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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning by Richard E. Mayer, Ruth C. Clark

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3.7. Should You Change Static Illustrations into Animations?

If it is important to add graphics to words, is it better to use animations or static illustrations? Flash animations are currently very popular additions to many e-learning lessons. At first glance, you might think that animations are best because they are an active medium that can depict changes and movement. Similarly, you might think that static illustrations are a poorer choice because they are a passive medium that cannot depict changes and movement in as much detail as animations can. In spite of these impressions, a number of research studies have failed to find that animations are more effective than a series of static frames depicting the same material (Betrancourt, 2005; ...

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