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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition

Book Description

Praise for The Third Edition of e-Learning and the Science of Instruction

"If you design online learning, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction is a 'must read.' Unlike all the pontificating and conjecture that's been published about elearning, this important work details the evidence-based findings that provide practical guidelines for effective online instructional design. For me, this book is the 'bible' of our profession."

Peter Orton, Ph.D., IBM Center for Advanced Learning

"The partnership between Ruth Clark and Richard Mayer in writing successive editions of e-Learning and the Science of Instruction has provided us with one of the most important collaborations in our discipline. Their ability to communicate complex concepts in clear, indeed sparkling prose is unrivalled. In e-Learning and the Science of Instruction, we have a book for everyone including students, professional instructional designers and researchers."

John Sweller, professor, School of Education, University of New South Wales

"For the experienced instructional designer, having this supportive research provides the rationale needed to obtain consensus from a training development team."

David L. Bennett, senior training program developer, Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding

"Graduate students, undergraduate students, or employees responsible for designing and developing educational software will benefit from e-Learning and the Science of Instruction. It opens your eyes to interesting ideas that you have never thought of when designing an e-course."

Thair Hamtini, chairman of the computer information systems department, The University of Jordan

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Contents
  3. About This Book
  4. About Pfeiffer
  5. Title
  6. Copyright
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Introduction
    1. Purpose
    2. Audience
    3. Package Components
    4. Glossary
  9. Chapter 1: e-Learning
    1. What Is e-Learning?
    2. Is e-Learning Better?
    3. The Promise of e-Learning
    4. The Pitfalls of e-Learning
    5. Inform and Perform e-Learning Goals
    6. e-Learning Architectures
    7. What Is Effective e-Courseware?
    8. Learning in e-Learning
  10. Chapter 2: How Do People Learn from e-Courses?
    1. How Do People Learn?
    2. How e-Lessons Affect Human Learning
    3. What We Don’t Know About Learning
  11. Chapter 3: Evidence-Based Practice
    1. What Is Evidence-Based Practice?
    2. Three Approaches to Research on Instructional Effectiveness
    3. What to Look for in Experimental Comparisons
    4. How to Interpret No Effect in Experimental Comparisons
    5. How to Interpret Research Statistics
    6. How Can You Identify Relevant Research?
    7. What We Don’t Know About Evidence-Based Practice
  12. Chapter 4: Applying the Multimedia Principle
    1. Do Visuals Make a Difference?
    2. Multimedia Principle: Include Both Words and Graphics
    3. Some Ways to Use Graphics to Promote Learning
    4. Psychological Reasons for the Multimedia Principle
    5. Evidence for Using Words and Pictures
    6. The Multimedia Principle Works Best for Novices
    7. Should You Change Static Illustrations into Animations?
    8. What We Don’t Know About Visuals
  13. Chapter 5: Applying the Contiguity Principle
    1. Contiguity Principle 1: Place Printed Words Near Corresponding Graphics
    2. Contiguity Principle 2: Synchronize Spoken Words with Corresponding Graphics
    3. Psychological Reasons for the Contiguity Principle
    4. Evidence for Presenting Printed Words Near Corresponding Graphics
    5. Evidence for Presenting Spoken Words at the Same Time as Corresponding Graphics
    6. What We Don’t Know About Contiguity
  14. Chapter 6: Applying the Modality Principle
    1. Modality Principle: Present Words as Speech Rather Than On-Screen Text
    2. Limitations to the Modality Principle
    3. Psychological Reasons for the Modality Principle
    4. Evidence for Using Spoken Rather Than Printed Text
    5. When the Modality Principle Applies
    6. What We Don’t Know About Modality
  15. Chapter 7: Applying the Redundancy Principle
    1. Redundancy Principle 1: Do Not Add On-Screen Text to Narrated Graphics
    2. Psychological Reasons for the Redundancy Principle
    3. Evidence for Omitting Redundant On-Screen Text
    4. Redundancy Principle 2: Consider Adding On-Screen Text to Narration in Special Situations
    5. Psychological Reasons for Exceptions to the Redundancy Principle
    6. Evidence for Including Redundant On-Screen Text
    7. What We Don’t Know About Redundancy
  16. Chapter 8: Applying the Coherence Principle
    1. Coherence Principle 1: Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Audio
    2. Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Audio in e-Learning
    3. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Audio
    4. Coherence Principle 2: Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Graphics
    5. Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Graphics in e-Learning
    6. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Graphics Added for Interest
    7. Evidence for Using Simpler Visuals
    8. Coherence Principle 3: Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Words
    9. Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Words in e-Learning
