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Economics

Book Description

Organizations, governments, and corporations are all concerned with distributing their goods and services to those who need them most, consequently benefiting in the process. Only by carefully considering the interrelated nature of social systems can organizations achieve the success they strive for. Economics: Concepts, Methodolgies, Tools, and Applications explores the interactions between market agents and their impact on global prosperity. Incorporating both theoretical background and advanced concepts in the discipline, this multi-volume reference is intended for policymakers, economists, business leaders, governmental and non-governmental organizations, and students of economic theory.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Online Delivery of Introductory Economics Content in the United States
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Technology Enhanced Learning and the Digital Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. DIGITAL ECONOMY
      5. 4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 3: Games in Entrepreneurship Education to Support the Crafting of an Entrepreneurial Mindset
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENTREPRENEURSHIP: AN INSTRUMENT OR AN APPROACH TO LIFE?
      4. THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP GAME
      5. CONCLUDING DISCUSSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Introduction to Academic Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CLASSIC FORMS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THEIR ACADEMIC CONTEXT
      5. EXTENDED CHARACTERISTIC OF ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Historically Reading the Concept of Gender by the Dilemma of Heterodox-Orthodox Vision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLANCING AT GENDER AND FEMINIST ECONOMICS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 6: How Knowledge, Technology, and Project Management Processes in Brazilian Universities Help Innovation in Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 7: Entrepreneurship Readiness in Turkey
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. LIMITATIONS
      7. IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 8: Perceptions and Framing of Risk, Uncertainty, Loss, and Failure in Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE SEARCH
      4. RISK-TAKING AND LOSS AVERSION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 9: Strategic Entrepreneurial Orientation and Small Business Growth
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEO AND SMALL FIRMS GROWTH
      4. DIMENSIONS IMPACTING ON SEO
      5. SEO AND GROWTH
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 10: ICT and Building a Knowledge-Based Society in Egypt
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYNOPSIS OF INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE AND ICT STRATEGY EVOLUTION IN EGYPT
      4. KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY
      5. ICT FOR KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY
      6. DIGITAL DIVIDE: A CHALLENGE TO KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY
      7. BUILDING EGYPT’S KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY
      8. ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
      9. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DEVELOPMENT: INITIATIVES AND POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS
      10. ICT FOR HEALTH
      11. ELECTRONIC CONTENT
      12. FUTURE AGENDA
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 11: Social Entrepreneurial e-Empowerment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-EMPOWERMENT OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 12: Properties of Knowledge Matter
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 13: Sustainability and Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. INDIGENOUS ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      4. 3. THE TAXONOMY OF INDIGENOUS ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE AMAZON REGION
      5. 4. CHALLENGES FACING INDIGENOUS ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON REGION
      6. 5. DESIGNING A QUADRUPLE HELIX INDIGENOUS ENTREPRENEURSHIP MODEL
      7. REFERENCES
  7. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 14: Enabling IT Innovation through Soft Systems Engineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TEAMWORK
      4. SOFT SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND IT INNOVATION
      5. APPLICATION DOMAIN AND PRODUCTION DOMAIN
      6. USER-DRIVEN INNOVATION AND OPEN INNOVATION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 15: Collaborative Research (CR)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 16: Social Media Crowdsourcing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE STUDY
      4. 3. CONCLUSIVE OF CROWDSOURCING MODEL
      5. 4. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 17: Crowdsourcing for Transcultural Marketing and Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD AND CASES
