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Effective Project Management: Traditional, Adaptive, Extreme, Fourth Edition

Book Description

Unlock your potential and achieve breakthrough performance in project management

If you're looking for a more robust approach to project management--one that recognizes the project environment and adapts accordingly--then this is the perfect resource. It not only guides you through the traditional methods, but also covers the adaptive and extreme approaches as well. You'll gain an in-depth understanding of each one and know exactly when and how to use them.

You'll also be introduced to the Adaptive Project Framework, which arms you with a new project management methodology. And with the help of two new case studies, you'll be able to put these ideas into practice and experience some of the contemporary nuances of projects.

This definitive guide to project management shows you how to:

  • Take advantage of new variations on traditional project management methods, including risk assessment and control

  • Decide the best method for managing specific types of projects by analyzing all of the pros and cons

  • Apply the Adaptive Project Framework to the world of fast-paced, high-change, and complex projects

  • Create a war room to successfully manage multiple team projects

  • Determine how project portfolio management approaches can help companies achieve a greater return on investment

  • Utilize all nine Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) standards advocated by the Project Management Institute (PMI)

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. Credits
  4. Preface to the Fourth Edition
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Introduction
    1. Organizational Structures
    2. Software Applications
    3. Cycle Time
    4. Right-Sizing
    5. Changes in the Project Environment
      1. Where Are We Going? — A New Mind-set
      2. Introducing Extreme Project Management
      3. Introducing the Adaptive Project Framework
      4. Developing a Taxonomy of Approaches
    6. Why I Wrote This Book
    7. How This Book Is Structured
      1. Part I: Traditional Project Management
      2. Part II: Adaptive Project Framework
      3. Part III: Organizational Considerations
      4. Epilogue: Putting It All Together Finally
      5. Appendixes
    8. How to Use This Book
      1. Using This Book as a Guide for Project Managers
      2. Using This Book as a Textbook for a Project Management Course
    9. Introducing the Case Studies
    10. Who Should Read This Book
    11. Putting It All Together
  7. I. Traditional Project Management
    1. 1. What Is a Project?
      1. 1.1. Defining a Project
        1. 1.1.1. Sequence of Activities
        2. 1.1.2. Unique Activities
        3. 1.1.3. Complex Activities
        4. 1.1.4. Connected Activities
        5. 1.1.5. One Goal
        6. 1.1.6. Specified Time
        7. 1.1.7. Within Budget
        8. 1.1.8. According to Specification
      2. 1.2. What Is a Program?
        1. 1.2.1. Establishing Temporary Program Offices
        2. 1.2.2. Establishing Permanent Program Offices
      3. 1.3. Project Parameters
        1. 1.3.1. Scope
        2. 1.3.2. Quality
        3. 1.3.3. Cost
        4. 1.3.4. Time
        5. 1.3.5. Resources
      4. 1.4. The Scope Triangle
        1. 1.4.1. Scope Creep
        2. 1.4.2. Hope Creep
        3. 1.4.3. Effort Creep
        4. 1.4.4. Feature Creep
      5. 1.5. Applications of the Scope Triangle
        1. 1.5.1. Problem Escalation
        2. 1.5.2. Project Impact Statement
      6. 1.6. Project Classifications
        1. 1.6.1. Classification by Project Characteristics
        2. 1.6.2. Classification by Project Type
      7. 1.7. The Changing Face of Projects
        1. 1.7.1. Quadrant 1: Goal and Solution Are Clearly Specified
          1. 1.7.1.1. Low Complexity
          2. 1.7.1.2. Well-Understood Technology Infrastructure
          3. 1.7.1.3. Low Risk
          4. 1.7.1.4. Experienced and Skilled Developer Teams
        2. 1.7.2. Quadrant 2: Goal Is Clearly Specified but Solution Is Not
        3. 1.7.3. Quadrant 3: Goal and Solution Are Not Clearly Specified
        4. 1.7.4. Quadrant 4: Goal Is Not Clearly Specified but the Solution Is
      8. 1.8. The Complexity/Uncertainty Domain of Projects
        1. 1.8.1. Requirements
        2. 1.8.2. Flexibility
        3. 1.8.3. Adaptability
        4. 1.8.4. Change
        5. 1.8.5. Risk
        6. 1.8.6. Team Cohesiveness
        7. 1.8.7. Communications
        8. 1.8.8. Customer Involvement
          1. 1.8.8.1. The Customer's Comfort Zone
          2. 1.8.8.2. Ownership by the Customer
          3. 1.8.8.3. Customer Sign-Off
        9. 1.8.9. Specification
        10. 1.8.10. Change
        11. 1.8.11. Business Value
      9. 1.9. Putting It All Together
      10. 1.10. Discussion Questions
    2. 2. Traditional, Adaptive, Extreme: A Dynamic Project Management Landscape
      1. 2.1. Principles of Project Management
        1. 2.1.1. Defining
          1. 2.1.1.1. State the Problem/Opportunity
          2. 2.1.1.2. Establish the Project Goal
          3. 2.1.1.3. Define the Project Objectives
          4. 2.1.1.4. Identify the Success Criteria
          5. 2.1.1.5. List Assumptions, Risks, and Obstacles
        2. 2.1.2. Planning
          1. 2.1.2.1. Identify Project Activities
