You are previewing Domino Effects in the Process Industries.
O'Reilly logo
Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Book Description

Domino Effects in the Process Industries discusses state-of-the-art theories, conceptual models, insights and practical issues surrounding large-scale knock-on accidents—so-called domino effects—in the chemical and process industries. The book treats such extremely low-frequency phenomena from a technological perspective, studying possible causes and introducing several approaches to assess and control the risks of these scenarios. The authors also examine these events from a managerial viewpoint, discussing single and multi-plant management insights and requirements to take pro-active measures to prevent such events. Academics, regulators, and industrialists who study and analyze domino effects in order to prevent such events will find the book unique and highly valuable.

  • Outlines available methods in analyzing these events, aiding understanding of the accidents and their causes
  • Covers current modelling, control and management tactics of domino effects, -facilitating prevention
  • Identifies areas where new research is needed

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. List of Contributors
  7. 1. Historical Background and State of the Art on Domino Effect Assessment
    1. 1.1 Historical Background and Importance of Research on Domino Effects
    2. 1.2 Safety and Security: Both Important for the Prevention of Domino Effects
    3. 1.3 Domino Effects and Chemical Industrial Areas
    4. 1.4 Contents of the Book
    5. References
  8. Part I: Causes of Domino Effects
    1. 2. Analysis of Past Accidents and Relevant Case-Histories
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 The Analysis of Past Accidents
      3. 2.3 Domino Effect Surveys
      4. 2.4 Significance of Domino Effect in the Frame of all Accidents
      5. 2.5 Characteristics of Accidents Involving Domino Effect
      6. 2.6 Relevant Case Histories
      7. 2.7 The Analysis of Past Accidents, a Useful Resource
      8. References
    2. 3. Features of Escalation Scenarios
      1. 3.1 Elements of a Domino Accident
      2. 3.2 Escalation as a Fundamental Feature of Relevant Domino Accidents
      3. 3.3 Sources of Domino Accidents and Primary Scenarios
      4. 3.4 Identification and Relative Ranking of Domino Targets and Secondary Scenarios
      5. 3.5 Domino Accident Definition
      6. 3.6 Categorization of Domino Accidents
      7. 3.7 Conclusions
      8. References
    3. 4. Overpressure Effects
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Overview of the Basics
      3. 4.3 Nonlinear Dynamic Response Analysis
      4. 4.4 Domino Effects: Simplified Analysis
      5. 4.5 Response Regimes
      6. 4.6 Conclusions
      7. References
    4. 5. Heat Radiation Effects
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Mechanisms of Escalation Triggered by Fire
      3. 5.3 Escalation Potential of Fire Scenarios
      4. 5.4 Modeling the Behavior of Equipment Exposed to Fire
      5. 5.5 Prevention of Escalation Caused by Fire
      6. 5.6 Conclusions
      7. References
    5. 6. Missile Projection Effects
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Escalation Caused by Fragments
      3. 6.3 Identification and Characterization of Fragment Sources
      4. 6.4 Assessment of Fragment Characteristics
      5. 6.5 Calculation of Impact Probability
      6. 6.6 Calculation of Damage Probability
      7. 6.7 Conclusions
      8. References
    6. 7. Other Causes of Escalation
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Indirect Causes of Escalation
      3. 7.3 Natural Events
      4. 7.4 Intentional Interferences
      5. 7.5 Conclusions
      6. References
  9. Part II: Prevention of Domino Effects from a Technological Perspective
    1. 8. Approaches to Domino Effect Prevention and Mitigation
      1. 8.1 Approach to Domino Effect Assessment
      2. 8.2 Preliminary Analysis of Domino Hazard
      3. 8.3 Quantitative Risk Assessment of Domino Scenarios
      4. 8.4 Distributed Parameter Models for Worst-Case or Worst-Credible Accident Analysis
      5. 8.5 Conclusions
      6. References
    2. 9. Threshold-Based Approach
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Escalation Vectors and Equipment Damage Mechanisms
      3. 9.3 Damage State and Loss Intensity Criteria
      4. 9.4 Damage and Escalation Thresholds
      5. 9.5 Conclusions
      6. References
    3. 10. Quantitative Assessment of Risk Caused by Domino Accidents
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Quantitative Risk Assessment of Domino Accidents
      3. 10.3 Domino Scenarios and Escalation Frequencies by Bayesian Analysis
      4. 10.4 Other Approaches to the Quantitative Assessment of Domino Effect
      5. 10.5 Conclusions
      6. References
    4. 11. Detailed Studies of Domino Scenarios
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 CFD Codes for the Simulation of Accident Scenarios
      3. 11.3 Application of Finite Element Models to Assess Escalation Triggered by Fire
      4. 11.4 CFD and FEM for the Assessment of Escalation Triggered by Blast Waves
      5. 11.5 Conclusions
      6. References
  10. Part III: Prevention of Domino Effects from a Managerial Perspective
    1. 12. Managing Domino Effects from a Design-Based Viewpoint
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Safety Distances for Escalation: Application to Layout Definition
      3. 12.3 The Role of Safety Barriers
      4. 12.4 Advanced Methods for Layout Definition
      5. 12.5 Conclusions
      6. References
    2. 13. Managing Domino Effects in a Chemical Industrial Area
      1. 13.1 Introduction
      2. 13.2 Managing Internal Domino Effects
      3. 13.3 Managing External Domino Effects
      4. 13.4 Conclusions
      5. References
    3. 14. Decision Support Systems for Preventing Domino Effects
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 Decision Support System
      3. 14.3 DSS Application to the Prevention of Domino Effect
      4. 14.4 Overview
      5. 14.5 Perspectives in the Development and Application of DSS for Domino Assessment
      6. 14.6 Conclusions
      7. References
  11. Conclusions
  12. Nomenclature
    1. Chapter 4
    2. Chapter 5
    3. Chapter 6
    4. Chapter 7
    5. Chapter 9
    6. Chapter 10
    7. Chapter 11
    8. Chapter 12
  13. Tutorial for Tools for the Quantitative Assessment of Domino Effect Presented in Part II
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Application of the Methodology
    3. 3 Results of the Case Studies
    4. 4 Conclusions
    5. References
  14. Tutorial for the Main Methodologies in Part III
    1. 1 Managing Internal Domino Effects
    2. 2 Managing External Domino Effects
  15. Glossary
  16. Index