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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction

Book Description

The essential e-learning design manual, updated with the latest research, design principles, and examples

e-Learning and the Science of Instruction is the ultimate handbook for evidence-based e-learning design. Since the first edition of this book, e-learning has grown to account for at least 40% of all training delivery media. However, digital courses often fail to reach their potential for learning effectiveness and efficiency. This guide provides research-based guidelines on how best to present content with text, graphics, and audio as well as the conditions under which those guidelines are most effective. This updated fourth edition describes the guidelines, psychology, and applications for ways to improve learning through personalization techniques, coherence, animations, and a new chapter on evidence-based game design. The chapter on the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning introduces three forms of cognitive load which are revisited throughout each chapter as the psychological basis for chapter principles. A new chapter on engagement in learning lays the groundwork for in-depth reviews of how to leverage worked examples, practice, online collaboration, and learner control to optimize learning. The updated instructor's materials include a syllabus, assignments, storyboard projects, and test items that you can adapt to your own course schedule and students.

Co-authored by the most productive instructional research scientist in the world, Dr. Richard E. Mayer, this book distills copious e-learning research into a practical manual for improving learning through optimal design and delivery.

  • Get up to date on the latest e-learning research
  • Adopt best practices for communicating information effectively
  • Use evidence-based techniques to engage your learners
  • Replace popular instructional ideas, such as learning styles with evidence-based guidelines
  • Apply evidence-based design techniques to optimize learning games

e-Learning continues to grow as an alternative or adjunct to the classroom, and correspondingly, has become a focus among researchers in learning-related fields. New findings from research laboratories can inform the design and development of e-learning. However, much of this research published in technical journals is inaccessible to those who actually design e-learning material. By collecting the latest evidence into a single volume and translating the theoretical into the practical, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction has become an essential resource for consumers and designers of multimedia learning.

