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Eco-friendly Innovation in Electricity Transmission and Distribution Networks

Book Description

An overview of eco-design approaches and standards to improve performance and sustainability in the field of electricity transmission and distribution (T&D) networks.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Related titles
  5. Copyright
  6. Dedication
  7. List of contributors
  8. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. Introduction
  11. Part One. Eco-design and innovation in electricity transmission and distribution networks
    1. 1. The implications of climate change and energy security for global electricity supply: The Energy (R)evolution
      1. 1.1. Greenhouse emissions and climate change
      2. 1.2. Primary energy resources
      3. 1.3. The fossil fuels
      4. 1.4. Carbon dioxide capture and storage and clean coal technologies
      5. 1.5. Uranium resources and nuclear energy
      6. 1.6. Contribution of all fossil and nuclear fuels
      7. 1.7. What is the solution for saving the planet?
      8. 1.8. Development of global energy demand
      9. 1.9. The hydrogen economy
      10. 1.10. Conclusions
    2. 2. Key performance indicators in assessing new technology for electricity transmission and distribution networks
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. Key performance indicators to assess the environmental impact of transmission and distribution networks
      3. 2.3. Test networks
      4. 2.4. A methodology for evaluating KPIs
      5. 2.5. Results
    3. 3. Improving European Union ecodesign standardization
      1. 3.1. Standardization policy
      2. 3.2. Product ecodesign
      3. 3.3. Ecodesign methodology
      4. 3.4. Ecodesign for energy-related products: The new scope of the ErP directive
      5. 3.5. Applying ecodesign directive to electricity transmission and distribution technology: power transformers
      6. 3.6. Methodology for ecodesign of energy-related products (MeerP)
      7. 3.7. Two European initiatives on resource efficiency and critical raw materials
      8. 3.8. The product environmental footprint
      9. 3.9. Future trends
      10. References and further reading
      11. List of acronyms used
    4. 4. Approaches for multi-objective optimization in the ecodesign of electric systems
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Ecodesign principles
      3. 4.3. Matching models and algorithms
      4. 4.4. Multi-objective algorithms and techniques
      5. 4.5. Optimization problem transformation techniques
      6. 4.6. Summary: using different techniques
    5. 5. Strategic environmental assessment of power plants and electricity transmission and distribution networks
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. SEA in different countries
      3. 5.3. The contribution of SEA to sustainability
      4. 5.4. SEA in the power planning process
      5. 5.5. Stages of SEA
      6. 5.6. SEA indicators: measuring differences within power plan alternatives
      7. 5.7. Conclusions and future trends
      8. 5.8. Sources of further information and advice
  12. Part Two. Application and assessment of advanced equipment for electricity transmission and distribution networks
    1. 6. Life cycle assessment of equipment for electricity transmission and distribution networks
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Introduction to life cycle assessment
      3. 6.3. Applying LCA in practice: power transformer
      4. 6.4. Applying LCA in practice: a 765<span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" style=" padding-top:0.3em; padding-left:0.25em" title='hsp="0.25"'><span style="font-size:0pt">&#160;</span></span>kV AC transmission systemkV AC transmission system
      5. 6.5. Conclusions
    2. 7. Superconducting DC cables to improve the efficiency of electricity transmission and distribution networks: An overview
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. Superconducting cable systems: key elements
      3. 7.3. Superconducting materials
      4. 7.4. Cable conductors and electrical insulation
      5. 7.5. Cable cryostat
      6. 7.6. Cable terminations and joints
      7. 7.7. Cryogenic machine
      8. 7.8. Superconductive cable system configurations
      9. 7.9. Power dissipation sources in the superconducting system
      10. 7.10. Power losses from AC ripples
      11. 7.11. Comparing power dissipation in a DC superconducting system to a conventional system
      12. 7.12. Opportunities for DC superconducting cables
      13. 7.13. Conclusions
    3. 8. Improving energy efficiency in railway powertrains
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Upstream design of an onboard energy storage system
      3. 8.3. Techniques to optimize the design of the ESS
      4. 8.4. Downstream optimization of a transformer and its rectifier
      5. 8.5. Techniques to optimize the design of the transformer and rectifier
      6. 8.6. Conclusion
    4. 9. Reducing the environmental impacts of power transmission lines
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Environmental challenges relating to grid lines
      3. 9.3. Environmental legislation and guidelines
