
        2. 8.4.2. Agile Project Management Approaches
          1. 8.4.2.1. Iterative Project Management Life Cycle Model
          2. 8.4.2.2. Adaptive Project Management Life Cycle Model
        3. 8.4.3. Extreme Project Management Approach
        4. 8.4.4. Emertxe Project Management Life Cycle Model
        5. 8.4.5. Recap of PMLC Models
          1. 8.4.5.1. Similarities between the PMLC Models
          2. 8.4.5.2. Differences between the PMLC Models
      5. 8.5. Choosing the Best-Fit PMLC Model
      6. 8.6. Putting It All Together
      7. 8.7. Discussion Questions
    2. 9. Traditional Project Management
      1. 9.1. What Is Traditional Project Management?
      2. 9.2. Linear Project Management Life Cycle
        1. 9.2.1. Definition
        2. 9.2.2. Characteristics
          1. 9.2.2.1. Complete and Clearly Defined Goal, Solution, Requirements, Functions, and Features
          2. 9.2.2.2. Few Expected Scope Change Requests
          3. 9.2.2.3. Routine and Repetitive Activities
            1. 9.2.2.3.1. Build and Use a Library of Templates
            2. 9.2.2.3.2. Keep and Post the History of Lessons Learned
            3. 9.2.2.3.3. Keep a History of Estimated and Actual Task Duration
            4. 9.2.2.3.4. Keep a History of Risks, Your Mitigation Plans, and the Results
          4. 9.2.2.4. Benefits of Using Established Templates
            1. 9.2.2.4.1. Increases Standard Practices
            2. 9.2.2.4.2. Provides Learning Modules for New Project Managers
            3. 9.2.2.4.3. Establishes an Archive of Project Artifacts
            4. 9.2.2.4.4. Provides Input for Process and Practice Improvement Programs
        3. 9.2.3. Strengths
          1. 9.2.3.1. Entire Project Is Scheduled at the Beginning of the Project
          2. 9.2.3.2. Resource Requirements Are Known from the Start
          3. 9.2.3.3. The Linear PMLC Model Does Not Require the Most Skilled Team Members
          4. 9.2.3.4. Team Members Do Not Have to be Co-Located
        4. 9.2.4. Weaknesses
          1. 9.2.4.1. Does Not Accommodate Change Very Well
          2. 9.2.4.2. Costs Too Much
          3. 9.2.4.3. Takes Too Long before Any Deliverables Are Produced
          4. 9.2.4.4. Requires Complete and Detailed Plans
          5. 9.2.4.5. Must Follow a Rigid Sequence of Processes
          6. 9.2.4.6. Is Not Focused on Client Value
        5. 9.2.5. When to Use a Linear PMLC Model
        6. 9.2.6. Variations to the Linear PMLC Model
          1. 9.2.6.1. The Rapid Linear PMLC Model
          2. 9.2.6.2. Feature-Driven Development Linear PMLC Model
          3. 9.2.6.3. Considerations in Choosing a Variation
            1. 9.2.6.3.1. Decomposing the Project into Parallel and Independent Swim Lanes
            2. 9.2.6.3.2. Swim Lane Cohesiveness
            3. 9.2.6.3.3. Increased Risk
        7. 9.2.7. Adapting and Integrating the Tools, Templates, and Processes for Maximum Effectiveness
      3. 9.3. Incremental Project Management Life Cycle
        1. 9.3.1. Definition
        2. 9.3.2. Characteristics
        3. 9.3.3. Strengths
          1. 9.3.3.1. Produces Business Value Early in the Project
          2. 9.3.3.2. Enables You to Better Schedule Scarce Resources
          3. 9.3.3.3. Can Accommodate Minor Scope Change Requests Between Increments
          4. 9.3.3.4. Offers a Product Improvement Opportunity
          5. 9.3.3.5. More Focused on Client Value Than the Linear PMLC Model
        4. 9.3.4. Weaknesses
          1. 9.3.4.1. The Team May Not Remain Intact Between Increments
          2. 9.3.4.2. This Model Requires Handoff Documentation Between Increments
          3. 9.3.4.3. The Model Must Follow a Defined Set of Processes
          4. 9.3.4.4. You Must Define Increments Based on Function and Feature Dependencies Rather Than Business Value
          5. 9.3.4.5. You Must Have More Client Involvement Than Linear PMLC Models
          6. 9.3.4.6. An Incremental PMLC Model Takes Longer Than the Linear PMLC Model
          7. 9.3.4.7. Partitioning the Functions May Be Problematic
        5. 9.3.5. When to Use an Incremental PMLC
        6. 9.3.6. Adapting and Integrating the Tools, Templates, and Processes for Maximum Effectiveness
      4. 9.4. Putting It All Together
      5. 9.5. Discussion Questions
    3. 10. Using Critical Chain Project Management
      1. 10.1. What Is the Critical Chain?
