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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning by Richard E. Mayer, Ruth C. Clark

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12.9. Collaborative Group Techniques

Collaborative structures that promote reliance of team members on each other and also foster individual accountability have proven most effective in face-to-face environments. In this section we review two structures that have been used extensively in face-to-face collaborative learning environments: structured controversy and problem-based learning. Structures such as these that have been evaluated in face-to-face collaborative settings can serve as starting points for the building of CSCL environments.

12.9.1. Structured Controversy

Wiley and Voss (1999) showed that individual learners assigned to write a pro and con argument learned more than learners asked to write either a narration or a summary. The ...

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