          2. 2.1.2.2. Estimate Activity Duration
          3. 2.1.2.3. Determine Resource Requirements
          4. 2.1.2.4. Construct/Analyze the Project Network
          5. 2.1.2.5. Prepare the Project Proposal
        3. 2.1.3. Launching
          1. 2.1.3.1. Recruit and Organize the Project Team
          2. 2.1.3.2. Establish Team Operating Rules
          3. 2.1.3.3. Level Project Resources
          4. 2.1.3.4. Document Work Packages
        4. 2.1.4. Monitoring and Controlling
          1. 2.1.4.1. Establish Progress Reporting System
          2. 2.1.4.2. Install Change Control Tools/Process
          3. 2.1.4.3. Define Problem-Escalation Process
          4. 2.1.4.4. Monitor Project Progress Versus Plan
          5. 2.1.4.5. Revise Project Plans
        5. 2.1.5. Closing
          1. 2.1.5.1. Obtain Client Acceptance
          2. 2.1.5.2. Install Project Deliverables
          3. 2.1.5.3. Complete Project Documentation
          4. 2.1.5.4. Complete Post-Implementation Audit
          5. 2.1.5.5. Celebrate
      2. 2.2. Variations to Project Management Approaches
        1. 2.2.1. Traditional Project Management Approaches
          1. 2.2.1.1. Linear Project Management Approaches
          2. 2.2.1.2. Incremental Project Management Approaches
        2. 2.2.2. Adaptive Project Management Approaches
          1. 2.2.2.1. Iterative Project Management Approach
          2. 2.2.2.2. Adaptive Project Management Approach
        3. 2.2.3. Extreme Project Management Approach
          1. 2.2.3.1. INSPIRE Project Management Approach
      3. 2.3. Variations within the Traditional Project Management Approach
        1. 2.3.1. Rapid Development Project Management Approach
        2. 2.3.2. Staged Delivery Project Management Approach
          1. 2.3.2.1. Member Reassignment
          2. 2.3.2.2. Loss of Priority
          3. 2.3.2.3. Encouraging Scope Change
      4. 2.4. Quality Management
        1. 2.4.1. Continuous Quality Management Model
        2. 2.4.2. Process Quality Management Model
      5. 2.5. Risk Management
        1. 2.5.1. Identifying Risk
          1. 2.5.1.1. Risk Categories
        2. 2.5.2. Assessing Risk
          1. 2.5.2.1. Qualitative Assessment
          2. 2.5.2.2. Dynamic Risk Assessment
        3. 2.5.3. Planning Risk Response
        4. 2.5.4. Risk Monitoring and Control
      6. 2.6. Procurement Management
        1. 2.6.1. Planning Procurement
        2. 2.6.2. Soliciting Requests for Proposals
        3. 2.6.3. Managing RFP Questions and Responses
        4. 2.6.4. Selecting Vendors
        5. 2.6.5. Managing Contracts
        6. 2.6.6. Closing Out the Contract
      7. 2.7. Project Management Institute
        1. 2.7.1. Project Management Body of Knowledge Standards
        2. 2.7.2. OPM3 Standards
      8. 2.8. Putting It All Together
      9. 2.9. Discussion Questions
    3. 3. Defining the Project
      1. 3.1. Managing Client Expectations
        1. 3.1.1. Sorting Wants versus Needs
        2. 3.1.2. Developing Conditions of Satisfaction
          1. 3.1.2.1. Establishing Clarity of Purpose
          2. 3.1.2.2. Specifying Business Outcomes
      2. 3.2. Creating the Project Overview Statement
        1. 3.2.1. Parts of the POS
          1. 3.2.1.1. Stating the Problem/Opportunity
          2. 3.2.1.2. Establishing the Project Goal
          3. 3.2.1.3. Defining the Project Objectives
          4. 3.2.1.4. Identifying Success Criteria
          5. 3.2.1.5. Listing Assumptions, Risks, and Obstacles
        2. 3.2.2. Attachments
          1. 3.2.2.1. Risk Analysis
          2. 3.2.2.2. Financial Analyses
      3. 3.3. Using the Joint Project Planning Session to Develop the POS
      4. 3.4. Submitting a Project for Approval
        1. 3.4.1. Participants in the Approval Process
        2. 3.4.2. Approval Criteria
        3. 3.4.3. Project Approval Status
        4. 3.4.4. Conducting COS Milestone Reviews
      5. 3.5. Requirements Gathering
        1. 3.5.1. What Are Requirements?
        2. 3.5.2. The Requirements Breakdown Structure
        3. 3.5.3. Types of Requirements
          1. 3.5.3.1. Functional Requirements
          2. 3.5.3.2. Non-Functional Requirements
          3. 3.5.3.3. Global Requirements
          4. 3.5.3.4. Product/Project Constraints
        4. 3.5.4. Volere Requirements Process
          1. 3.5.4.1. Project Start
          2. 3.5.4.2. Trawl for Knowledge
          3. 3.5.4.3. Write the Specification
            1. 3.5.4.3.1. Requirement Number
            2. 3.5.4.3.2. Requirement Type
            3. 3.5.4.3.3. Event/Use Case Number
            4. 3.5.4.3.4. Description
            5. 3.5.4.3.5. Rationale
            6. 3.5.4.3.6. Source
            7. 3.5.4.3.7. Fit Criteria
            8. 3.5.4.3.8. Customer Satisfaction and Customer Dissatisfaction
            9. 3.5.4.3.9. Dependencies
            10. 3.5.4.3.10. Conflicts
            11. 3.5.4.3.11. History
          4. 3.5.4.4. Quality Gateway
          5. 3.5.4.5. Requirements Reuse
          6. 3.5.4.6. Take Stock of the Specification
          7. 3.5.4.7. Analyze, Design, and Build
          8. 3.5.4.8. Product Use and Evolution
      6. 3.6. Project Scoping Meeting
        1. 3.6.1. Purpose
        2. 3.6.2. Attendees
        3. 3.6.3. Agenda
        4. 3.6.4. Deliverables
      7. 3.7. The Project Definition Statement
      8. 3.8. Business Process Diagramming
        1. 3.8.1. What Is a Business Process?