      2. 10.2. Variation in Duration: Common Cause versus Special Cause
      3. 10.3. Statistical Validation of the Critical Chain Approach
      4. 10.4. The Critical Chain Project Management Approach
        1. 10.4.1. Step 1: Creating the Early Schedule Project Network Diagram
        2. 10.4.2. Step 2: Converting the Early Schedule to the Late Schedule and Adding Resources
        3. 10.4.3. Step 3: Resolving Resource Conflicts
      5. 10.5. Establishing Buffers
        1. 10.5.1. Defining Buffers
        2. 10.5.2. Types of Buffers
          1. 10.5.2.1. Project Buffers
          2. 10.5.2.2. Feeding Buffers
          3. 10.5.2.3. Resource Buffers
          4. 10.5.2.4. Other Buffers
      6. 10.6. Using Buffers
      7. 10.7. Managing Buffers
        1. 10.7.1. Penetration into the First Third of the Buffer
        2. 10.7.2. Penetration into the Middle Third of the Buffer
        3. 10.7.3. Penetration into the Final Third of the Buffer
      8. 10.8. Track Record of Critical Chain Project Management
      9. 10.9. Putting It All Together
      10. 10.10. Discussion Questions
    4. 11. Agile Project Management
      1. 11.1. What Is Agile Project Management?
        1. 11.1.1. Implementing APM Projects
          1. 11.1.1.1. Fully Supported Production Versions of Partial Solutions Are Released to the End User Quarterly or Semi-Annually
          2. 11.1.1.2. Intermediate Versions Are Released to a Focus Group Every 2 – 4 Weeks
        2. 11.1.2. Co-Located APM Project Teams
          1. 11.1.2.1. Cross-Project Dependencies
          2. 11.1.2.2. Project Portfolio Management
      2. 11.2. Iterative Project Management Life Cycle
        1. 11.2.1. Definition of the Iterative PMLC Model
          1. 11.2.1.1. Most of the Solution Is Clearly Known
          2. 11.2.1.2. Likely to be Multiple Scope Change Requests
          3. 11.2.1.3. Concern about Lack of Client Involvement
        2. 11.2.2. Scoping Phase of an Iterative PMLC Model
        3. 11.2.3. Planning Phase of an Iterative PMLC Model
          1. 11.2.3.1. The Complete Plan for Building the Known Solution
          2. 11.2.3.2. The Partial Plan for the High-Priority Functions
        4. 11.2.4. Launching Phase of an Iterative PMLC Model
        5. 11.2.5. Monitoring and Controlling Phase of an Iterative PMLC Model
        6. 11.2.6. Closing Phase of an Iterative PMLC Model
        7. 11.2.7. Characteristics
          1. 11.2.7.1. The Solution is Known, But Not to the Expected Depth
          2. 11.2.7.2. Often Uses Iconic or Simulated Prototypes to Discover the Complete Solution
        8. 11.2.8. Strengths
          1. 11.2.8.1. Client Reviews Current Partial Solution for Improvement
          2. 11.2.8.2. Can Process Scope Changes Between Iterations
          3. 11.2.8.3. Adaptable to Changing Business Conditions
        9. 11.2.9. Weaknesses
          1. 11.2.9.1. Requires a More Actively Involved Client Than TPM projects
          2. 11.2.9.2. Requires Co-Located Teams
          3. 11.2.9.3. Difficult to Implement Intermediate Solutions
          4. 11.2.9.4. Final Solution Cannot Be Defined at the Start of the Project
        10. 11.2.10. Types of Iterative PMLC Models
          1. 11.2.10.1. Prototyping PMLC Model
          2. 11.2.10.2. Rational Unified Process (RUP)
            1. 11.2.10.2.1. Inception
            2. 11.2.10.2.2. Elaboration
            3. 11.2.10.2.3. Construction
            4. 11.2.10.2.4. Transition
        11. 11.2.11. When to Use an Iterative PMLC Model
          1. 11.2.11.1. Intuitive to the Client
          2. 11.2.11.2. Easily Engages the Client
          3. 11.2.11.3. Immediate Feedback on the Effect of Solution Change
          4. 11.2.11.4. Tolerant of Assessing and Evaluating the Impact of Alternatives
          5. 11.2.11.5. No Fixed Deadline for Completion
      3. 11.3. Adaptive Project Management Life Cycle
        1. 11.3.1. Definition
          1. 11.3.1.1. Scoping Phase of an Adaptive PMLC Model
          2. 11.3.1.2. Planning Phase of an Adaptive PMLC Model
          3. 11.3.1.3. Launching Phase of an Adaptive PMLC Model
          4. 11.3.1.4. Monitoring and Controlling Phase of an Adaptive PMLC Model
            1. 11.3.1.4.1. Increasing at an Increasing Rate
            2. 11.3.1.4.2. Increasing at a Decreasing Rate
            3. 11.3.1.4.3. Decreasing at an Increasing Rate
          5. 11.3.1.5. Closing Phase of an Adaptive PMLC Model
        2. 11.3.2. Characteristics
          1. 11.3.2.1. Iterative Structure
          2. 11.3.2.2. Just-in-Time Planning
          3. 11.3.2.3. Critical Mission Projects
          4. 11.3.2.4. Thrives on Change through Learning and Discovery
        3. 11.3.3. Strengths
          1. 11.3.3.1. Does Not Waste Time on Non-Value-Added Work
          2. 11.3.3.2. Avoids All Management Issues Processing Scope Change Requests
          3. 11.3.3.3. Does Not Waste Time Planning Uncertainty
          4. 11.3.3.4. Provides Maximum Business Value Within the Given Time and Cost Constraints
        4. 11.3.4. Weaknesses of the Adaptive PMLC Model
          1. 11.3.4.1. Must Have Meaningful Client Involvement
          2. 11.3.4.2. Cannot Identify Exactly What Will Be Delivered at the End of the Project
        5. 11.3.5. Types of Adaptive PMLC Models
          1. 11.3.5.1. Adaptive Software Development (ASD)
            1. 11.3.5.1.1. Speculate
            2. 11.3.5.1.2. Collaborate
            3. 11.3.5.1.3. Learn
          2. 11.3.5.2. Adaptive Project Framework
            1. 11.3.5.2.1. What is the Adaptive Project Framework?
