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E-Entrepreneurship and ICT Ventures: Strategy, Organization and Technology

Book Description

E-Entrepreneurship and ICT ventures: Strategy, Organization and Technology provides a unique and quintessential overview of the current state of conceptual and empirical research at the interface of e-business and entrepreneurship research. Contributing an enhanced understanding of the important interface of e-business and entrepreneurship, this reference publication brings together leading academics and practitioners from around the world, offering essential reading material for students, educators, managers, entrepreneurs, and political decision makers interested in applying and fostering e-business concepts in an entrepreneurial environment.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Preface
    1. REFERENCES
  5. 1. Strategy
    1. 1. An Integrated Business Model Innovation Approach: It is Not All about Product and Process Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION
        1. Towards Integrated Business Model Innovations
        2. Cases of the Integrated Business Model Innovation Approach
        3. Skype: Business Model Innovation in a Mature ICT Market
        4. Village Phone: ICT as Key to Business Model Innovation in an Untapped Market
        5. Blacksocks: ICT-Enabled Business Model Innovation in a Mature Market
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    2. 2. Internationalization Strategy in New E-Ventures: Towards A General Model and New Research Agenda
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. New Venture and Born Global Strategy
        2. Antecedents of Born Global Strategy
        3. International Strategy Formation in Venture Creation Process
          1. Formal Process, Based on the Planning Approach
          2. Emergent Process, Based on the Learning Approach
          3. Visionary Process, Based on the Knowledge Approach
          4. Collective Process, Based on the Culture Approach
          5. Negotiation Process, Based on the Power Approach
          6. Reactive Process, Based on the Environmental Approach
          7. Transformation Process, Based on the Configuration Approach
        4. An Integral Model for the formation of the Born Global International Strategy in the New E-Venture
        5. E-Ventures: New Business Projects in the Electronic Economy
        6. What Is It About E-Ventures That Allows Them To Compete Globally?
        7. What is it About E-Ventures that make it Necessary a Specific Mix of Strategy Shaping Processes to form a Born Global Strategy?
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
    3. 3. Market Orientation in Emerging Firms: Towards a More Rigorous Understanding of Entrepreneurial Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DOMAIN SPECIFICATION - DIMENSIONS OF MARKET-ORIENTED BEHAVIOR IN EMERGING FIRMS
        1. Dimensions of Market-Oriented Behavior in Established Companies
        2. Characteristics of Emerging Firms
        3. Dimensions of Market-Oriented Behavior in Emerging Firms
      4. MEASURING MARKET-ORIENTED BEHAVIOR IN EMERGING FIRMS
        1. Additional Items Capturing the Particularities of Emerging Firms
        2. Formative vs. Reflective Constructs
        3. Timing of Measurement
      5. MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN EMERGING FIRMS
        1. Instruments Measuring Performance in Emerging Firms
        2. Hypotheses on the Performance Effect of Market-Oriented Behavior in Emerging Firms
      6. DATA COLLECTION
      7. PURIFICATION OF MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT - ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCT RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
        1. Assessment of Performance Measures
        2. Assessment of Measurement Items for Market-Oriented Behavior
      8. EMPIRICAL RESULTS
        1. Covariance- vs. Variance-based Techniques
        2. Performance Effect Hypotheses
        3. Measurement Hypotheses
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. APPENDIX A — ITEMS MEASURING INFORMATION GENERATION
      14. APPENDIX B — ITEMS MEASURING INFORMATION DISSEMINATION
      15. APPENDIX — C ITEMS MEASURING RESPONSIVENESS
    4. 4. Crossing Borders: Overcoming Political Barriers to Technology—Led Economic Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Border-Periphery Problem