      4. 9.4. The importance of stakeholder engagement
      5. 9.5. The challenges of implementing nature legislation
      6. 9.6. Biodiversity along grid lines
      7. 9.7. Best practice approaches
      8. 9.8. Conclusion
    5. 10. Ecodesign of equipment for electricity distribution networks
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Legislation and standards in Europe relating to energy-efficient design
      3. 10.3. The product environmental profile program for energy-efficient design
      4. 10.4. Typical electricity distribution network equipment
      5. 10.5. End-of-life management of electricity distribution network equipment
      6. 10.6. Case study: managing the recycling of medium-voltage switchgear
      7. 10.7. Meeting PEP and LCA requirements for electricity distribution network equipment
      8. 10.8. Case study: LCA of medium-voltage switchgear
      9. 10.9. Future trends
      10. List of acronyms
  13. Part Three. Application and assessment of advanced wind energy systems
    1. 11. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in wind energy systems
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. Wind turbines
      3. 11.3. Maintenance theory
      4. 11.4. Condition monitoring of WTs
      5. 11.5. Sensory signals and signal processing methods
      6. 11.6. Conclusions
      7. List of acronyms
    2. 12. Development of permanent magnet generators to integrate wind turbines into electricity transmission and distribution networks
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. Wind turbine power conversion: the induction generator
      3. 12.3. Wind turbine power conversion: the synchronous generator
      4. 12.4. Improving reliability: the direct drive permanent magnet generator
      5. 12.5. Optimizing direct drive permanent magnet generators
      6. 12.6. Comparing different configurations
      7. 12.7. Conclusion and future trends
    3. 13. Advanced AC and DC technologies to connect offshore wind farms into electricity transmission and distribution networks
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Wind power development and wind turbine technologies
      3. 13.3. Wind farm configuration and wind power collection
      4. 13.4. Multiterminal HVDC for offshore wind power transmission
      5. 13.5. Control of centralised AC/DC converter for offshore wind farms with induction generators
      6. 13.6. Future trends
    4. 14. DC grid architectures to improve the integration of wind farms into electricity transmission and distribution networks
      1. 14.1. Introduction
      2. 14.2. Benefits of using a pure DC grid
      3. 14.3. Current wind farm architectures
      4. 14.4. Case study to compare different architectures
      5. 14.5. Strengths and weaknesses of different architectures
      6. 14.6. Availability estimation
      7. 14.7. Overall comparison
      8. 14.8. Conclusions
  14. Part Four. Smart grid and demand-side management for electricity transmission and distribution networks
    1. 15. Improved energy demand management in buildings for smart grids: The US experience
      1. 15.1. Introduction
      2. 15.2. Smart energy infrastructure: an overview
      3. 15.3. Core technologies
      4. 15.4. Architectures for building-to-grid communications
      5. 15.5. Building applications
      6. 15.6. Case studies: building-to-grid applications for peak load reduction
      7. 15.7. Case studies: building-to-grid applications for integration of renewable power sources
      8. 15.8. Conclusions and future trends
    2. 16. Smart meters for improved energy demand management: The Nordic experience
      1. 16.1. Introduction
      2. 16.2. The Schneider Electric experience of AMI deployment in Sweden and Finland
      3. 16.3. Planning the deployment of a massive AMI
      4. 16.4. Rollout of the AMI platform into milestone areas
      5. 16.5. Launching the operation of the AMI platform
      6. 16.6. Leveraging a smart metering infrastructure to add value
      7. 16.7. Conclusions
    3. 17. Managing charging of electric vehicles in electricity transmission and distribution networks
      1. 17.1. Introduction
      2. 17.2. EV charging: issues and opportunities for the distribution grid
      3. 17.3. Impact of FR charging strategies on the distribution grid
      4. 17.4. Smart VR charging strategies: a key paradigm for electric transportation
      5. 17.5. Smart grid for vehicle charging: a case study
      6. 17.6. Conclusions
    4. 18. The Serhatköy photovoltaic power plant and the future of renewable energy on the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus: Integrating solar photovoltaic and wind farms into electricity transmission and distribution networks
      1. 18.1. Background
      2. 18.2. Electricity sector
      3. 18.3. The solar project
      4. 18.4. The tender process and awarding of the contract
      5. 18.5. Construction of the plant
      6. 18.6. Performance of the plant
      7. 18.7. Recommendations for future improvements to the Serhatköy power plant
      8. 18.8. The Intergovernmental Programme for Climate Change
      9. 18.9. The future
      10. 18.10. Conclusions
  15. Index
  16. Plate Captions List