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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning by Richard E. Mayer, Ruth C. Clark

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8.6. Use Effective On-Screen Coaches to Promote Learning

In the previous section, we provided evidence for writing with first- and second-person language, speaking with a friendly human voice, and using polite wording to establish a conversational tone in your training. In some of the research described in the previous section, the instructor was an on-screen character who interacted with the learner. A related new area of research focuses specifically on the role of on-screen coaches, called pedagogical agents, on learning.

8.6.1. What Are Pedagogical Agents?

Personalized speech is an important component in animated pedagogical agents developed as on-screen tutors in educational programs (Cassell, Sullivan, Prevost, & Churchill, 2000; Moreno, ...

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