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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning by Richard E. Mayer, Ruth C. Clark

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10.7. Apply Multimedia Principles to Examples

In Chapters 3 through 9, we presented Mayer's multimedia principles pertaining to the use of graphics, text, audio, and content sequencing. Some of the earliest research on worked examples found that they failed to have a positive effect when the multimedia principles were violated. For example, if the contiguity principle was violated by separating text steps from a relevant visual, split attention resulted. Since split attention added extraneous cognitive load, the potential of worked examples to reduce cognitive load was negated. To maximize the cognitive load benefits of worked examples, it is important that you apply the multimedia principles to their design. In this section we show you how. ...

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