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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning by Richard E. Mayer, Ruth C. Clark

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4.2. Synchronize Spoken Words with Corresponding Graphics

Another version of the contiguity principle deals with the need to coordinate spoken words and graphics. In this section, we focus on the idea that spoken words (narration) that describe an event should play at the same time as the graphic (animation or video) is depicting the event. In short, we recommend that corresponding graphics and spoken words be presented at the same time (that is, contiguous—next to each other—in time).

When e-learning courseware contains narration and corresponding graphics (animation or video), you should consider how spoken words are integrated with on-screen graphics. In particular, when spoken words describe actions that are depicted in the on-screen graphics, ...

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