            2. 11.3.5.2.2. APF Core Values
            3. 11.3.5.2.3. Version Scope
            4. 11.3.5.2.4. Prioritization Approaches
            5. 11.3.5.2.5. Cycle Plan
            6. 11.3.5.2.6. Cycle Build
            7. 11.3.5.2.7. Client Checkpoint
            8. 11.3.5.2.8. The Updated Contents of the Scope Bank
            9. 11.3.5.2.9. Post-Version Review
            10. 11.3.5.2.10. Adapting APF
            11. 11.3.5.2.11. Implementing APF
            12. 11.3.5.2.12. Value of APF to Organizations
          3. 11.3.5.3. Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)
          4. 11.3.5.4. Scrum
            1. 11.3.5.4.1. Idea Proposed
            2. 11.3.5.4.2. Developing and Prioritizing a List of Functionality
            3. 11.3.5.4.3. Sprint Planning Meeting
            4. 11.3.5.4.4. Demo Sprint Functionality
        6. 11.3.6. When to Use an Adaptive PMLC Model
          1. 11.3.6.1. Has the Client Had Successful Adaptive Project Experience Before?
          2. 11.3.6.2. Will this First-Time Adaptive Project Client Be Meaningfully Involved?
            1. 11.3.6.2.1. Review the Six Questions from Chapter 2
            2. 11.3.6.2.2. Provide a Brief Overview of the Adaptive PMLC Model
            3. 11.3.6.2.3. Continuously Review the Model during the Project
          3. 11.3.6.3. Has the Client Appointed a Qualified Co-Project Manager?
      4. 11.4. Adapting and Integrating the APM Toolkit
        1. 11.4.1. Scoping the Next Iteration/Cycle
        2. 11.4.2. Planning the Next Iteration/Cycle
        3. 11.4.3. Launching the Next Iteration/Cycle
        4. 11.4.4. Monitoring and Controlling the Next Iteration/Cycle
        5. 11.4.5. Closing the Next Iteration/Cycle
        6. 11.4.6. Deciding to Conduct the Next Iteration/Cycle
        7. 11.4.7. Closing the Project
      5. 11.5. Putting It All Together
      6. 11.6. Discussion Questions
    5. 12. Extreme Project Management
      1. 12.1. What Is Extreme Project Management?
      2. 12.2. Extreme Project Management Life Cycle
        1. 12.2.1. Definition
        2. 12.2.2. Characteristics
          1. 12.2.2.1. High Speed
          2. 12.2.2.2. High Change
          3. 12.2.2.3. High Uncertainty
        3. 12.2.3. Strengths
          1. 12.2.3.1. Keeps Options Open as Late as Possible
          2. 12.2.3.2. Offers an Early Look at a Number of Partial Solutions
        4. 12.2.4. Weaknesses
          1. 12.2.4.1. May Be Looking for Solutions in All the Wrong Places
          2. 12.2.4.2. No Guarantee That Any Business Value Will Result from the Project Deliverables
        5. 12.2.5. INSPIRE Extreme PMLC Model
          1. 12.2.5.1. INitiate
            1. 12.2.5.1.1. Defining the Project Goal
            2. 12.2.5.1.2. INSPIRE Project Overview Statement
            3. 12.2.5.1.3. Establishing a Project Timebox and Cost
            4. 12.2.5.1.4. Establishing the Number of Phases and Phase Length
            5. 12.2.5.1.5. Trade-Offs in the Scope Triangle
          2. 12.2.5.2. SPeculate
            1. 12.2.5.2.1. Defining How the Project Will Be Done
            2. 12.2.5.2.2. Conditions of Satisfaction
            3. 12.2.5.2.3. Scenarios, Stories, and Use Cases
            4. 12.2.5.2.4. Prioritizing Requirements
            5. 12.2.5.2.5. Identifying the First-Phase Deliverables
            6. 12.2.5.2.6. Go/No-Go Decision
            7. 12.2.5.2.7. Planning for Later Phases
          3. 12.2.5.3. Incubate
            1. 12.2.5.3.1. Assigning Resources
            2. 12.2.5.3.2. Establishing a Phase Plan
            3. 12.2.5.3.3. Collaboratively Producing Deliverables
          4. 12.2.5.4. REview
            1. 12.2.5.4.1. Applying Learning and Discovery from the Previous Phase
            2. 12.2.5.4.2. Revising the Project Goal
            3. 12.2.5.4.3. Reprioritizing Requirements
            4. 12.2.5.4.4. Making the Go/No-Go Decision for the Next Phase
      3. 12.3. What Is Emertxe Project Management?