        2. Overcoming the Border Problem
        3. The Emergence of Innovative Cross-Border Initiatives
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
        1. Primary Research
        2. Secondary Research
        3. Case Studies
        4. Case Study Descriptions
        5. Framework for Assessing Cross-Border Initiatives
        6. Cross-Border Business Innovation Center (CBBIC)
        7. Bi-National Sustainability Laboratory Inc.
        8. Information and Telecommunication Technology Training Initiative (IT2)
        9. Buffalo Niagara Enterprise
        10. Heartland Foundation
        11. Clay-Towns Industrial Park
        12. Native American Access to Technology Program (NAATP)
        13. The Advanced Materials Cluster
        14. International Center for Automotive Research (ICAR)
        15. e-Polk and PANGEA
      5. INTERPRETATION: CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
        1. Program Design and Structure
        2. Leadership and Stakeholder Engagement
        3. Program Funding
        4. Legal and Regulatory Hurdles
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
        1. Overcoming (or Transcending) the Legacy of Competition and Territoriality
        2. Fostering Regional Leadership
        3. Pursuing "Low-Hanging Fruit" and Longer-Term Collaboration Simultaneously
      8. REFERENCES
    5. 5. Legitimizing Innovative Ventures Strategically: The Case of Europe's First Online Pharmacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
        1. Legitimacy and Entrepreneurial Ventures
        2. Strategic Legitimation
      4. METHOD AND DATA
      5. CASE ANALYSIS
        1. The Business Model
        2. Legitimacy and Internal Stakeholders
        3. Legitimacy and External Stakeholders
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    6. 6. Internet Portals in Rural Areas: An Investigation of Their Provision in Rural Scotland
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
        1. Rural Business and the Internet
        2. Internet Portals
        3. Methodology
        4. Results
          1. Content
          2. Structure
          3. Characteristics of Successful Portals
        5. The Economic Contribution
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. ENDNOTE
    7. 7. E-Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation: The Case of On—Line Giving Markets
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE TRADITIONAL SOCIAL COMPANY AS A STARTING POINT
        1. Main Features of the "Traditional" Social Entrepreneurship
          1. Double and Triple Bottom Line
          2. Business and Autonomy Orientation
          3. Social Enterprise and Social Innovation
        2. Evolution and Development of Social Enterprise in Some Countries
        3. Challenges and Issues in the Traditional Social Enterprise
          1. The Problem of Institutional Recognition
          2. The Problem of Development in the Market
          3. Vertebration as a Socially Significant Agent
      4. WEB 2.0 AND THE NEW KINDS OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISE
        1. Impact of Web 2.0 at Social And Business Level
        2. Social Enterprises in the Social Web
          1. Generation of Efficient Social Markets
          2. Network and Sustainability Effect of Social Initiatives
      5. PERSON TO PERSON AND SOCIAL ENTERPRISE: CHARITIES AND E-SOCIAL BANKING
        1. An Exploratory Research
        2. Organizational Design: Social Network Orchestrator
        3. Core Social E-Entrepreneurship: Human Resources
        4. The Offer of P2P Charities: Beneficiaries and Third Sector
        5. The Various Forms of Demand for the Exercise of "Solidarity"
          1. Microdonors
          2. Grant Giving
          3. Non-Profit Lenders and Social Investors
        6. The Volunteer as a Strategic Participant
          1. Outsourcing of Support Services
      6. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
        1. Supplier Control
        2. Loyalty Toward The Cause
        3. Segmentation Strategy and Growth of the Platform
        4. Solidarity and Advertising
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. ENDNOTES
  6. 2. Organization
    1. 8. Enlisting Online Communicators in Web 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Market Mavens
      4. METHODOLOGY
        1. The Questionnaire and Sample
        2. Identifying Music e-Mavens
        3. Music e-Mavens- Motives for Using Internet Music Sites
        4. Identifying Music e-Maven Groups
      5. CONCLUSIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
    2. 9. The Role of Creativity (and Creative Behaviour) in Identifying Entrepreneurs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHOD
        1. Identifying Innovators - Separating the Cohorts
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    3. 10. Education and Training for the Entrepreneurial Employee: Value of ICT-Enabled Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Changing Higher Education Landscape
        2. Importance of Entrepreneurship for Today's Graduates
        3. Changing SME Landscape
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. CASE STUDY
        1. Approach
          1. Sample
          2. Findings
        2. Entrepreneurship Education Through ICT-Enabled Learning
        3. Benefits of ICT-Enabled Entrepreneurship Learning