        2. 3.8.2. Characteristics of Business Processes
          1. 3.8.2.1. Process Effectiveness
          2. 3.8.2.2. Process Efficiency
        3. 3.8.3. Streamlining Tools
          1. 3.8.3.1. Bureaucracy Elimination
          2. 3.8.3.2. Duplication Elimination
          3. 3.8.3.3. Value-Added Assessment
          4. 3.8.3.4. Simplification
          5. 3.8.3.5. Process Cycle-Time Reduction
          6. 3.8.3.6. Error Proofing
          7. 3.8.3.7. Upgrading
          8. 3.8.3.8. Simple Language
          9. 3.8.3.9. Standardization
          10. 3.8.3.10. Supplier Partnership
          11. 3.8.3.11. Big Picture Improvement
        4. 3.8.4. Defining a Business Process Improvement Project
        5. 3.8.5. Watching Indicators of Needed Improvement
        6. 3.8.6. Creating a Business Process Diagram
        7. 3.8.7. Business Process Diagram Formats
        8. 3.8.8. Context Diagrams
        9. 3.8.9. Business Process Work Flow Diagrams
        10. 3.8.10. Documenting the "As Is" Business Process
        11. 3.8.11. Envisioning the "To Be" State
        12. 3.8.12. Defining the "As Is" to "To Be" Gap
      9. 3.9. Prototyping
      10. 3.10. Use Cases
        1. 3.10.1. Use Case Diagrams
        2. 3.10.2. Use Case Flow of Events
      11. 3.11. Putting It All Together
      12. 3.12. Discussion Questions
    4. 4. Building the Work Breakdown Structure
      1. 4.1. The Work Breakdown Structure
      2. 4.2. Uses for the WBS
      3. 4.3. Generating the WBS
        1. 4.3.1. Top-Down Approach
          1. 4.3.1.1. Team Approach
          2. 4.3.1.2. Subteam Approach
        2. 4.3.2. Bottom-Up Approach
        3. 4.3.3. WBS for Small Projects
        4. 4.3.4. Intermediate WBS for Large Projects
        5. 4.3.5. Iterative Development of the WBS
      4. 4.4. Six Criteria to Test for Completeness in the WBS
        1. 4.4.1. Status and Completion Are Measurable
        2. 4.4.2. The Activity Is Bounded
        3. 4.4.3. The Activity Has a Deliverable
        4. 4.4.4. Time and Cost Are Easily Estimated
        5. 4.4.5. Activity Duration Is Within Acceptable Limits
        6. 4.4.6. Work Assignments Are Independent
        7. 4.4.7. The Seventh Criteria for Judging Completeness
        8. 4.4.8. Exceptions to the Completion Criteria Rule
          1. 4.4.8.1. Stopping Before Completion Criteria Are Met
          2. 4.4.8.2. Decomposing Beyond Completion of the Criteria
        9. 4.4.9. Using a Joint Project Planning Session to Build the WBS
          1. 4.4.9.1. Linear or Incremental Approaches
          2. 4.4.9.2. Iterative, Adaptive, or Extreme Approaches
      5. 4.5. Approaches to Building the WBS
        1. 4.5.1. Noun-Type Approaches
        2. 4.5.2. Verb-Type Approaches
        3. 4.5.3. Organizational Approaches
      6. 4.6. Representing the WBS
      7. 4.7. Putting It All Together
      8. 4.8. Discussion Questions
    5. 5. Estimating Duration, Resource Requirements, and Cost
      1. 5.1. Estimating Duration
        1. 5.1.1. Resource Loading versus Task Duration
        2. 5.1.2. Variation in Task Duration
        3. 5.1.3. Six Methods for Estimating Task Duration
          1. 5.1.3.1. Extrapolating Based on Similarity to Other Activities
          2. 5.1.3.2. Studying Historical Data
          3. 5.1.3.3. Seeking Expert Advice
          4. 5.1.3.4. Applying the Delphi Technique
          5. 5.1.3.5. Applying the Three-Point Technique
          6. 5.1.3.6. Applying the Wide-Band Delphi Technique
        4. 5.1.4. Estimation Life Cycles
      2. 5.2. Estimating Resource Requirements
        1. 5.2.1. People as Resources
          1. 5.2.1.1. Skills Matrices
          2. 5.2.1.2. Skill Categories
          3. 5.2.1.3. Skill Levels
        2. 5.2.2. Resource Breakdown Structure
      3. 5.3. Estimating Duration as a Function of Resource Availability
        1. 5.3.1. Assign as a Total Work and a Constant Percent/Day
        2. 5.3.2. Assign as a Duration and Total Work Effort
        3. 5.3.3. Assign as a Duration and Percent/Day
        4. 5.3.4. Assign as a Profile
      4. 5.4. Estimating Cost
        1. 5.4.1. Resource Planning
        2. 5.4.2. Cost Estimating
        3. 5.4.3. Cost Budgeting
        4. 5.4.4. Cost Control
      5. 5.5. Using a JPP Session to Estimate Duration, Resource Requirements, and Cost
        1. 5.5.1. Determining Resource Requirements
        2. 5.5.2. Determining Cost
      6. 5.6. Putting It All Together
      7. 5.7. Discussion Questions
    6. 6. Constructing and Analyzing the Project Network Diagram
      1. 6.1. The Project Network Diagram
        1. 6.1.1. Envisioning a Complex Project Network Diagram
        2. 6.1.2. Benefits to Network-Based Scheduling
      2. 6.2. Building the Network Diagram Using the Precedence Diagramming Method
        1. 6.2.1. Dependencies
        2. 6.2.2. Constraints