        1. 12.3.1. The Emertxe Project Management Life Cycle
        2. 12.3.2. When to Use an Emertxe PMLC Model
          1. 12.3.2.1. Research and Development Projects
          2. 12.3.2.2. Problem-Solution Projects
      4. 12.4. Using the Tools, Templates, and Processes for Maximum xPM Effectiveness
        1. 12.4.1. Scoping the Next Phase
        2. 12.4.2. Planning the Next Phase
        3. 12.4.3. Launching the Next Phase
        4. 12.4.4. Monitoring and Controlling the Next Phase
        5. 12.4.5. Closing the Phase
        6. 12.4.6. Deciding to Conduct the Next Phase
        7. 12.4.7. Closing the Project
      5. 12.5. Putting It All Together
      6. 12.6. Discussion Questions
  9. III. Building an Effective Project Management Infrastructure
    1. 13. Establishing and Maturing a Project Support Office
      1. 13.1. Background of the Project Support Office
      2. 13.2. Defining a Project Support Office
        1. 13.2.1. Temporary or Permanent Organizational Unit
        2. 13.2.2. Portfolio of Services
        3. 13.2.3. Specific Portfolio of Projects
      3. 13.3. Naming the Project Support Office
      4. 13.4. Establishing Your PSO's Mission
      5. 13.5. Framing PSO Objectives
      6. 13.6. Exploring PSO Support Functions
        1. 13.6.1. Project Support
        2. 13.6.2. Consulting and Mentoring
        3. 13.6.3. Methods and Standards
        4. 13.6.4. Software Tools
        5. 13.6.5. Training
        6. 13.6.6. Staffing and Development
          1. 13.6.6.1. Project Manager Resources
          2. 13.6.6.2. Project Team Members
      7. 13.7. Selecting PSO Organizational Structures
        1. 13.7.1. Virtual versus Real
        2. 13.7.2. Proactive versus Reactive
        3. 13.7.3. Temporary versus Permanent
        4. 13.7.4. Program versus Projects
        5. 13.7.5. Enterprise versus Functional
        6. 13.7.6. Hub-and-Spoke
      8. 13.8. Understanding the Organizational Placement of the PSO
      9. 13.9. Determining When You Need a Project Support Office
        1. 13.9.1. The Standish Group Report
          1. 13.9.1.1. User Involvement
          2. 13.9.1.2. Executive Management Support
          3. 13.9.1.3. Clear Business Objectives
          4. 13.9.1.4. Agile Optimization
          5. 13.9.1.5. Emotional Maturity
          6. 13.9.1.6. Project Management Expertise
          7. 13.9.1.7. Financial Management
          8. 13.9.1.8. Skilled Resources
          9. 13.9.1.9. Formal Methodology
          10. 13.9.1.10. Tools and Infrastructure
        2. 13.9.2. Spotting Symptoms That You Need a PSO
      10. 13.10. Establishing a PSO
        1. 13.10.1. PSO Stages of Maturity Growth
          1. 13.10.1.1. Level 1: Initial
          2. 13.10.1.2. Level 2: Repeatable
          3. 13.10.1.3. Level 3: Defined
          4. 13.10.1.4. Level 4: Managed
          5. 13.10.1.5. Level 5: Optimized
        2. 13.10.2. Planning a PSO
          1. 13.10.2.1. The POS
            1. 13.10.2.1.1. Problem/Opportunity
            2. 13.10.2.1.2. Goal
            3. 13.10.2.1.3. Objectives
            4. 13.10.2.1.4. Success Criteria
            5. 13.10.2.1.5. Assumptions, Risks, Obstacles
          2. 13.10.2.2. Planning Steps
            1. 13.10.2.2.1. Forming the PSO Task Force
            2. 13.10.2.2.2. Measuring Where You Are
            3. 13.10.2.2.3. Establishing Where You Want To Go
            4. 13.10.2.2.4. Establishing How You Will Get There
      11. 13.11. Facing the Challenges of Implementing a PSO
        1. 13.11.1. Speed and Patience
        2. 13.11.2. Leadership from the Bottom Up
        3. 13.11.3. A Systems Thinking Perspective
        4. 13.11.4. Enterprise-Wide Systems
        5. 13.11.5. Knowledge Management
        6. 13.11.6. Learning and Learned Project Organizations
        7. 13.11.7. Open Communications
      12. 13.12. Putting It All Together
      13. 13.13. Discussion Questions
    2. 14. Establishing and Managing a Project Portfolio Management Process
      1. 14.1. Introduction to Project Portfolio Management
        1. 14.1.1. Portfolio Management Concepts
          1. 14.1.1.1. What Is a Portfolio Project?
          2. 14.1.1.2. What Is a Project Portfolio?
          3. 14.1.1.3. What Is Project Portfolio Management?
      2. 14.2. The Project Portfolio Management Life Cycle
        1. 14.2.1. ESTABLISH a Portfolio Strategy
          1. 14.2.1.1. Strategic Alignment Model
            1. 14.2.1.1.1. Value/Mission
            2. 14.2.1.1.2. Goals
            3. 14.2.1.1.3. Objectives
            4. 14.2.1.1.4. Tactics
            5. 14.2.1.1.5. How Are You Going to Allocate Your Resources?
