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Dynamics and Nonlinear Control of Integrated Process Systems

Book Description

Presenting a systematic model reduction and hierarchical controller design framework for broad classes of integrated process systems encountered in practice, this book first studies process systems with large material recycle and/or with small purge streams, followed by systems with energy integration. Step-by-step model reduction procedures are developed to derive nonlinear reduced models of the dynamics in each time scale. Hierarchical control architectures consisting of coordinated levels of control action in different time scales are proposed for each class of process systems considered to enforce stability, tracking performance and disturbance rejection. Numerous process applications are discussed in detail to illustrate the application of the methods and their potential to improve process operations. MATLAB codes are also presented to guide further application of the methods developed and facilitate practical implementations.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Part I Preliminaries
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Singular Perturbation Theory
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Properties of Ode Systems with Small Parameters
      3. 2.3 Nonstandard Singularly Perturbed Systems with Two Time Scales
      4. 2.4 Singularly Perturbed Systems with Three or More Time Scales
      5. 2.5 Control of Singularly Perturbed Systems
      6. 2.6 Synopsis
  8. Part II Process Systems with Material Integration
    1. 3 Process Systems with Significant Material Recycling
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Modeling of Process Systems with Large Recycle Streams
      3. 3.3 Model Reduction
        1. 3.3.1 Fast Dynamics
        2. 3.3.2 Slow Dynamics
      4. 3.4 Control of Integrated Processes with Large Recycle
        1. 3.4.1 Hierarchical Controller Design
        2. 3.4.2 Control of the Fast Dynamics
        3. 3.4.3 Control in the Slow Time Scale
        4. 3.4.4 Cascaded Control Configurations
      5. 3.5 Case Study: Control of a Reactor-Distillation-Recycle Process
        1. 3.5.1 Process Description
        2. 3.5.2 Model Reduction and Hierarchical Controller Design
        3. 3.5.3 Simulation Results and Discussion
      6. 3.6 Synopsis
    2. 4 Process Systems with Purge Streams
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Motivating Examples
        1. 4.2.1 Processes with Light Impurities
        2. 4.2.2 Processes with Heavy Impurities
      3. 4.3 Modeling of Process Systems with Recycle and Purge
      4. 4.4 Dynamic Analysis and Model Reduction
      5. 4.5 Motivating Examples (Continued)
        1. 4.5.1 Processes with Light Impurities
        2. 4.5.2 Processes with Heavy Impurities
      6. 4.6 Further Applications
        1. 4.6.1 Processes with Slow Secondary Reactions
        2. 4.6.2 An Analogy with Systems with Large Recycle
        3. 4.6.3 Processes with Multiple Impurities
      7. 4.7 Control Implications
      8. 4.8 Case Study: Control of a Reactor-Condenser Process
        1. 4.8.1 Process Description
        2. 4.8.2 System Analysis
        3. 4.8.3 Controller Design
        4. 4.8.4 Simulation Results and Discussion
      9. 4.9 Synopsis
    3. 5 Dynamics and Control of Generalized Integrated Process Systems
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 System Description and Modeling
      3. 5.3 Time-Scale Decomposition and Nonlinear Model Reduction
        1. 5.3.1 Fast Dynamics at the Unit Level
        2. 5.3.2 Process-Level Dynamics
        3. 5.3.3 Slow Dynamics of the Impurity Levels
      4. 5.4 Hierarchical Controller Design
        1. 5.4.1 Distributed Control at the Unit Level
        2. 5.4.2 Supervisory Control at the Process Level
        3. 5.4.3 Control of Impurity Levels
        4. 5.4.4 Real-Time Optimization
      5. 5.5 Case Study: Dynamics and Control of a Reactor-Separator Process Core
        1. 5.5.1 Process Description
        2. 5.5.2 System Analysis
        3. 5.5.3 Reduced-Order Modeling
        4. 5.5.4 Hierarchical Control System Design
        5. 5.5.5 Simulation Results and Discussion
      6. 5.6 Synopsis
  9. Part III Process Systems with Energy Integration
    1. 6 Process Systems with Energy Recycling
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Dynamics of Processes with Significant Energy Recovery
      3. 6.3 Model Reduction
      4. 6.4 Control Implications
      5. 6.5 Illustrative Examples
        1. 6.5.1 Cascade of Heated Tanks
        2. 6.5.2 Processes with Feed-Effluent Heat Exchange
        3. 6.5.3 Energy-Integrated Distillation
      6. 6.6 Case Study: Control of a Reactor-Fehe Process
        1. 6.6.1 Process Description
        2. 6.6.2 System Analysis
        3. 6.6.3 Reduced-Order Modeling
        4. 6.6.4 Controller Design
        5. 6.6.5 Simulation Results and Discussion
      7. 6.7 Synopsis
    2. 7 Process Systems with High Energy Throughput
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Modeling of Process Systems with High Energy Throughput
      3. 7.3 Nonlinear Model Reduction
      4. 7.4 Control Implications
      5. 7.5 Case Study 1: Dynamics of High-Purity Distillation Columns
        1. 7.5.1 System Description
        2. 7.5.2 Reduced-Order Modeling
        3. 7.5.3 Control Implications
        4. 7.5.4 Simulation Results and Discussion
      6. 7.6 Case Study 2: Control of a Reactor with an External Heat Exchanger
        1. 7.6.1 Process Description
        2. 7.6.2 System Modeling and Model Reduction
        3. 7.6.3 Control Implications and Controller Implementation
        4. 7.6.4 Simulation Results and Discussion
      7. 7.7 Synopsis
  10. Part IV Appendices
    1. Appendix A Definitions
      1. A.1 Lie Derivatives. Involutivity
      2. A.2 Order of Magnitude
      3. A.3 Differential Algebraic Equations (Daes)
    2. Appendix B Systems with Multiple-Time-Scale Dynamics
    3. Appendix C Matlab Code
  11. References
  12. Index