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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning by Richard E. Mayer, Ruth C. Clark

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15.7. Build in Guidance

Design simulations and games in ways that offer structure and learning support. Research is just starting to uncover ways to incorporate effective guidance. In the sections to follow, we describe the following techniques for guidance, summarized in Table 15.1.

  • Incorporate instructional explanations;

  • Encourage reflection on instructional content;

  • Manage complexity; and

  • Provide instructional support.

Table 15.1. Techniques for Guidance in Games and Simulations.
TechniqueDescriptionExamples
Incorporate Explanations
  1. Provide explanatory feedback rather than corrective-only feedback

  2. Provide brief instructional explanations between simulation rounds

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