          2. 14.2.1.2. Boston Consulting Group Products/Services Matrix
            1. 14.2.1.2.1. Cash Cows
            2. 14.2.1.2.2. Dogs
            3. 14.2.1.2.3. Stars
            4. 14.2.1.2.4. ?
            5. 14.2.1.2.5. How Are You Going to Allocate Your Resources?
          3. 14.2.1.3. Project Distribution Matrix
            1. 14.2.1.3.1. New, Enhancement, or Maintenance
            2. 14.2.1.3.2. Strategic, Tactical, or Operational
            3. 14.2.1.3.3. How Are You Going to Allocate Your Resources?
          4. 14.2.1.4. Growth versus Survival Model
          5. 14.2.1.5. Project Investment Categories Model
          6. 14.2.1.6. Choosing Where to Apply these Models
            1. 14.2.1.6.1. Corporate Level
            2. 14.2.1.6.2. Functional Level
        2. 14.2.2. EVALUATE Project Alignment to the Portfolio Strategy
        3. 14.2.3. PRIORITIZE Projects and Hold Pending Funding Authorization
          1. 14.2.3.1. Forced Ranking
          2. 14.2.3.2. Q-Sort
          3. 14.2.3.3. Must-Do, Should-Do, Postpone
          4. 14.2.3.4. Criteria Weighting
          5. 14.2.3.5. Paired Comparisons Model
          6. 14.2.3.6. Risk/Benefit
        4. 14.2.4. SELECT a Balanced Portfolio Using the Prioritized List
          1. 14.2.4.1. Balancing the Portfolio
          2. 14.2.4.2. Strategic Alignment Model and Weighted Criteria
          3. 14.2.4.3. Project Distribution Matrix and Forced Ranking Model
          4. 14.2.4.4. Graham-Englund Selection Model and the Risk/Benefit Matrix
            1. 14.2.4.4.1. What Should We Do?
            2. 14.2.4.4.2. What Can We Do?
            3. 14.2.4.4.3. What Will We Do?
            4. 14.2.4.4.4. How Will We Do It?
          5. 14.2.4.5. Balancing Using Partial Funding or Staffing of Projects
        5. 14.2.5. MANAGE the Active Projects
          1. 14.2.5.1. Project Status
            1. 14.2.5.1.1. On Plan
            2. 14.2.5.1.2. Off Plan
            3. 14.2.5.1.3. In Trouble
          2. 14.2.5.2. The Role of the Project Manager
        6. 14.2.6. Reporting Portfolio Performance
          1. 14.2.6.1. Schedule Performance Index and Cost Performance Index
          2. 14.2.6.2. SPI and CPI Trend Charts
          3. 14.2.6.3. Spotting Out-of-Control Situations
        7. 14.2.7. Closing Projects in the Portfolio
          1. 14.2.7.1. Attainment of Explicit Business Value
          2. 14.2.7.2. Lessons Learned
      3. 14.3. Roles and Responsibilities of the PSO in Portfolio Management
        1. 14.3.1. Project Sponsor
        2. 14.3.2. Portfolio Manager
          1. 14.3.2.1. Proposal Intake and Evaluation
          2. 14.3.2.2. Project Prioritization
          3. 14.3.2.3. Selection Support to the Portfolio Manager
          4. 14.3.2.4. Monitoring and Reporting to the Portfolio Manager
          5. 14.3.2.5. Facilitate Project Review Sessions
      4. 14.4. Preparing Your Project for Submission to the Portfolio Management Process
        1. 14.4.1. A Revised Project Overview Statement
          1. 14.4.1.1. Parts of the POS
          2. 14.4.1.2. POS Attachments
        2. 14.4.2. A Two-Step Submission Process
        3. 14.4.3. A New Submission Process
      5. 14.5. Agile Project Portfolio Management
      6. 14.6. Putting It All Together
      7. 14.7. Discussion Questions
    3. 15. Establishing and Managing a Continuous Process Improvement Program
      1. 15.1. Understanding Project Management Processes and Practices
        1. 15.1.1. The Project Management Process
          1. 15.1.1.1. How Was It Developed?
          2. 15.1.1.2. How Complete Is It?
          3. 15.1.1.3. How Is It Documented?
          4. 15.1.1.4. How Is It Supported?
          5. 15.1.1.5. How Is It Updated?
        2. 15.1.2. The Practice of the Project Management Process
          1. 15.1.2.1. Are All Project Managers Required to Use the Process?
          2. 15.1.2.2. Can Project Managers Substitute Other Tools, Templates, and Processes as They Deem Appropriate?
          3. 15.1.2.3. Is There a Way to Incorporate Best Practices into the Practice of the Project Management Process?
          4. 15.1.2.4. How Are Project Managers Monitored for Compliance?
          5. 15.1.2.5. How Are Corrective Action Steps Taken to Correct for Noncompliance?
          6. 15.1.2.6. How Are Project Manager Practices Monitored for Best Practices?
