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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning by Richard E. Mayer, Ruth C. Clark

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Chapter 13. Who's in Control?: Guidelines For E-Learning Navigation

CHAPTER OUTLINE

Learner Control Versus Program Control

Three Types of Learner Control

Popularity of Learner Control

Do Learners Make Good Instructional Decisions?

Do You Know What You Think You Know? Calibration Accuracy

How Calibration Is Measured

Illusions of Knowing: Evidence for Poor Calibrations

Practice and Examples Improve Calibration Accuracy

Do Learners Like Lesson Features That Lead to Learning?

Psychological Reasons for Poor Learner Choices

Four Principles for Learner Control: Overview

Learner Control Principle 1: Give Experienced Learners Control

Who Learns What Best Under Learner Control?

Evidence for Benefi ts of Program Control

Evidence for Learner Control Later in Learning ...

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