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 18: Environmental Turbulence and Complexity and the Optimal Degree of Internal Open Innovation for MNCs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. MODEL
      6. 5. RESULTS
      7. 6. DISCUSSION
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
      12. APPENDIX
    6. Chapter 19: Innovation Network in IT Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. FOREIGN R&D IN INDIA AND CHINA
      4. 3. OBJECTIVES
      5. 4. METHODOLOGY
      6. 5. FINDINGS
      7. 6. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 20: The Development of Mobile Service Applications for Consumers and Intelligent Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT OF APPLICATIONS FOR CONSUMERS
      4. DEVELOPMENT OF APPLICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT NETWORKS
      5. DEVELOPMENTS IN BUSINESS MODELS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 21: Open Social Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INNOVATION
      4. SOCIAL INNOVATION
      5. OPEN INNOVATION
      6. ‘OPEN SOCIAL INNOVATION’
      7. SOCIAL CHALLENGE IDEAS: ‘OPEN’ SOCIAL INNOVATION IN BRAZIL AND USA
      8. DISCUSSION AND PROPOSITIONS
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTE
    9. Chapter 22: An Empirical Analysis of Innovation Success Factors Due to ICT Use in Japanese Firms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITION OF INNOVATION
      4. HYPOTHESES ON THE INNOVATION PROCESS
      5. RESEARCH METHOD
      6. ANALYTICAL METHOD AND RESULTS OF ESTIMATIONS
      7. HYPOTHESIS AND MODELS FOR ESTIMATION
      8. OPEN INNOVATION, PARTNERS AND INFORMATION EXCHANGED
      9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OPEN INNOVATION AND TYPES OF INFORMATION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 23: A Case Study of Progressive Formation of Accounting Cloud Services in Japan
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH DESIGN
      5. CASE STUDY OF THE BEST ACCOUNTING CLOUD SERVICE IN JAPAN
      6. PROGRESSIVE FORMATION OF THE BEST ACCOUNTING CLOUD SERVICE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 24: A Guide to Online Applications for User Involvement in Living Lab Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ONLINE APPLICATIONS IN THE LIVING LAB CONTEXT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 25: Incremental and Radical Service Innovation in Living Labs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SERVICE INNOVATION IN LIVING LABS
      4. INCREMENTAL AND RADICAL INNOVATION OUTCOMES
      5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. FINDINGS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 26: Chaos-Based Cryptography for Voice Secure Wireless Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IN CHAOS BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY
      4. DIFFERENT CHAOS MAPS
      5. CHAOS BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY
      6. SECURE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION BASED ON CHAOS THEORY
      7. VOICE SECURE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 27: ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE MULTIPLE FACETS OF ICT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. Section 3: Frameworks and Methodologies
    1. Chapter 28: The Entrepreneur as Strategist and Improviser
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES AND ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR
      4. THE ENTREPRENEUR’S ROLES IN EXPLORING AND EXPLOITING ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES
      5. THE ENTREPRENEUR AS A STRATEGIST AND AGENT OF CHANGE
      6. THE ENTREPRENEUR AS IMPROVISER
      7. NON-TRADITIONAL APPROACHES AND TOOLS IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION/TRAINING: THE ENTREPRENEUR STRATEGIST AND IMRPOVISER AS OBJECT OF UNDERSTANDING
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 29: Users' Involvement in the Innovation Process through Web 2.0
      1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPEN INNOVATION
      4. USERS’ INVOLVEMENT IN INNOVATION PROCESS AND NPD
      5. FRAMEWORK PROPOSAL FOR USER INVOLVEMENT
      6. RESEARCH METHOD
      7. THE AUTO COMPANY PROJECT
      8. ANALYSIS OF THE AUTO COMPANY PROJECT
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 30: Mapping the Knowledge Supply Chain to Foster Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NPD AND KNOWLEDGE SUPPLIES
      4. THE KNOWLEDGE COLLABORATION SCHEME: DESCRIPTION OF THE METHODOLOGY
      5. ILLUSTRATIVE CASE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 31: Contextual Intelligence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEXTUAL INTELLIGENCE
      4. CENTRAL COMPONENTS OF CI
      5. 3D THINKING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 32: Information Strategy as Enabler of Competitive Advantage
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LEVEL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USAGE
      5. IMPACTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USAGE
      6. PORTER’S FIVE FORCES
      7. VALUE CHAIN
      8. BUSINESS COMPETITION AND COOPERATION
      9. INNOVATION STRATEGY
      10. RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 33: Open Business Intelligence for Better Decision-Making