      2. 15.2. Defining Process and Practice Maturity
        1. 15.2.1. Level 1: Ad hoc or Informal
        2. 15.2.2. Level 2: Documented Processes
        3. 15.2.3. Level 3: Documented Processes That Everyone Uses
        4. 15.2.4. Level 4: Integrated into Business Processes
        5. 15.2.5. Level 5: Continuous Improvement
      3. 15.3. Measuring Project Management Process and Practice Maturity
        1. 15.3.1. The Process Quality Matrix and Zone Map
        2. 15.3.2. What Process Has Been Defined So Far?
          1. 15.3.2.1. Step 1: Define the Process
          2. 15.3.2.2. Step 2: Validate and Finalize the PQM
          3. 15.3.2.3. Step 3: Establish Correlations
          4. 15.3.2.4. Step 4: Establish Metrics
          5. 15.3.2.5. Step 5: Assess Project Managers against the PMMA
          6. 15.3.2.6. Step 6: Assess Maturity Levels
          7. 15.3.2.7. Step 7: Plot Results on the PQM Zone Map
      4. 15.4. Using the Continuous Process Improvement Model
        1. 15.4.1. Phase 1: Foundation
          1. 15.4.1.1. Develop Mission/Vision Statement
          2. 15.4.1.2. Identify CSFs
          3. 15.4.1.3. Identify Business Processes
          4. 15.4.1.4. Relate CSFs to Business Processes
        2. 15.4.2. Phase 2: Assessment and Analysis
          1. 15.4.2.1. Conduct Gap Analysis
          2. 15.4.2.2. Select Knowledge Area or PM Process
          3. 15.4.2.3. Identify Improvement Opportunities
          4. 15.4.2.4. Analyze Improvement Opportunities
        3. 15.4.3. Phase 3: Improvement Initiatives
          1. 15.4.3.1. Define the Project Scope
          2. 15.4.3.2. Plan Project Activities
          3. 15.4.3.3. Schedule Project Work
          4. 15.4.3.4. Monitor Project Progress
        4. 15.4.4. Phase 4: Check Results
      5. 15.5. Defining Roles and Responsibilities of the PSO
      6. 15.6. Realizing the Benefits of Implementing a CPIM
      7. 15.7. Applying CPIM to Business Processes
        1. 15.7.1. Characteristics of Business Processes
          1. 15.7.1.1. Process Effectiveness
          2. 15.7.1.2. Process Efficiency
          3. 15.7.1.3. Streamlining Tools
            1. 15.7.1.3.1. Bureaucracy Elimination
            2. 15.7.1.3.2. Duplication Elimination
            3. 15.7.1.3.3. Value-Added Assessment
            4. 15.7.1.3.4. Simplification
            5. 15.7.1.3.5. Process Cycle-Time Reduction
            6. 15.7.1.3.6. Error Proofing
            7. 15.7.1.3.7. Upgrading
            8. 15.7.1.3.8. Simple Language
            9. 15.7.1.3.9. Standardization
            10. 15.7.1.3.10. Supplier Partnership
            11. 15.7.1.3.11. Big-picture Improvement
        2. 15.7.2. Watching Indicators of Needed Improvement
        3. 15.7.3. Documenting the "As Is" Business Process
        4. 15.7.4. Envisioning the "To Be" State
        5. 15.7.5. Defining the Gap between "As Is" and "To Be"
        6. 15.7.6. Defining a Business Process Improvement Project
      8. 15.8. Using Process Improvement Tools, Templates, and Processes
        1. 15.8.1. Fishbone Diagrams and Root Cause Analysis
        2. 15.8.2. Control Charts
        3. 15.8.3. Flowcharting
        4. 15.8.4. Histograms
        5. 15.8.5. Pareto Analysis
        6. 15.8.6. Run Charts
        7. 15.8.7. Scatter Diagrams
        8. 15.8.8. Force Field Analysis
        9. 15.8.9. Trigger Values
      9. 15.9. Putting It All Together
      10. 15.10. Discussion Questions
  10. IV. Managing the Realities of Projects
    1. 16. Managing Distressed Projects
      1. 16.1. What Is a Distressed Project?
        1. 16.1.1. Why Projects Become Distressed or Fail
          1. 16.1.1.1. Poor, Inadequate, or No Requirements Documentation
          2. 16.1.1.2. Inappropriate or Insufficient Sponsorship
          3. 16.1.1.3. Complexity of Requirements Not Recognized
          4. 16.1.1.4. Unwillingness to Make Tough Decisions
          5. 16.1.1.5. Lag Time between Project Approval and Kick-Off
          6. 16.1.1.6. No Plan Revision after Significant Cuts in Resources or Time
          7. 16.1.1.7. Estimates Done with Little Planning or Thought
          8. 16.1.1.8. Overcommitment of Staff Resources
          9. 16.1.1.9. Inconsistent Client Sign-Off
          10. 16.1.1.10. No Credibility in the Baseline Plan
          11. 16.1.1.11. Unmanageable Project Scope
      2. 16.2. Managing Distressed Projects
        1. 16.2.1. Prevention Management Strategies
        2. 16.2.2. Using Tools, Templates, and Processes to Prevent Distressed Projects
          1. 16.2.2.1. Requirements Gathering
          2. 16.2.2.2. WBS Construction
          3. 16.2.2.3. Dynamic Risk Management Process
          4. 16.2.2.4. Scope Change Management Process
          5. 16.2.2.5. Milestone Trend Charts
          6. 16.2.2.6. Earned Value Analysis
            1. 16.2.2.6.1. Schedule Performance Index
            2. 16.2.2.6.2. Cost Performance Index
            3. 16.2.2.6.3. Integrating Milestone Trend Charts and Earned Value
        3. 16.2.3. Intervention Management Strategies
          1. 16.2.3.1. Analyze Current Situation: Where Are We?