    10. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added for Interest
    11. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added to Expand on Key Ideas
    12. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added for Technical Depth
    13. What We Don’t Know About Coherence
  17. Chapter 9: Applying the Personalization Principle
    1. Personalization Principle 1: Use Conversational Rather Than Formal Style
    2. Psychological Reasons for the Personalization Principle
    3. Evidence for Using Conversational Style
    4. Promote Personalization Through Voice Quality
    5. Promote Personalization Through Polite Speech
    6. Personalization Principle 2: Use Effective On-Screen Coaches to Promote Learning
    7. Personalization Principle 3: Make the Author Visible to Promote Learning
    8. Psychological Reasons for Using a Visible Author
    9. Evidence for the Visible Author
    10. What We Don’t Know About Personalization
  18. Chapter 10: Applying the Segmenting and Pretraining Principles
    1. Segmenting Principle: Break a Continuous Lesson into Bite-Size Segments
    2. Psychological Reasons for the Segmenting Principle
    3. Evidence for Breaking a Continuous Lesson into Bite-Size Segments
    4. Pretraining Principle: Ensure That Learners Know the Names and Characteristics of Key Concepts
    5. Psychological Reasons for the Pretraining Principle
    6. Evidence for Providing Pretraining in Key Concepts
    7. What We Don’t Know About Segmenting and Pretraining
  19. Chapter 11: Leveraging Examples in e-Learning
    1. What Are Worked Examples?
    2. The Psychology of Worked Examples
    3. Evidence for the Benefits of Worked Examples
    4. Worked Example Principle 1: Fade from Worked Examples to Problems
    5. Worked Example Principle 2: Promote Self-Explanations
    6. Worked Example Principle 3: Include Instructional Explanations of Worked Examples in Some Situations
    7. Worked Example Principle 4: Apply Multimedia Principles to Examples
    8. Worked Example Principle 5: Support Learning Transfer
    9. Design Guidelines for Far Transfer Worked Examples
    10. What We Don’t Know About Worked Examples
  20. Chapter 12: Does Practice Make Perfect?
    1. What Is Practice in e-Learning?
    2. The Paradox of Practice
    3. Practice Principle 1: Add Sufficient Practice Interactions to e-Learning to Achieve the Objective
    4. Practice Principle 2: Mirror the Job
    5. Practice Principle 3: Provide Effective Feedback
    6. Practice Principle 4: Distribute and Mix Practice Among Learning Events
    7. Practice Principle 5: Apply Multimedia Principles
    8. Practice Principle 6: Transition from Examples to Practice Gradually
    9. What We Don’t Know About Practice
  21. Chapter 13: Learning Together Virtually
    1. What Is Collaborative Learning?
    2. What Is Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)?
    3. Some Generalizations About Collaboration
    4. CSCL Research Summaries
    5. Structured Controversy
    6. CSCL: The Bottom Line
    7. What We Don’t Know About CSCL
  22. Chapter 14: Who’s in Control?
    1. Learner Control Versus Program Control
    2. Do Learners Make Good Instructional Decisions?
    3. Learner Control Principle 1: Give Experienced Learners Control
    4. Learner Control Principle 2: Make Important Instructional Events the Default
    5. Learner Control Principle 3: Consider Adaptive Control
    6. Learner Control Principle 4: Give Pacing Control
    7. Learner Control Principle 5: Offer Navigational Support in Hypermedia Environments
    8. What We Don’t Know About Learner Control
  23. Chapter 15: e-Learning to Build Thinking Skills
    1. Three Types of Thinking Skills
    2. Can Thinking Skills Be Trained?
    3. Thinking Skills Principle 1: Focus on Job-Specific Cognitive and Metacognitive Skills
    4. Thinking Skills Principle 2: Consider a Whole-Task Course Design
    5. Evidence for Whole-Task Instruction
    6. Thinking Skills Principle 3: Make Thinking Processes Explicit
    7. Thinking Skills Principle 4: Define Job-Specific Thinking Processes
    8. Teaching Thinking Skills: The Bottom Line
    9. What We Don’t Know About Teaching Thinking Skills
  24. Chapter 16: Simulations and Games in e-Learning
    1. The Case for Simulations and Games
    2. What Are Simulations and Games?
    3. Do Games and Simulations Teach?
    4. Games and Simulations Principle 1: Match Game Types to Learning Goals
    5. Games and Simulations Principle 2: Make Learning Essential to Game Progress
    6. Games and Simulations Principle 3: Build in Proven Instructional Strategies
    7. Games and Simulations Principle 4: Build in Guidance and Structure
    8. Games and Simulations Principle 5: Manage Complexity
    9. Games and Simulations Principle 6: Make Relevance Salient
    10. What We Don’t Know About Games and Simulations
  25. Chapter 17: Applying the Guidelines
    1. Applying Evidence-Based Guidelines to e-Courses
    2. e-Lesson Reviews
    3. Review of Sample 1: Asynchronous e-Lesson on Excel for Small Business
    4. Review of Sample 2: Synchronous e-Lesson on Excel
    5. Review of Sample 3: Automotive Troubleshooting Simulation
    6. Reflections on Past Predictions
    7. Beyond 2011
    8. In Conclusion
  26. References
  27. Glossary
  28. List of Tables and Figures
  29. Name Index
  30. Subject Index
  31. About the Authors
  32. Pfeiffer Publications Guide
  33. Advertisement