          1. 6.2.2.1. Technical Constraints
          2. 6.2.2.2. Management Constraints
          3. 6.2.2.3. Interproject Constraints
          4. 6.2.2.4. Date Constraints
        3. 6.2.3. Using the Lag Variable
        4. 6.2.4. Creating an Initial Project Network Schedule
          1. 6.2.4.1. Critical Path
            1. 6.2.4.1.1. Calculating Critical Path
            2. 6.2.4.1.2. Computing Slack
          2. 6.2.4.2. Near-Critical Path
      3. 6.3. Analyzing the Initial Project Network Diagram
        1. 6.3.1. Compressing the Schedule
        2. 6.3.2. Management Reserve
      4. 6.4. Using the JPP Session to Construct and Analyze the Network
      5. 6.5. Putting It All Together
      6. 6.6. Discussion Questions
    7. 7. Finalizing the Schedule and Cost Based on Resource Availability
      1. 7.1. Considering Resource Availability
      2. 7.2. Leveling Resources
      3. 7.3. Acceptably Leveled Schedule
      4. 7.4. Resource-Leveling Strategies
        1. 7.4.1. Utilizing Available Slack
        2. 7.4.2. Shifting the Project Finish Date
        3. 7.4.3. Smoothing
        4. 7.4.4. Alternative Methods of Scheduling Tasks
          1. 7.4.4.1. Further Decomposition of Tasks
          2. 7.4.4.2. Stretching Tasks
          3. 7.4.4.3. Assigning Substitute Resources
      5. 7.5. Cost Impact of Resource Leveling
      6. 7.6. Implementing Micro-Level Project Planning
      7. 7.7. Work Packages
        1. 7.7.1. Purpose of a Work Package
        2. 7.7.2. Format of a Work Package
          1. 7.7.2.1. Work Package Assignment Sheet
          2. 7.7.2.2. Work Package Description Report
      8. 7.8. Putting It All Together
      9. 7.9. Discussion Questions
    8. 8. The Need to Plan: Conducting the Joint Project Planning Session
      1. 8.1. The Importance of Planning
        1. 8.1.1. Planning Reduces Uncertainty
        2. 8.1.2. Planning Increases Understanding
        3. 8.1.3. Planning Improves Efficiency
      2. 8.2. Joint Project Planning Sessions
        1. 8.2.1. Planning the JPP Session
        2. 8.2.2. Attendees
        3. 8.2.3. Facilities
        4. 8.2.4. Equipment
        5. 8.2.5. The Complete Planning Agenda
        6. 8.2.6. Deliverables
      3. 8.3. Project Proposal
      4. 8.4. Contents of the Project Proposal
      5. 8.5. Putting It All Together
      6. 8.6. Discussion Questions
    9. 9. Building and Managing an Effective Project Team
      1. 9.1. Project Manager vis-à-vis the Functional Manager
      2. 9.2. Projects as Motivation and Development Tools
        1. 9.2.1. Motivators
        2. 9.2.2. Hygiene Factors
      3. 9.3. Recruiting the Project Team
        1. 9.3.1. The Project Manager
          1. 9.3.1.1. When to Select the Project Manager
          2. 9.3.1.2. Selection Criteria
        2. 9.3.2. Core Team Members
          1. 9.3.2.1. When to Select the Core Team
          2. 9.3.2.2. Selection Criteria
        3. 9.3.3. Contracted Team Members
          1. 9.3.3.1. Implications of Adding Contract Team Members
          2. 9.3.3.2. Selection Criteria
          3. 9.3.3.3. Types of Proposals
          4. 9.3.3.4. Types of Contracts
            1. 9.3.3.4.1. Contract Administration
            2. 9.3.3.4.2. Contract Cancellation
            3. 9.3.3.4.3. Contract Closing
        4. 9.3.4. Authority
        5. 9.3.5. Responsibility
        6. 9.3.6. Balancing a Team
        7. 9.3.7. Developing a Team Deployment Strategy
        8. 9.3.8. Developing a Team Development Plan
      4. 9.4. Establishing Team Operating Rules
        1. 9.4.1. Situations Requiring Team Operating Rules
        2. 9.4.2. Problem Solving
        3. 9.4.3. Decision Making
          1. 9.4.3.1. Deciding Which Decision-Making Model to Use
          2. 9.4.3.2. Decision Making and the Learning Styles Inventory
        4. 9.4.4. Conflict Resolution
        5. 9.4.5. Consensus Building
        6. 9.4.6. Brainstorming
        7. 9.4.7. Team Meetings
          1. 9.4.7.1. Daily Status Meetings
          2. 9.4.7.2. Problem Resolution Meetings
          3. 9.4.7.3. Project Review Meetings
        8. 9.4.8. Team War Room
          1. 9.4.8.1. Physical Layout
          2. 9.4.8.2. Variations
          3. 9.4.8.3. Operational Uses
      5. 9.5. Managing Team Communications
        1. 9.5.1. Managing Communications Timing, Content, and Channels
          1. 9.5.1.1. Timing
          2. 9.5.1.2. Content
          3. 9.5.1.3. Choosing Effective Channels
        2. 9.5.2. Managing Communication Beyond the Team
          1. 9.5.2.1. Managing Communications with the Sponsor
          2. 9.5.2.2. Upward Communication Filtering and "Good News"
          3. 9.5.2.3. Communicating with Other Stakeholders
      6. 9.6. Managing Multiple Team Projects
        1. 9.6.1. Multiple-Team Projects
        2. 9.6.2. How Is a Multiple-Team Project Team Structured?