            1. 16.2.3.1.1. On the Road to Root Causes–Project Conception
            2. 16.2.3.1.2. On the Road to Root Causes—Project Planning and Initiation
            3. 16.2.3.1.3. On the Road to Root Causes—Solution Definition
            4. 16.2.3.1.4. On the Road to Root Causes—Solution Development
            5. 16.2.3.1.5. On the Road to Root Causes—Solution Implementation
          2. 16.2.3.2. Revise Desired Goal: Where Can We Go?
            1. 16.2.3.2.1. The Workshop
            2. 16.2.3.2.2. The Process of Revising the Original Goal
          3. 16.2.3.3. Evaluate Options: How Can We Get There?
            1. 16.2.3.3.1. Brainstorm Potential Project Options
            2. 16.2.3.3.2. Prioritize Options
            3. 16.2.3.3.3. Conduct a SWOT Analysis
            4. 16.2.3.3.4. Frame the Get-Well Plan
            5. 16.2.3.3.5. Is the Revised Business Case Feasible?
          4. 16.2.3.4. Generate Revised Plan: How will we get there?
            1. 16.2.3.4.1. Prepare a Revised Project Plan
            2. 16.2.3.4.2. Get Management Acceptance of the Revised Plan
            3. 16.2.3.4.3. Prepare to Restart the Project
      3. 16.3. Roles and Responsibilities of the PSO with Respect to Distressed Projects
        1. 16.3.1. Analyzing the Current Situation
        2. 16.3.2. Revising the Desired Goal
        3. 16.3.3. Evaluating the Options
        4. 16.3.4. Generating the Revised Plan
      4. 16.4. Putting It All Together
      5. 16.5. Discussion Questions
    2. 17. Managing Multiple Team Projects
      1. 17.1. What Is a Multiple Team Project?
      2. 17.2. Challenges to Managing a Multiple Team Project
        1. 17.2.1. Working with Fiercely Independent Team Cultures
        2. 17.2.2. Working with Different Team Processes
        3. 17.2.3. Accommodating Competing Priorities
        4. 17.2.4. Communicating within the Team Structure
        5. 17.2.5. Establishing a Project Management Structure
        6. 17.2.6. Establishing One Project Management Life Cycle
        7. 17.2.7. Building an Integrated Project Plan and Schedule
        8. 17.2.8. Defining a Requirements Gathering Approach
        9. 17.2.9. Establishing a Scope Change Management Process
        10. 17.2.10. Defining the Team Meeting Structure
        11. 17.2.11. Establishing Manageable Reporting Levels
        12. 17.2.12. Sharing Resources across Teams
        13. 17.2.13. Searching Out Your Second
      3. 17.3. Classifying Multiple Team Projects
        1. 17.3.1. Two Teams
          1. 17.3.1.1. Update or Enhance and Global
          2. 17.3.1.2. New and Global
        2. 17.3.2. Multiple Teams
          1. 17.3.2.1. Update or Enhance
          2. 17.3.2.2. Update or Enhance and Global
          3. 17.3.2.3. New
          4. 17.3.2.4. New and Global
      4. 17.4. Project Office Structure
        1. 17.4.1. Project Office Characteristics
          1. 17.4.1.1. Organize and Manage the Entire Project
          2. 17.4.1.2. Develop the High-Level Project Plan in Collaboration with Team Managers
          3. 17.4.1.3. Integrate and Coordinate the Project Plans of Each Team
          4. 17.4.1.4. Maintain the Overall Project Schedule
          5. 17.4.1.5. Monitor and Manage Resource Use
          6. 17.4.1.6. Prepare and Distribute Project Status Reports
          7. 17.4.1.7. Plan and Conduct Team Meetings
          8. 17.4.1.8. Process Scope Change Requests
          9. 17.4.1.9. Solve Problems Escalated from the Individual Project Teams
          10. 17.4.1.10. Negotiate and Resolve Problems between Teams
        2. 17.4.2. Project Office Strengths
          1. 17.4.2.1. Coordinates the Work of Several Independent Teams
          2. 17.4.2.2. Scales to Large Projects
          3. 17.4.2.3. Managed from a Single Integrated Plan
          4. 17.4.2.4. Integrated Resource Management Control
          5. 17.4.2.5. Allows Teams to Maintain Their Practices
        3. 17.4.3. Project Office Weaknesses
          1. 17.4.3.1. Requires Management Across Disparate Practices
          2. 17.4.3.2. Requires Team Members to Manage Competing Priorities
          3. 17.4.3.3. May Involve a Cumbersome Scope Change Management Process
        4. 17.4.4. When to Use a PO
      5. 17.5. Core Team Structure
        1. 17.5.1. Core Team Characteristics
          1. 17.5.1.1. Advise Each Team on Technical Matters
            1. 17.5.1.1.1. Technical Review of Solution Design
            2. 17.5.1.1.2. Code Review
            3. 17.5.1.1.3. Problem Resolution
            4. 17.5.1.1.4. Conflict Resolution
