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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning

Book Description

In this thoroughly revised edition of the bestselling e-Learning and the Science of Instruction authors Ruth Colvin Clark and Richard E. Mayer— internationally-recognized experts in the field of e-learning—offer essential information and guidelines for selecting, designing, and developing asynchronous and synchronous e-learning courses that build knowledge and skills for workers learning in corporate, government, and academic settings. In addition to updating research in all chapters, two new chapters and a CD with multimedia examples are included.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  3. INTRODUCTION GETTING THE MOST FROM THIS RESOURCE
  4. e-Learning: Promise And Pitfalls
    1. The e-Learning Bandwagon
    2. What Is e-Learning?
    3. Self-Study Versus Virtual Classroom e-Learning
    4. e-Learning Development Process
    5. Two Types of e-Learning Goals: Inform and Perform
    6. Is e-Learning Better? Media Comparison Research
    7. What Makes e-Learning Unique?
    8. e-Learning: The Pitfalls
    9. What Is Good e-Courseware?
    10. Learning in e-Learning
  5. Suggested Readings
  6. How Do People Learn from e-Courses?
    1. How Do People Learn?
    2. How Do e-Lessons Affect Human Learning?
    3. What Is Good Research?
    4. How Can You Identify Relevant Research?
    5. How Do You Interpret Research Statistics?
    6. What We Don't Know About Learning
  7. Suggested Readings
  8. Applying The Multimedia Principle: Use Words And Graphics Rather Than Words Alone
    1. Do Visuals Make a Difference?
    2. Include Both Words and Graphics
    3. Some Ways to Use Graphics to Promote Learning
    4. Psychological Reasons for the Multimedia Principle
    5. Evidence for Using Words and Pictures
    6. The Multimedia Principle Works Best for Novices
    7. Should You Change Static Illustrations into Animations?
    8. What We Don't Know About Visuals
  9. Suggested Readings
  10. Applying The Contiguity Principle: Align Words To Corresponding Graphics
    1. Place Printed Words Near Corresponding Graphics
    2. Synchronize Spoken Words with Corresponding Graphics
    3. Psychological Reasons for the Contiguity Principle
    4. Evidence for Presenting Printed Words Near Corresponding Graphics
    5. Evidence for Presenting Spoken Words at the Same Time as Corresponding Graphics
    6. What We Don't Know About Contiguity
  11. Suggested Readings
  12. Applying The Modality Principle: Present Words As Audio Narration, Rather Than On-Screen Text
    1. Present Words as Speech, Rather Than On-screen Text
    2. Limitations to the Modality Principle
    3. Psychological Reasons for the Modality Principle
    4. Evidence for Using Spoken Rather Than Printed Text
    5. When the Modality Principle Applies
    6. What We Don't Know About Modality
  13. Suggested Readings
  14. Applying The Redundancy Principle: Explain Visuals With Words In Audio or Text: Not Both
    1. Do Not Add On-Screen Text to Narrated Graphics
    2. Psychological Reasons for the Redundancy Principle
    3. Evidence for Omitting Redundant On-Screen Text
    4. Consider Adding On-Screen Text to Narration in Special Situations
    5. Psychological Reasons for Exceptions to the Redundancy Principle
    6. Evidence for Including Redundant On-Screen Text
    7. What We Don't Know About Redundancy
  15. Suggested Readings
  16. Applying the Coherence Principle: Adding Interesting Material Can Hurt Learning
    1. Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Audio
    2. Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Audio in e-Learning
    3. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Audio
    4. Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Graphics
    5. Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Graphics in e-Learning
    6. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Graphics
    7. Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Words
    8. Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Words in e-Learning
    9. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added for Interest
    10. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added to Expand on Key Ideas
    11. Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added for Technical Depth
    12. What We Don't Know About Coherence
  17. Suggested Readings
    1. Avoid Adding Extraneous Sounds
    2. Avoid Adding Extraneous Pictures
    3. Avoid Adding Extraneous Words
  18. Applying the Personalization Principle: Use Conversational Style And Virtual Coaches
    1. Use Conversational Rather Than Formal Style