        3. 9.6.3. The Challenges of Multiple Team Projects
          1. 9.6.3.1. Working with Fiercely Independent Team Cultures
          2. 9.6.3.2. Establishing a Project Management Structure
          3. 9.6.3.3. Establishing One Project Management Life Cycle
          4. 9.6.3.4. Defining a Requirements Gathering Approach
          5. 9.6.3.5. Establishing a Scope Change Management Process
          6. 9.6.3.6. Defining the Team Meeting Structure
          7. 9.6.3.7. Establishing Manageable Reporting Levels
          8. 9.6.3.8. Searching Out Your Seconds
          9. 9.6.3.9. Building an Integrated Project Plan/Schedule
          10. 9.6.3.10. Sharing Scarce Resources Across Teams
          11. 9.6.3.11. Managing Team Member Commitment to Their Home Business Unit
          12. 9.6.3.12. Managing Lack of Ownership
        4. 9.6.4. Executing a Multiple-Team Project
        5. 9.6.5. Project Office
          1. 9.6.5.1. Project Office Structure
          2. 9.6.5.2. Roles and Responsibilities
            1. 9.6.5.2.1. Organizing and Managing the Entire Project
            2. 9.6.5.2.2. Developing the High-Level Project Plan with the Project Team Managers
            3. 9.6.5.2.3. Integrating and Coordinating the Project Plans of Each Team
            4. 9.6.5.2.4. Maintaining the Overall Project Schedule
            5. 9.6.5.2.5. Monitoring and Managing Resource Use
            6. 9.6.5.2.6. Preparing and Distributing Project Status Reports
            7. 9.6.5.2.7. Planning and Conducting Team Meetings
            8. 9.6.5.2.8. Processing Scope Change Requests
            9. 9.6.5.2.9. Solving Project Problems Escalated from the Individual Project Teams
            10. 9.6.5.2.10. Negotiating and Resolving Problems Between Teams
          3. 9.6.5.3. Strengths
            1. 9.6.5.3.1. Scales to Very Large Projects
            2. 9.6.5.3.2. Allows Teams to Maintain Their Practices
          4. 9.6.5.4. Weaknesses
            1. 9.6.5.4.1. Managing Across Disparate Practices
            2. 9.6.5.4.2. Team Members Will Have to Manage Competing Priorities
            3. 9.6.5.4.3. May Have to Use a Cumbersome Scope Change Management Process
          5. 9.6.5.5. Impact on the Project Life Cycle
        6. 9.6.6. Core Team
          1. 9.6.6.1. Core Team Structure
          2. 9.6.6.2. Roles and Responsibilities
            1. 9.6.6.2.1. Advising Each Project Team on Technical and Business Matters
            2. 9.6.6.2.2. Supporting Each Project Team as Needed
            3. 9.6.6.2.3. Collaborating with the Core Team Manager as Needed
            4. 9.6.6.2.4. Negotiating and Helping Resolve Problems and Cross-Team Conflicts
            5. 9.6.6.2.5. Organizing and Managing the Entire Project
            6. 9.6.6.2.6. Developing the High-Level Project Plan with the Project Managers
            7. 9.6.6.2.7. Integrating and Coordinating the Project Plans of Each Team
            8. 9.6.6.2.8. Maintaining the Overall Project Schedule
            9. 9.6.6.2.9. Monitoring and Managing Resource Use
            10. 9.6.6.2.10. Preparing and Distributing Project Status Reports
            11. 9.6.6.2.11. Planning and Conducting Team Meetings
            12. 9.6.6.2.12. Processing Scope Change Requests
            13. 9.6.6.2.13. Solving Problems Escalated from the Individual Project Teams
          3. 9.6.6.3. Strengths
            1. 9.6.6.3.1. Hand-Picked by the Core Team Manager
            2. 9.6.6.3.2. Provides the Best Available Advice to the Core Team Manager
            3. 9.6.6.3.3. Coordinates the Work of Several Project Teams
            4. 9.6.6.3.4. Allows Teams to Maintain Their Practices
          4. 9.6.6.4. Weaknesses
            1. 9.6.6.4.1. May Not Scale to the Largest Projects
            2. 9.6.6.4.2. Must Manage Across Disparate Practices
            3. 9.6.6.4.3. Team Members Will Have to Manage Competing Priorities
            4. 9.6.6.4.4. Repeatedly Chosen SMEs Does Not Enable Development of New Core Team Members
          5. 9.6.6.5. Impact on the Project Life Cyclex
        7. 9.6.7. Super Teams
          1. 9.6.7.1. Super Team Structure
          2. 9.6.7.2. Roles and Responsibilities
            1. 9.6.7.2.1. Organizing and Managing the Project
            2. 9.6.7.2.2. Developing the Project Plan
            3. 9.6.7.2.3. Maintaining the Overall Project Schedule
            4. 9.6.7.2.4. Monitoring and Managing Resource Use
            5. 9.6.7.2.5. Preparing and Distributing Project Status Reports
            6. 9.6.7.2.6. Planning and Conducting Team Meetings
            7. 9.6.7.2.7. Processing Scope Change Requests
          3. 9.6.7.3. Strengths
            1. 9.6.7.3.1. Managed from a Single Integrated Plan
            2. 9.6.7.3.2. Integrated Resource Management Control
            3. 9.6.7.3.3. Standardizes on a Set of Tools, Templates, and Processes
          4. 9.6.7.4. Weaknesses
            1. 9.6.7.4.1. Establishing Standardization
            2. 9.6.7.4.2. Does Not Scale to Very Large Projects
            3. 9.6.7.4.3. Team Members Must Manage Competing Priorities
          5. 9.6.7.5. Impact on the Project Life Cycle
        8. 9.6.8. Selecting Your Project Management Structure
          1. 9.6.8.1. Complexity/Riskx
          2. 9.6.8.2. Number of Impacted/Involved Customer Areas
          3. 9.6.8.3. Number of Teams Involved
          4. 9.6.8.4. Total Project Team Size
          5. 9.6.8.5. Type of Systems Project (New, Enhanced)
          6. 9.6.8.6. Resource Scarcity/Contention
          7. 9.6.8.7. Criticality of the Deliverables
          8. 9.6.8.8. Need for an Integrated Project Plan
          9. 9.6.8.9. Need for an Integrated Project Schedule
        9. 9.6.9. Choosing a Management Structure
        10. 9.6.10. Multiple-Team Projects in Summary
      7. 9.7. Putting It All Together
      8. 9.8. Discussion Questions
    10. 10. Monitoring and Reporting Project Progress
      1. 10.1. Control versus Risk
        1. 10.1.1. Purpose of Controls
        2. 10.1.2. High Control – Low Risk
        3. 10.1.3. Low Control – High Risk
        4. 10.1.4. Balancing the Control System
      2. 10.2. Control versus Quality
      3. 10.3. Progress Reporting System
        1. 10.3.1. Types of Project Status Reports
        2. 10.3.2. How and What Information to Update
        3. 10.3.3. Frequency of Gathering and Reporting Project Progress
        4. 10.3.4. Variances
          1. 10.3.4.1. Positive Variances
          2. 10.3.4.2. Negative Variances
      4. 10.4. Applying Graphical Reporting Tools
        1. 10.4.1. Gantt Charts
        2. 10.4.2. Milestone Trend Charts
        3. 10.4.3. Earned Value Analysis
        4. 10.4.4. Integrating Milestone Trend Charts and Earned Value Analysis
          1. 10.4.4.1. Integrating Earned Value
          2. 10.4.4.2. Integrating Milestone Trend Data
        5. 10.4.5. Using the WBS to Report Project Status
      5. 10.5. Deciding on Report Level of Detail
        1. 10.5.1. Activity Manager
        2. 10.5.2. Project Manager
        3. 10.5.3. Senior Management
      6. 10.6. Managing Project Status Meetings
        1. 10.6.1. Who Should Attend?