Table of Contents

  1. Acknowledgments
  2. Introduction
  3. Chapter 1 e-Learning
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. What Is e-Learning?
    3. Is e-Learning Better?
    4. The Promises of e-Learning
    5. The Pitfalls of e-Learning
    6. Inform and Perform e-Learning Goals
    7. e-Learning Architectures
    8. What Is Effective e-Courseware?
    9. Learning in e-Learning
    10. Chapter Reflection
    11. Coming Next
    12. Suggested Readings
  4. Chapter 2 How Do People Learn from e-Courses?
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. How Do People Learn?
    3. Managing Limited Cognitive Resources During Learning
    4. How e-Lessons Affect Human Learning
    5. What We Don’t Know About Learning
    6. Chapter Reflection
    7. Coming Next
    8. Suggested Readings
  5. Chapter 3 Evidence-Based Practice
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. What Is Evidence-Based Practice?
    3. Three Approaches to Research on Instructional Effectiveness
    4. What to Look for in Experimental Comparisons
    5. How to Interpret Research Statistics
    6. How Can You Identify Relevant Research?
    7. Boundary Conditions in Experimental Comparisons
    8. Practical Versus Theoretical Research
    9. What We Don’t Know About Evidence-Based Practice
    10. Chapter Reflection
    11. Coming Next
    12. Suggested Readings
  6. Chapter 4 Applying the Multimedia Principle
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. Do Visuals Make a Difference?
    3. Multimedia Principle: Include Both Words and Graphics
    4. Some Ways to Use Graphics to Promote Learning
    5. Psychological Reasons for the Multimedia Principle
    6. Evidence for Using Words and Pictures
    7. The Multimedia Principle Works Best for Novices
    8. Should You Change Static Illustrations into Animations?
    9. What We Don’t Know About Visuals
    10. Chapter Reflection
    11. Coming Next
    12. Suggested Readings
  7. Chapter 5 Applying the Contiguity Principle
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. Principle 1: Place Printed Words Near Corresponding Graphics
    3. Psychological Reasons for Contiguity Principle 1
    4. Evidence for Contiguity Principle 1
    5. Principle 2: Synchronize Spoken Words with Corresponding Graphics
    6. Psychological Reasons for Contiguity Principle 2
    7. Evidence for Contiguity Principle 2
    8. What We Don’t Know About Contiguity
    9. Chapter Reflection
    10. Coming Next
    11. Suggested Readings
  8. Chapter 6 Applying the Modality Principle
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. Modality Principle: Present Words as Speech Rather Than On-Screen Text
    3. Limitations to the Modality Principle
    4. Psychological Reasons for the Modality Principle
    5. Evidence for Using Spoken Rather Than Printed Text
    6. When the Modality Principle Applies
    7. What We Don’t Know About Modality
    8. Chapter Reflection
    9. Coming Next
    10. Suggested Readings
  9. Chapter 7 Applying the Redundancy Principle
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. Principle 1: Do Not Add On-Screen Text to Narrated Graphics
    3. Psychological Reasons for the Redundancy Principle
    4. Evidence for Omitting Redundant On-Screen Text
    5. Principle 2: Consider Adding On-Screen Text to Narration in Special Situations
    6. Psychological Reasons for Exceptions to the Redundancy Principle
    7. Evidence for Including Redundant On-Screen Text
    8. What We Don’t Know About Redundancy
    9. Chapter Reflection
    10. Coming Next
    11. Suggested Readings
  10. Chapter 8 Applying the Coherence Principle
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. Principle 1: Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Words
    3. Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Words in e-Learning
    4. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added for Interest
    5. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added to Expand on Key Ideas
    6. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added for Technical Depth
    7. Principle 2: Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Graphics
    8. Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Graphics in e-Learning
    9. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Graphics Added for Interest
    10. Evidence for Using Simpler Visuals
    11. Can Interesting Graphics Ever Be Helpful?
    12. Principle 3: Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Audio
    13. Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Audio in e-Learning
    14. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Audio
    15. What We Don’t Know About Coherence
    16. Chapter Reflection
    17. Coming Next
    18. Suggested Readings
  11. Chapter 9 Applying the Personalization and Embodiment Principles
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. Personalization Principle: Use Conversational Rather Than Formal Style, Polite Wording Rather Than Direct Wording, and Human Voice Rather Than Machine Voice
    3. Psychological Reasons for the Personalization Principle
    4. Promote Personalization Through Conversational Style
    5. Promote Personalization Through Polite Speech
    6. Promote Personalization Through Voice Quality
    7. Embodiment Principle: Use Effective On-Screen Coaches to Promote Learning
    8. Implications for e-Learning