    2. Psychological Reasons for the Personalization Principle
    3. Evidence for Using Conversational Style
    4. Promote Personalization Through Voice Quality
    5. Promote Personalization Through Polite Speech
    6. Use Effective On-Screen Coaches to Promote Learning
    7. Make the Author Visible to Promote Learning
    8. Psychological Reasons for Using a Visible Author
    9. Evidence for the Visible Author
    10. What We Don't Know About Personalization
  19. Suggested Readings
  20. Applying the Segmenting and Pretraining Principles: Managing Complexity By Breaking A Lesson Into Parts
    1. Break a Continuous Lesson into Bite-Size Segments
    2. Psychological Reasons for the Segmenting Principle
    3. Evidence for Breaking a Continuous Lesson into Bite-Size Segments
    4. Ensure That Learners Know the Names and Characteristics of Key Concepts
    5. Psychological Reasons for the Pretraining Principle
    6. Evidence for Providing Pretraining in Key Concepts
    7. What We Don't Know About Segmenting and Pretraining
  21. Suggested Readings
  22. Leveraging Examples in e-Learning
    1. Worked Examples: Fuel for Learning
    2. How Worked Examples Work
    3. How to Leverage Worked Examples: Overview
    4. Transition from Worked Examples to Problems via Fading
    5. Promote Self-Explanations of Worked-Out Steps
    6. Supplement Worked Examples with Explanations
    7. Apply Multimedia Principles to Examples
    8. Support Learning Transfer
    9. Design Guidelines for Near-Transfer Learning
    10. Design Guidelines for Far-Transfer Learning
    11. What We Don't Know About Worked Examples
  23. Suggested Readings
  24. Does Practice Make Perfect?
    1. What Is Practice in e-Learning?
    2. The Paradox of Practice
    3. How to Leverage Practice: Overview
    4. Mirror the Job
    5. Provide Explanatory Feedback
    6. Adapt the Amount and Placement of Practice to Job Performance Requirements
    7. Apply Multimedia Principles
    8. Transition from Examples to Practice Gradually
    9. What We Don't Know About Practice
  25. Suggested Readings
  26. Learning Together Virtually
    1. What Is Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)?
    2. Factors That Make a Difference: Overview
    3. Is Problem-Solving Learning Better with CSCL or Solo?
    4. Virtual vs. Face-to-Face Group Decisions
    5. Software Representations to Support Collaborative Work
    6. Group Roles and Assignments in CSCL
    7. Team-Building Skills and CSCL Outcomes
    8. Collaborative Structures and CSCL Outcomes
    9. Collaborative Group Techniques
    10. CSCL: The Bottom Line
  27. Suggested Readings
  28. Who's in Control?: Guidelines For E-Learning Navigation
    1. Learner Control Versus Program Control
    2. Do Learners Make Good Instructional Decisions?
    3. Four Principles for Learner Control: Overview
    4. Give Experienced Learners Control
    5. Make Important Instructional Events the Default
    6. Consider Adaptive Control
    7. Give Pacing Control
    8. Navigational Guidelines for Learner Control
    9. What We Don't Know About Learner Control
  29. Suggested Readings
  30. e-Learning to Build Thinking Skills
    1. What Are Thinking Skills?
    2. Can Creativity Be Trained?
    3. Building Critical Thinking Skills in the Workforce: Overview
    4. Use Job–Specific Cases
    5. Psychological Reasons for Job-Specific Training
    6. Evidence for Job-Specific Problem-Solving Training
    7. Make Thinking Processes Explicit
    8. Define Job-Specific Problem-Solving Processes
    9. Teaching Thinking Skills: The Bottom Line
    10. What We Don't Know About Teaching Thinking Skills
  31. Suggested Readings
  32. Simulations and Games in e-Learning
    1. The Case for Simulations and Games
    2. Do Simulations and Games Teach?
    3. Balancing Motivation and Learning
    4. Match Game Types to Learning Goals
    5. Make Learning Essential to Progress
    6. Features That Lead to Learning
    7. Build in Guidance
    8. Promote Reflection on Correct Answers
    9. Manage Complexity
    10. What We Don't Know About Games and Simulations
  33. Suggested Readings
  34. Applying the Guidelines
    1. Applying Our Guidelines to Evaluate e-Courseware
    2. e-Lesson Reviews
    3. Asynchronous Samples One and Two: Design of Databases
    4. Synchronous Sample Three: Constructing Formulas in Excel
    5. Asynchronous Sample Four: Simulation Course for Commercial Bank Loan Analysis
    6. The Next Generation of e-Learning
    7. In Conclusion
  35. REFERENCES
  36. Glossary
  37. LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
  38. ABOUT THE AUTHORS
  39. HOW TO USE THE CD-ROM
  40. Pfeiffer Publications Guide