            5. 17.5.1.1.5. Dependent Systems Technical Impact Analysis
          2. 17.5.1.2. Provide Subject Matter Expertise on Enterprise Systems and Processes
          3. 17.5.1.3. Support Each Team as Requested and as Needed
          4. 17.5.1.4. Collaborate with and Advise the CT Manager as Requested
          5. 17.5.1.5. Negotiate and Help Resolve Inter-Team Problems
        2. 17.5.2. Core Team Strengths
          1. 17.5.2.1. Enables the CT Manager to Select CT Members
          2. 17.5.2.2. Provides the Best Available Advice to the CT Manager
          3. 17.5.2.3. Coordinates the Work of Several Teams
          4. 17.5.2.4. Lends Support and Credibility to the Decisions of the CT Manager
          5. 17.5.2.5. Assigns Core Team Members 100 Percent to This Project
          6. 17.5.2.6. Takes Advantage of the Most Experienced SMEs
          7. 17.5.2.7. Allows Teams to Retain Their Business Unit Practices
        3. 17.5.3. Core Team Weaknesses
          1. 17.5.3.1. May Not Scale to the Larger Projects
          2. 17.5.3.2. Does Not Necessarily Integrate Individual Team Plans
          3. 17.5.3.3. Must Manage across Disparate Practices
          4. 17.5.3.4. How to Deal with Divided Loyalties
          5. 17.5.3.5. Repeatedly Uses the Same SMEs
        4. 17.5.4. When to Use a CT
      6. 17.6. Super Team Structure
        1. 17.6.1. Super Team Characteristics
          1. 17.6.1.1. Organize and Manage the Project
          2. 17.6.1.2. Develop the Project Plan
          3. 17.6.1.3. Maintain the Overall Project Schedule
          4. 17.6.1.4. Monitor and Manage Resource Utilization
          5. 17.6.1.5. Prepare and Distribute Project Status Reports
          6. 17.6.1.6. Plan and Conduct Team Meetings
          7. 17.6.1.7. Process Scope Change Requests
        2. 17.6.2. Super Team Strengths
          1. 17.6.2.1. Manages from a Single Integrated Source
          2. 17.6.2.2. Scales to Large Projects
          3. 17.6.2.3. Integrates Resource Management Control
          4. 17.6.2.4. Standardizes on a Set of Tools, Templates, and Processes
        3. 17.6.3. Super Team Weaknesses
          1. 17.6.3.1. The Difficulty in Establishing Standardization
          2. 17.6.3.2. Team Members Have to Decide among Competing Priorities
        4. 17.6.4. When to Use an ST
      7. 17.7. Putting It All Together
      8. 17.8. Discussion Questions
    3. 18. Epilogue: Putting It All Together Finally
      1. 18.1. What Business Situation Is Being Addressed?
      2. 18.2. What Do You Need To Do?
        1. 18.2.1. Experience Acquisition
        2. 18.2.2. On-the-job Training
        3. 18.2.3. Off-the-job Training
        4. 18.2.4. Professional Activities
      3. 18.3. What Will You Do?
      4. 18.4. How Will You Do It?
      5. 18.5. How Will You Know You Did It?
      6. 18.6. How Well Did You Do?
      7. 18.7. Where Do You Go from Here? — A New Idea to Consider
        1. 18.7.1. The PM/BA Position Family
          1. 18.7.1.1. Team Member
            1. 18.7.1.1.1. Key Indicators
            2. 18.7.1.1.2. Essential Characteristics
          2. 18.7.1.2. Task Manager
            1. 18.7.1.2.1. Key Indicators
            2. 18.7.1.2.2. Essential Characteristics
          3. 18.7.1.3. Associate Manager
            1. 18.7.1.3.1. Key Indicators
            2. 18.7.1.3.2. Essential Characteristics
          4. 18.7.1.4. Senior Manager
            1. 18.7.1.4.1. Key Indicators
            2. 18.7.1.4.2. Essential Characteristics
          5. 18.7.1.5. Program Manager
            1. 18.7.1.5.1. Key Indicators
            2. 18.7.1.5.2. Essential Characteristics
          6. 18.7.1.6. Director
            1. 18.7.1.6.1. Key Indicators
            2. 18.7.1.6.2. Essential Characteristics
        2. 18.7.2. Using the PM/BA Landscape for Professional Development
        3. 18.7.3. What Might a Professional Development Program Look Like?
          1. 18.7.3.1. Experience Acquisition
          2. 18.7.3.2. On-the-job Training
          3. 18.7.3.3. Off-the-job Training
          4. 18.7.3.4. Professional Activities
          5. 18.7.3.5. Using the PDP
        4. 18.7.4. Career Planning Using the BA/PM Landscape
      8. 18.8. Putting It All Together
    4. A. What's on the Web Site?
      1. A.1. Course Master File
      2. A.2. A Note on the Answer File for the Discussion Questions
    5. B. Bibliography
    6. Defining and Using the Project Management Process Groups
    7. Traditional Project Management
    8. Agile and Extreme Project Management
    9. Project Management Infrastructure
    10. Managing the Realities of Projects