        2. 10.6.2. When Are They Held?
        3. 10.6.3. What Is Their Purpose?
        4. 10.6.4. What Is Their Format?
      7. 10.7. Managing Change
      8. 10.8. Change Control and the Project Life Cycles
        1. 10.8.1. Linear Approaches
        2. 10.8.2. Incremental Approaches
        3. 10.8.3. Iterative Approaches
        4. 10.8.4. Adaptive Approaches
        5. 10.8.5. Extreme Approaches
      9. 10.9. Managing Problem Escalation
        1. 10.9.1. The Escalation Strategy Hierarchy
        2. 10.9.2. Problem Management Meetings
      10. 10.10. Putting It All Together
      11. 10.11. Discussion Questions
    11. 11. Closing Out the Project
      1. 11.1. Steps in Closing a Project
      2. 11.2. Getting Client Acceptance
        1. 11.2.1. Ceremonial Acceptance
        2. 11.2.2. Formal Acceptance
      3. 11.3. Installing Project Deliverables
      4. 11.4. Documenting the Project
      5. 11.5. Post-Implementation Audit
      6. 11.6. The Final Report
      7. 11.7. Celebrating Success
      8. 11.8. Putting It All Together
      9. 11.9. Discussion Questions
    12. 12. Critical Chain Project Management
      1. 12.1. What Is the Critical Chain?
      2. 12.2. Variation in Duration: Common Cause versus Special Cause
      3. 12.3. Statistical Validation of the Critical Chain Approach
      4. 12.4. The Critical Chain Project Management Approach
        1. 12.4.1. Step 1: Creating the Early Schedule Project Network Diagram
        2. 12.4.2. Step 2: Converting the Early Schedule to the Late Schedule and Adding Resources
        3. 12.4.3. Step 3: Resolving Resource Conflicts
      5. 12.5. Buffers
        1. 12.5.1. Defining Buffers
        2. 12.5.2. Types of Buffers
          1. 12.5.2.1. Project Buffers
          2. 12.5.2.2. Feeding Buffers
          3. 12.5.2.3. Resource Buffers
          4. 12.5.2.4. Other Buffers
        3. 12.5.3. Using Buffers
        4. 12.5.4. Managing Buffers
          1. 12.5.4.1. Penetration into the First Third of the Buffer
          2. 12.5.4.2. Penetration into the Middle Third of the Buffer
          3. 12.5.4.3. Penetration into the Final Third of the Buffer
      6. 12.6. Track Record of Critical Chain Project Management
      7. 12.7. Putting It All Together
      8. 12.8. Discussion Questions
  8. II. Adaptive Project Framework
    1. 13. Introduction to the Adaptive Project Framework
      1. 13.1. Defining the APF
      2. 13.2. An Overview of the APF
        1. 13.2.1. Version Scope
        2. 13.2.2. Cycle Plan
        3. 13.2.3. Cycle Build
        4. 13.2.4. Client Checkpoint
        5. 13.2.5. Post-Version Review
      3. 13.3. The APF Core Values
        1. 13.3.1. Client-Focused
        2. 13.3.2. Client-Driven
        3. 13.3.3. Incremental Results Early and Often
        4. 13.3.4. Continuous Questioning and Introspection
        5. 13.3.5. Change Is Progress to a Better Solution
        6. 13.3.6. Don't Speculate on the Future
      4. 13.4. Putting It All Together
      5. 13.5. Discussion Questions
    2. 14. Version Scope
      1. 14.1. Defining the Version Scope
        1. 14.1.1. Developing the Conditions of Satisfaction
        2. 14.1.2. Writing the Project Overview Statement
          1. 14.1.2.1. Identifying the Business Problem or Opportunity
          2. 14.1.2.2. Defining the Goal of This Version
          3. 14.1.2.3. Writing the Objectives of This Version
          4. 14.1.2.4. Defining the Success Criteria
          5. 14.1.2.5. Listing the Major Risks
        3. 14.1.3. Holding a Fixed-Version Budget and Timebox
      2. 14.2. Planning the Version Scope
        1. 14.2.1. Developing the Midlevel WBS
        2. 14.2.2. Prioritizing the Version Functionality
          1. 14.2.2.1. Risk
          2. 14.2.2.2. Complexity
          3. 14.2.2.3. Duration
          4. 14.2.2.4. Business Value
          5. 14.2.2.5. Dependencies
        3. 14.2.3. Prioritization Approaches
          1. 14.2.3.1. Forced Ranking
          2. 14.2.3.2. Must-Haves, Should-Haves, Nice-to-Haves
          3. 14.2.3.3. Q-Sort
        4. 14.2.4. Prioritizing the Scope Triangle
        5. 14.2.5. Determining the Number of Cycles and Cycle Timeboxes
        6. 14.2.6. Assigning Functionality to Cycles
        7. 14.2.7. Writing Objective Statements for Each Cycle
      3. 14.3. Putting It All Together
      4. 14.4. Discussion Questions
    3. 15. Cycle Plan
      1. 15.1. Developing a Low-Level WBS for This Cycle's Functionality
      2. 15.2. Micromanaging an APF Project
      3. 15.3. Estimating Task Duration
      4. 15.4. Estimating Resource Requirements
        1. 15.4.1. Determining Resource Requirements in the WBS
        2. 15.4.2. Identifying a Specific Resource Needed
      5. 15.5. Sequencing the Tasks
      6. 15.6. Putting It All Together
      7. 15.7. Discussion Questions
    4. 16. Cycle Build
      1. 16.1. Creating a Micro-Level Schedule and Finalizing Resource Assignments
      2. 16.2. Writing Work Packages
      3. 16.3. Building Cycle Functionality
      4. 16.4. Monitoring and Adjusting the Cycle Build Schedule
        1. 16.4.1. Maintaining a Scope Bank
        2. 16.4.2. Maintaining an Issues Log
      5. 16.5. Using a Prioritized Scope Matrix
        1. 16.5.1. Holding Team Meetings
        2. 16.5.2. Status Reports
      6. 16.6. Putting It All Together
      7. 16.7. Discussion Questions
    5. 17. Client Checkpoint
      1. 17.1. Inputs to the Client Checkpoint
        1. 17.1.1. Planned versus Actual Functionality Added
        2. 17.1.2. Scope Bank
      2. 17.2. Questions to Be Answered During Client Checkpoint
        1. 17.2.1. What Was Planned?