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GROWING DATA VOLUMES AND SMARTER DECISIONS
      4. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE
      5. BI RESOURCES
      6. OPEN SOURCE MODEL
      7. OPEN BI SOLUTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 34: Entrepreneurship as a Survival-Seeking Strategy for Indigenous Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN ENTREPRENEURSHIP STUDY APPROACHES
      4. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE ROLE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS
      5. INDIGENOUS ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MEXICO
      6. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 35: Online Communities and Open Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE SOLAR SYSTEM METAPHOR
      5. MODEL AND COMPONENTS
      6. METHOD AND CONTEXT OF ANALYSIS
      7. FINDINGS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 36: Fostering Creative Transformations in Organizations with Chaos
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CHAOS THEORY OF CAREERS
      4. THE CHAOS THEORY OF CAREERS (CTC) IN ACTION: A CASE STUDY USING OF HOW CTC CAN BE APPLIED IN ORGANIZATIONS
      5. THE CHAOS THEORY OF CAREERS AND ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL SETTING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 37: Successful Internet Entrepreneurs Don't Have To Be College Dropouts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT STATE OF INTERNET ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
      4. A MODEL FOR NURTURING COLLEGE STUDENTS TO BECOME SUCCESSFUL INTERNET ENTREPRENEURS
      5. TECHNOLOGY
      6. BUSINESS
      7. ENVIRONMENT
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  9. Section 4: Cases and Applications
    1. Chapter 38: Applying Open Innovation Strategies to eGovernment for Better Public Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPEN AND CLOSED INNOVATION STRATEGIES
      4. OPEN INNOVATION IN GOVERNMENT
      5. GOVERNANCE MODEL OF PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY
      6. REALIZATION OF THE PROPOSED CITIZEN-DRIVEN, OPEN INNOVATION APPROACH FOR PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY VIA ICT MEANS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 39: Relationship between Company's Intellectual Capital and Performance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. AN OVERVIEW OF INDIAN IT INDUSTRY
      4. 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      5. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. 4. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
      7. 5. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 40: Women's Entrepreneurship Development in Bangladesh
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH
      4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      5. WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH: FACTORS BEHIND THE REALITY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
      10. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 41: Entrepreneurial Intentions among Higher Education Students in Finland and Spain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION AND THEORETICAL CONTRIBUTION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX
    5. Chapter 42: Gender, Entrepreneurship, and Informal Markets in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. POLICY AND RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
      10. APPENDIX
    6. Chapter 43: Kama Group Limited
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. FAMILY BUSINESS
      5. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF FAMILY BUSINESS
      6. BACKGROUND AND BUSINESS CONTEXT OF THE CASE
      7. CRITICAL MENTAL ATTRIBUTES FOR SETTING UP BUSINESS
      8. CURRENT BUSINESS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. LESSONS LEARNED FROM DR. ADDO
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. APPENDIX
    7. Chapter 44: Global Lighting Centre Ltd.
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. FACTORS INFLUENCING ENTREPRENUERAL SUCCESS
      5. FIRM AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS
      6. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      7. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN DEVELOPED AND EMERGING ECONOMIES
      8. FAMILY BUSINESS
      9. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF FAMILY BUSINESS
      10. THEORITICAL PERSPECTIVES
      11. CASE BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT
      12. NATURE OF BUSINESS
      13. BUSINESS START-UP
      14. START UP MOTIVATION
      15. SPECIFIC INITIAL CHALLENGES
      16. CRITICAL MENTAL ATTRIBUTES FOR BUSINESS SUCCESS
      17. CURRENT BUSINESS
      18. CONCLUSION
      19. REFERENCES
      20. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      21. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 45: Factors Stimulating Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENTREPRENEURSHIP: DEFINITION AND CONTEXT
      4. THE LITERATURE AND METRICS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL CLIMATE
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 46: Holy Trinity Medical Centre