    9. What We Don’t Know About Personalization and Embodiment
    10. Chapter Reflection
    11. Coming Next
    12. Suggested Readings
  12. Chapter 10 Applying the Segmenting and Pretraining Principles
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. Segmenting Principle: Break a Continuous Lesson into Bite-Size Segments
    3. Psychological Reasons for the Segmenting Principle
    4. Evidence for Breaking a Continuous Lesson into Bite-Size Segments
    5. Pretraining Principle: Ensure That Learners Know the Names and Characteristics of Key Concepts
    6. Psychological Reasons for the Pretraining Principle
    7. Evidence for Providing Pretraining in Key Concepts
    8. What We Don’t Know About Segmenting and Pretraining
    9. Chapter Reflection
    10. Coming Next
    11. Suggested Readings
  13. Chapter 11 Engagement in e-Learning
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. What Is Engagement?
    3. When Behavioral Engagement Impedes Learning
    4. Engagement That Leads to Generative Processing
    5. A New View of Engagement
    6. What We Don’t Know About Engagement
    7. Chapter Reflection
    8. Coming Next
    9. Suggested Readings
  14. Chapter 12 Leveraging Examples in e-Learning
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. What Are Worked Examples?
    3. The Psychology of Worked Examples
    4. Evidence for the Benefits of Worked Examples
    5. Principles to Optimize Benefits of Worked Examples
    6. Principle 1: Provide Worked Examples in Lieu of Problem Assignments When the Essential Load of the Lesson Is High
    7. Principle 2: Fade from Worked Examples to Problems
    8. Principle 3: Promote Self-Explanations
    9. Principle 4: Include Instructional Explanations of Worked Examples in Some Situations
    10. Principle 5: Apply Multimedia Principles to Examples
    11. Principle 6: Support Far Transfer
    12. What We Don’t Know About Worked Examples
    13. Chapter Reflection
    14. Coming Next
    15. Suggested Readings
  15. Chapter 13 Does Practice Make Perfect?
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. What Is Practice in e-Learning?
    3. Is Practice a Good Investment?
    4. Principle 1: Add Sufficient Practice Interactions to e-Learning to Achieve the Objective
    5. Principle 2: Mirror the Job
    6. Principle 3: Provide Effective Feedback
    7. Principle 4: Distribute and Mix Practice Among Learning Events
    8. Principle 5: Apply Multimedia Principles
    9. What We Don’t Know About Practice
    10. Coming Next
    11. Suggested Readings
  16. Chapter 14 Learning Together Virtually
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. What Is Collaborative Learning?
    3. What Is Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)?
    4. Principle 1: Consider Collaborative Assignments for Challenging Tasks
    5. Principle 2: Optimize Group Size, Composition, and Interdependence
    6. Principle 3: Match Synchronous and Asynchronous Assignments to the Collaborative Goal
    7. Principle 4: Use Collaborative Tool Features That Optimize Team Processes and Products
    8. Principle 5: Maximize Social Presence in Online Collaborative Environments
    9. Principle 6: Use Structured Collaboration Processes to Optimize Team Outcomes
    10. What We Don’t Know About Collaborative Learning
    11. Coming Next
    12. Suggested Readings
  17. Chapter 15 Who’s in Control?
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. Learner Control Versus Program Control
    3. Do Learners Make Good Instructional Decisions?
    4. Principle 1: Give Experienced Learners Control
    5. Principle 2: Make Important Instructional Events the Default
    6. Principle 3: Consider Alternative Forms of Learner Control
    7. Principle 4: Give Pacing Control to All Learners
    8. Principle 5: Offer Navigational Support in Hypermedia Environments
    9. The Bottom Line
    10. What We Don’t Know About Learner Control
    11. Coming Next
    12. Suggested Readings
  18. Chapter 16 e-Learning to Build Thinking Skills
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. What Are Thinking Skills?
    3. Can Thinking Skills Be Trained?
    4. Principle 1: Focus on Explicit Teaching of Job-Relevant Thinking Skills
    5. Principle 2: Design Lessons Around Authentic Work Tasks or Problems
    6. Evidence for Problem-Focused Instruction
    7. Principle 3: Define Job-Specific Thinking Processes
    8. What We Don’t Know About Teaching Thinking Skills
    9. Coming Next
  19. Chapter 17 Learning with Computer Games
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. Do Games Have a Place in the Serious Business of Training?
    3. Which Features Improve a Game’s Effectiveness?
    4. Does Game Playing Improve Cognitive Skills?
    5. Are Games More Effective Than Conventional Media?
    6. What We Don’t Know About Learning with Computer Games
    7. Coming Next
    8. Suggested Readings
  20. Chapter 18 Applying the Guidelines
    1. Chapter Summary
    2. Applying the Evidence-Based Guidelines to e-Courses
    3. e-Lesson Guidelines Checklist
    4. Review of Sample 1: Excel for Small Business
    5. Review of Sample 2: Synchronous Excel Lesson
    6. Review of Sample 3: Automotive Troubleshooting Simulation
    7. Reflections on Past Predictions
    8. Beyond 2016 in Multimedia Research
    9. In Conclusion
  21. References
  22. Glossary
  23. Name Index
  24. Subject Index
  25. About the Authors
  26. EULA