        2. 17.2.2. What Was Done?
        3. 17.2.3. Is the Version Scope Still Valid?
        4. 17.2.4. Is the Team Working as Expected?
        5. 17.2.5. What Was Learned?
      3. 17.3. Adjusting Functionality for the Next Cycle Plan
        1. 17.3.1. Updated Functionality List
        2. 17.3.2. Reprioritized Functionality List
        3. 17.3.3. Next Cycle Length
      4. 17.4. Putting It All Together
      5. 17.5. Discussion Questions
    6. 18. Post-Version Review
      1. 18.1. Checking Explicit Business Outcomes
      2. 18.2. Reviewing Lessons Learned for Next Version Functionality
      3. 18.3. Assessing APF for Improvements
      4. 18.4. Putting It All Together
      5. 18.5. Discussion Questions
    7. 19. Extreme Project Management and Other Variations to APF
      1. 19.1. Proof-of-Concept Cycle
      2. 19.2. Revising the Version Plan
      3. 19.3. Embedding the APF in Other Approaches
      4. 19.4. Extreme Project Management
        1. 19.4.1. Defining an Extreme Project
        2. 19.4.2. Overview of Extreme Project Management
          1. 19.4.2.1. INitiate
            1. 19.4.2.1.1. Defining the Project Goal
            2. 19.4.2.1.2. xPM Project Overview Statement
            3. 19.4.2.1.3. Establishing a Project Timebox and Cost
            4. 19.4.2.1.4. Establishing the Number of Cycles and Cycle Length
            5. 19.4.2.1.5. Trade-Offs in the Scope Triangle
          2. 19.4.2.2. SPeculate
            1. 19.4.2.2.1. Defining How the Project Will Be Done
            2. 19.4.2.2.2. Conditions of Satisfaction
            3. 19.4.2.2.3. Scenarios, Stories, and Use Cases
            4. 19.4.2.2.4. Prioritizing Requirements
            5. 19.4.2.2.5. Identifying the First Cycle Deliverables
            6. 19.4.2.2.6. Go/No-Go Decision
            7. 19.4.2.2.7. Planning for Later Cycles
          3. 19.4.2.3. Incubate
            1. 19.4.2.3.1. Assigning Resources
            2. 19.4.2.3.2. Establishing Cycle Plan
            3. 19.4.2.3.3. Collaboratively Producing Deliverables
          4. 19.4.2.4. REview
            1. 19.4.2.4.1. Applying Learning and Discovery from the Previous Cycle
            2. 19.4.2.4.2. Revising the Project Goal
            3. 19.4.2.4.3. Reprioritizing Requirements
            4. 19.4.2.4.4. Making the Go/No-Go Decision for the Next Cycle
      5. 19.5. Comparing Project Approaches
      6. 19.6. Putting It All Together
      7. 19.7. Discussion Questions
  9. III. Organizational Considerations
    1. 20. Project Portfolio Management
      1. 20.1. Introduction to Project Portfolio Management
        1. 20.1.1. Portfolio Management Concepts
          1. 20.1.1.1. What Is a Portfolio Project?
          2. 20.1.1.2. What Is a Project Portfolio?
          3. 20.1.1.3. What Is Project Portfolio Management?
        2. 20.1.2. The Major Phases of Project Portfolio Management
      2. 20.2. Establishing a Portfolio Strategy
        1. 20.2.1. Strategic Alignment Model
          1. 20.2.1.1. Value/Mission
          2. 20.2.1.2. Goals
          3. 20.2.1.3. Objectives
          4. 20.2.1.4. Tactics
          5. 20.2.1.5. How Are You Going to Allocate Your Resources?
        2. 20.2.2. Boston Consulting Group Products/Services Matrix
          1. 20.2.2.1. Cash Cows
          2. 20.2.2.2. Dogs
          3. 20.2.2.3. Stars
          4. 20.2.2.4. ?
          5. 20.2.2.5. How Are You Going to Allocate Your Resources?
        3. 20.2.3. Project Distribution Matrix
          1. 20.2.3.1. New – Enhancement – Maintenance
          2. 20.2.3.2. Strategic – Tactical – Operational
          3. 20.2.3.3. How Are You Going to Allocate Your Resources?
        4. 20.2.4. Growth versus Survival Model
          1. 20.2.4.1. How Are You Going to Allocate Your Resources?