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY
      5. THEORIES OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX
    10. Chapter 47: Anointed Electrical Engineering Services Limited
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      7. APPENDIX
    11. Chapter 48: Entrepreneurship Factor in Institutional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS IN GHANA
      4. TERTIARY EDUCATIONAL SECTOR OF GHANA
      5. FORMATION OF GIMPA
      6. STATE OF AFFAIRS AT GIMPA AT THE START OF ITS TRANSFORMATION
      7. THE NEW DIRECTOR GENERAL.
      8. THE OUTCOME
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX
    12. Chapter 49: Improving Lives through Mobility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENVIRONMENTS: INTERNAL CHALLENGES
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 50: The Relationship between the Arab Spring Revolutions and Entrepreneurial Inhibitors, Enablers, and Activity in North Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO THE ARAB SPRING REVOLUTIONS
      4. THE ARAB SPRING REVOLUTIONS
      5. LITERATURE REVIEW
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. RESULTS
      8. ENTREPRENEURIAL INHIBITORS
      9. ENTREPRENEURIAL ENABLERS
      10. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY DETERMINANTS
      11. DISCUSSION/IMPLICATIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 51: Enterprise as a Career Choice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ENDNOTES
      6. APPENDIX A
      7. APPENDIX B
      8. APPENDIX C
    15. Chapter 52: Towards Convergence in European Higher Education through Open Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      6. INDUSTRY – UNIVERSITY OPEN INNOVATION RISKS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 53: The Impact of Corruption on Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 54: A Comparative Study of Teachers' and Engineering Students' Enterprise 3.0 Application in Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    18. Chapter 55: Youth Entrepreneurship in Indian Scenario
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BUSINESS MODELS FOR YOUTH ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      5. BARRIERS FOR YOUTH ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      6. CHALLENGES FOR YOUTH ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    19. Chapter 56: Internet Entrepreneurship Education and its Role in Online Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ENDNOTES
    20. Chapter 57: Creativity with Institutionalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW: PARADOXICAL TENSION: COOPERATIVES AS INNOVATIVE FORMS OF BUSINESS?
      4. 3. METHODS AND CASES
      5. 4. COOPERATIVES AS PART OF THE CULTURE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN NORTHERN FINLAND
      6. 5. DISCUSSION
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    21. Chapter 58: The Social Role of University Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      4. LINKS BETWEEN UNIVERSITY SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      5. DRIVERS AND CONSEQUENCES OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN UNIVERSITIES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  10. Section 5: Issues and Challenges
    1. Chapter 59: Social e-Entrepreneurship, Employment, and e-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUSHIP AND EMPLOYMENT
      5. DISTANCE EDUCATION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 60: Discovering the Nexus between Market Orientation and Open Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND LITERATURE
      4. TOWARDS A METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK: GROUNDED THEORY
      5. THEORIZATION
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 61: Entrepreneurship Education at Mtech, University of Maryland
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERGRADUATE INITIATIVES OF MTECH
      4. GRADUATE AND PROFESSIONAL INITIATIVES AT MTECH
      5. PRE-COLLEGE INITIATIVES
      6. ASSESSMENT
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 62: The Practice of Open Innovation in Chinese Enterprises
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      6. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 63: Chaotic Systems and Their Recent Implementations on Improving Intelligent Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOUNDATIONS
      4. IMPROVING INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS VIA CHAOTIC SYSTEMS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 64: A Standardized Marketing Audit Model for Entrepreneurship Education in Egypt
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND RELATED WORK AND RESEARCH GAP
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. 6. RECOMMENDATION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX A
      10. APPENDIX B
    7. Chapter 65: Managing Fisheries in Light of Complexity and Chaos Theories
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHAOS IN DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS’ THEORIES
      4. CHAOS, DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS’ THEORY, AND ECOLOGY
      5. DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND CHAOS THEORY AND FISHERIES
      6. MODELLING FISHERIES’ DISSIPATIVE EFFECT
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 66: Chaotic Essence inside the Organizational Reality
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EVOLUTION OF CHAOTIC ESSENCE IN ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY
      5. FACING THE CHAOTIC ESSENCE IN TERMS OF DYSTOPIA
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 67: Critical Review of Academic Entrepreneurship in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1: SHARDA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS: THE STORY OF ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      4. 2. SYMBIOSIS: A SAGA OF EXCELLENCE
      5. ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT AND OPINION
      6. FINDINGS, SCOPE, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 68: Culture-Based Creativity in the Regional Strategy of Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      3. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH
      4. CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      5. CULTURE-BASED CREATIVITY AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RUSSIA
      6. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CULTURE-BASED ECONOMY IN RUSSIA: TOWARD A NEW REGIONAL STRATEGY OF DEVELOPMENT