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. LESSONS LEARNT
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. ENDNOTES
    4. 11. Open Scientific Entrepreneurship: How the Open Source Paradigm can Foster Entrepreneurial Activities in Scientific Institutions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Scientific Entrepreneurship
          1. Open Source Software (OSS) Development
      4. OPEN SCIENTIFIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP
        1. Issues, Controversies, Problems
          1. OSS e-Entrepreneurship
          2. Scientific Entrepreneurship Opened Up
        2. Solutions and Recommendations
          1. Tensions Between an Open and Closed Design Pattern
          2. Tension Balancing Strategies Between an Open and Closed Design Pattern
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    5. 12. Open Source: Collaborative Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. The History of Open Source
      3. THE PREREQUISITES FOR OPEN SOURCE
        1. Prerequisites
        2. Literature Review
        3. Connectivity
        4. Environment
        5. Contributor Costs
        6. Distribution Cost
        7. Community
        8. The Profile of an OS Contributor
        9. Examples of collaborative Innovation Products
      4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF OPEN SOURCE CODE
        1. Development Phases
          1. Project Initiation
          2. Community Formation
          3. Work Plan
          4. Source Coding
          5. Code Review and Approval
          6. Code Release
        2. Legal Aspects
      5. THE BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS OF OPEN SOURCE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    6. 13. Enterprise Resource Planning: An E-Entrepreneurial Challenge
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE E-ENTREPRENEURIAL CHALLENGE
        1. Literature Review
        2. The Purpose
        3. Twelve Months, Two Entrepreneurs Part Time, Develop an ERP Data Base
        4. Performance Criteria
        5. Database Model Capacity and Boundaries
        6. One Unique Field Required
        7. Intuitive Use of Comprehensive Data
        8. One Database, Many Users, Many Uses
        9. Corrupt Practices
        10. Need to Know, Now
        11. Benchmark Buyer Delegation Limit
        12. Strategic Sourcing Policy: International Technology Transfer
        13. Offshore Capability Sourcing
        14. Business Centre Comparative Performance
        15. Top Ten Principal Industry Sectors
        16. Top Ten suppliers by Value
        17. Price Setting and Competitive Bids
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    7. 14. Delivery in the Net Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. A Traditional Retailer - LL Bean (http://www.llbean.com/)
        2. A Travel Service Provider - Southwest Airlines (www. southwest.com)
        3. A Financial Services Company - H&R Block (www.hrblock.com)
      4. WEB PORTAL ARCHITECTURE, PRODUCT TYPE, AND DELIVERY
        1. L. L. Bean Portal Architecture
        2. H&R Block Portal Architecture
        3. Southwest Airlines Portal Architecture
        4. Architecture and Delivery
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
  7. 3. Technology
    1. 15. Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0:Revealing New Vistas for E-Business Founders
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Web 1.0: E-Procurement, E-shop and E-Marketplace Systems
        2. E-Procurement-Systems
        3. E-Shop Systems
        4. E-Marketplace systems
        5. Web 2.0: E-Community Systems
      4. WEB 3.0: E-DESK SYSTEMS
        1. E-Request systems
        2. E-Customization Systems
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    2. 16. OpenSocial: Structured Partnerships in the Context of Social Networking Platforms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STRUCTURED PARTNERSHIPS IN THE SOCIAL NETWORKING CONTEXT
        1. Theoretical Foundation
        2. E-Ventures vs. Social Networks
        3. Partnerships and Strategy
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    3. 17. Enabling Technologies in an Ambient Intelligence (AmI) System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HUMAN AND TECHNOLOGY
      4. AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE
      5. AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Semantic Web
        2. Multi-Modal Services
          1. Speech Recognition Software
        3. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags
        4. Summary of Key Technology Findings
      6. AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE REFERENCE MODEL
        1. Ambient Intelligence Features
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    4. 18. Creating Value Through Entrepreneurship: The Case of Artificial Intelligent Agents
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Value Creation Through ICT (Internet)
        2. Stage-Based Models
        3. Customer Relationship Management and Intelligent Agents
      4. SETTING THE CASE
        1. The Founding Team
        2. Origins and Development of AIA
      5. GETTING FINANCE
      6. COMMERCIAL PATH
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
  8. Compilation of References
  9. About the Contributors