        5. 20.2.5. Project Investment Categories
          1. 20.2.5.1. How Are You Going to Allocate Your Resources?
        6. 20.2.6. Choosing Where to Apply These Models
          1. 20.2.6.1. Corporate Level
          2. 20.2.6.2. Functional Level
      3. 20.3. Evaluating Project Alignment to the Portfolio Strategy
      4. 20.4. Prioritizing Projects and Holding Pending Funding Authorization
        1. 20.4.1. Forced Ranking
        2. 20.4.2. Q-Sort
        3. 20.4.3. Must-Haves, Should-Haves, Nice-to-Haves
        4. 20.4.4. Criteria Weighting
        5. 20.4.5. Paired Comparisons Model
        6. 20.4.6. Risk/Benefit
      5. 20.5. Selecting a Balanced Portfolio Using the Prioritized Projects
        1. 20.5.1. Balancing the Portfolio
        2. 20.5.2. Strategic Alignment Model and Weighted Criteria
        3. 20.5.3. Project Distribution Matrix and Forced Ranking Model
        4. 20.5.4. Graham-Englund Selection Model and the Risk/Benefit Matrix
          1. 20.5.4.1. What Should We Do?
          2. 20.5.4.2. What Can We Do?
          3. 20.5.4.3. What Will We Do?
          4. 20.5.4.4. How Will We Do It?
        5. 20.5.5. Balancing Using Partial Funding or Staffing of Projects
      6. 20.6. Managing the Active Projects
        1. 20.6.1. Project Status
          1. 20.6.1.1. On Plan
          2. 20.6.1.2. Off Plan
          3. 20.6.1.3. In Trouble
          4. 20.6.1.4. The Role of the Project Manager
        2. 20.6.2. Reporting Portfolio Performance
          1. 20.6.2.1. Schedule Performance Index and Cost Performance Index
          2. 20.6.2.2. SPI and CPI Trend Charts
          3. 20.6.2.3. Spotting Out-of-Control Situations
      7. 20.7. Closing Projects in the Portfolio
        1. 20.7.1. Attainment of Explicit Business Value
        2. 20.7.2. Lessons Learned
      8. 20.8. Preparing Your Project for Submission to the Portfolio Management Process
        1. 20.8.1. A Revised Project Overview Statement
          1. 20.8.1.1. Parts of the POS
          2. 20.8.1.2. POS Attachments
        2. 20.8.2. A Two-Step Submission Process
        3. 20.8.3. A New Submission Process
      9. 20.9. Putting It All Together
      10. 20.10. Discussion Questions
    2. 21. Project Support Office
      1. 21.1. Background of the Project Support Office
      2. 21.2. What Is a Project Support Office?
        1. 21.2.1. Temporary or Permanent Organizational Unit
        2. 21.2.2. Portfolio of Services
        3. 21.2.3. Specific Portfolio of Projects
      3. 21.3. Naming the Project Support Office
      4. 21.4. Establishing Your PSO's Mission
      5. 21.5. Framing PSO Objectives
      6. 21.6. Exploring PSO Functions
        1. 21.6.1. Project Support
        2. 21.6.2. Consulting and Mentoring
        3. 21.6.3. Methods and Standards
        4. 21.6.4. Software Tools
        5. 21.6.5. Training
        6. 21.6.6. Project Manager Resources
      7. 21.7. Selecting PSO Organizational Structures
        1. 21.7.1. Virtual versus Real
        2. 21.7.2. Proactive versus Reactive
        3. 21.7.3. Temporary versus Permanent
        4. 21.7.4. Program versus Projects
        5. 21.7.5. Enterprise versus Functional
        6. 21.7.6. Hub — Hub and Spoke
      8. 21.8. Organizational Placement of the PSO
      9. 21.9. How Do You Know You Need a PSO?
        1. 21.9.1. The Standish Group Report
        2. 21.9.2. Spotting Symptoms That You Need a PSO
      10. 21.10. Establishing a PSO
        1. 21.10.1. PSO Stages of Growth
          1. 21.10.1.1. Level 1: Initial
          2. 21.10.1.2. Level 2: Repeatable
          3. 21.10.1.3. Level 3: Defined
          4. 21.10.1.4. Level 4: Managed
          5. 21.10.1.5. Level 5: Optimized
        2. 21.10.2. Planning a PSO
          1. 21.10.2.1. The POS
            1. 21.10.2.1.1. Problem/Opportunity
            2. 21.10.2.1.2. Goal
            3. 21.10.2.1.3. Objectives
            4. 21.10.2.1.4. Success Criteria
            5. 21.10.2.1.5. Assumptions, Risks, Obstacles
          2. 21.10.2.2. Planning Steps
            1. 21.10.2.2.1. Forming the PSO Task Force
            2. 21.10.2.2.2. Measuring Where You Are
            3. 21.10.2.2.3. Establishing Where You Want To Go
            4. 21.10.2.2.4. Establishing How You Will Get There
      11. 21.11. Challenges to Implementing a PSO
        1. 21.11.1. Speed and Patience
        2. 21.11.2. Leadership from the Bottom Up
        3. 21.11.3. A Systems Thinking Perspective
        4. 21.11.4. Enterprise-Wide Systems
        5. 21.11.5. Knowledge Management
        6. 21.11.6. Learning and Learned Project Organizations
        7. 21.11.7. Open Communications
      12. 21.12. Putting It All Together
      13. 21.13. Discussion Questions
    3. Putting It All Together Finally
      1. From the Third Edition
      2. For the Fourth Edition
    4. A. What's on the Web Site?
      1. A.1. Pleasantown Playground Project and Pizza Delivered Quickly (PDQ) Case Studies (MS Word File)
      2. A.2. Figures Master File
      3. A.3. Tables Master File
    5. Bibliography
      1. Traditional Project Management
      2. Adaptive Project Framework and Extreme Project Management
      3. Organizational Considerations