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 69: Employability, E-Entrepreneurship, and Economic Recovery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH STUDY
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
      10. APPENDIX: QUESTIONNAIRE
    12. Chapter 70: Universities' Role as Catalysts for Venture Creation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER AND STAGE ASSISTANCE
      5. INTRODUCTION TO THE INCUBATION PROCESS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    13. Chapter 71: Mobbing and Chaotic Reflections in International Politics Documents
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBBING IN NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS
      4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOBBING, EDUCATION, AND CHAOS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 72: Sustainable Development in Business Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANISATION BACKGROUND
      4. SETTING THE STAGE
      5. CASE DESCRIPTION
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANISATION
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    15. Chapter 73: Lessons Learned from Chilean Model of Innovation and Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. RELEVANCE OF THE THEME
      3. CHILEAN ECONOMIC BACKGROUND
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. R & D POLICIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGIES APPLIED IN CHILE
      6. LIGHTS AND SHADOWS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX
    16. Chapter 74: Why and How Did Health Economics Appear? Who Were the Main Authors? What is the Role of ITCs in its Development?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. THE ORIGIN OF HEALTH ECONOMICS AND THE LEADING AUTHORS
      4. 2. ICTS: THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE IN THE HEALTH ECONOMICS SECTOR
      5. 3. THE LIMITED USE OF ICTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    17. Chapter 75: Chaos and Complexity in Financial Statements
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCES OF COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
      4. INTERPRETING THE BASIC ACCOUNTING EQUATION AS A SPECIAL CASE OF LOGICAL COMPLEXITY
      5. PHASE SPACE AND ATTRACTORS IN FINANCIAL HEALTH
      6. COMPLEX AND CHAOTIC METAPHORICAL NARRATIVE ON THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
      7. A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE USE OF COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS IN THE FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    18. Chapter 76: Teachers' Improvisation of Instructional Materials for Nigerian Home Economics Curriculum Delivery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    19. Chapter 77: The Role of ICT in Supporting Transnational Diaspora Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LINKING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND TRANSNATIONAL DIASPORA ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      4. ENHANCING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC VALUE CREATION OF TRANSNATIONAL DIASPORA ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    20. Chapter 78: Entrepreneurship Approach to Higher Education Policy Aspects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEMS IN A CHANGING WORLD
      5. GLOBAL CONCERNS OF HIGHER EDUCATION
      6. GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL POLICY
      7. EMERGENCE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL APPROACH
      8. CASES OF ENTREPRENEURIAL APPROACH IN THE GLOBE
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    21. Chapter 79: The Entrepreneurial Manager
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MANAGEMENT
      4. THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MANAGER: BETWEEN ENTREPRENEUR AND MANAGER, OR SOMETHING MORE
      5. KEY COMPETENCIES OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MANAGER
      6. CHALLENGES TO THE FORMATION OF THE KEY COMPETENCIES OF AN ENTREPRENEURIAL MANAGER
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 80: Diaspora Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIASPORA AND TRANSNATIONAL CONCEPTS
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. TOWARDS A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF DIASPORA ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      6. SUMMARY
      7. IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 81: Software Engineering and New Emerging Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. RELATED WORK
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 82: Web-Based Services and Future Business Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. TOWARD NEW BUSINESS MODELS
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 83: Government 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPEN INNOVATION FOR MUNICIPALITIES
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 84: The Future of Library Services in the Digital Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITION OF TERMS
      4. ADVANCEMENTS IN ICT AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIBRARIES
      5. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF DIGITIZATION
      6. THE COPPERBELT UNIVERSITY EXPERIENCE
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 85: The Involvement of New Ideas in Products and Services Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INNOVATION, CREATIVITY, AND IDEAS GENERATION
      4. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF IDEAS AND ITS REPRESENTATION
      5. IDEAS, INNOVATION, AND SOCIO-SEMANTIC STRUCTURES: WHAT IS THE RELATION?
      6. APPROACHES AND METHODS TO SUPPORT THE SYNTHESIS OF NEW IDEAS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 86: A New Space for Biotechnology Innovation?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW: TERRITORIAL INNOVATION CONCEPTS
      4. RESEARCH CASE AND METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. SUMMARY
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 87: Modify and Adapt
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 88: Mobile Health Technology in the US
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OF M-HEALTH
      4. CURRENT STATUS OF M-HEALTH IN USA
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 89: The Open Innovation Paradigm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPEN INNOVATION PARADIGM
      4. THE EVOLUTION OF MEDIA EDUCATION: TOWARD A NEW PARADIGM
      5. THE ALLIANCE BETWEEN A ZOO AND A WEB RADIO
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINTIONS