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Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities

Book Description

Energy is directly related to the most critical economic and social issues which affect sustainable development such as mobility, food production, environmental quality, regional and global security issues. Two-thirds of the new demand will come from developing nations, with China accounting for 30%. Without adequate attention to the critical importance of energy to all these aspects, the global, social, economic and environmental goals of sustainability cannot be achieved. Indeed the magnitude of change needed is immense, fundamental and directly related to the energy produced and consumed nationally and internationally. Today, it is estimated that more than two billion people worldwide lack access to modern energy resources. Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities provides various options and case studies related to the potential of renewable energies along with their environmental, economic and social dimensions.

  • Case studies provide you with solutions to for future decentralized energy supply
  • Expanded coverage over previous work in the field to include coverage of rural and urban communities
  • Provides new solutions for future decentralized energy supply

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. List of Figures
  7. List of Tables
  8. Chapter One. Scope of the Book
    1. 1.1 Distributed Energy Generation
    2. 1.2 Distributed Energy Supply
    3. 1.3 Community Power
    4. 1.4 Off-Grid Systems
    5. References
  9. Chapter Two. Restructuring Future Energy Generation and Supply
    1. 2.1 Basic Challenges
    2. 2.2 Current Energy Supplies
    3. 2.3 Peak Oil
    4. 2.4 Availability of Alternative Resources
    5. References
  10. Chapter Three. Road Map of Distributed Renewable Energy Communities
    1. 3.1 Energy and Sustainable Development
    2. 3.2 Community Involvement
    3. 3.3 Facing the Challenges
    4. 3.4 The Concept of FAO, UN Integrated Energy Communities (IEC)
    5. 3.5 Global Approach
    6. 3.6 Basic and Extended Needs
    7. 3.7 Typical Electricity Demands
    8. 3.8 Single and Multiple-Phase Island Grid
    9. 3.9 Regional Implementation
    10. References
    11. Further Reading
  11. Chapter Four. Planning of Integrated Renewable Communities
    1. 4.1 Scenario 1
    2. 4.2 Scenario 2
    3. 4.3 Case Study I: Implementation of Ief Under Climatic Conditions of Central Europe
    4. 4.4 Case study II: Arid and semi-arid regions
    5. Reference
  12. Chapter Five. Determination of Community Energy and Food Requirements
    1. 5.1 Modeling Approaches
    2. 5.2 Data Acquisition
    3. 5.3 Determination of Energy and Food Requirements
    4. 5.4 Energy Potential Analysis
    5. 5.5 Data Collection and Processing for Energy Utilization
    6. 5.6 Wind Energy
    7. 5.7 Biomass
    8. References
  13. Chapter Six. Energy Basics, Resources, Global Contribution and Applications
    1. 6.1 Basics of Energy
    2. 6.2 Global Contribution
    3. 6.3 Resources and Applications
    4. References
  14. Chapter Seven. Solar Energy
    1. 7.1 Photovoltaic
    2. 7.2 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP)
    3. 7.3 Solar Thermal Collectors
    4. 7.4 Solar Cookers and Solar Ovens
    5. References
  15. Chapter Eight. Wind Energy
    1. 8.1 Global Market
    2. 8.2 Types of Wind Turbines
    3. 8.3 Small Wind Turbines
    4. 8.4 Google Superhighway, USA
    5. References
  16. Chapter Nine. Biomass and Bioenergy
    1. 9.1 Characteristics and Potentials
    2. 9.2 Solid Biofuels
    3. 9.3 Charcoal
    4. 9.4 Briquettes
    5. 9.5 Pellets
    6. 9.6 Biogas
    7. 9.7 Ethanol
    8. 9.8 Bio-oils
    9. 9.9 Conversion Systems to Heat, Power and Electricity
    10. 9.10 Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
    11. 9.11 Steam Technology
    12. 9.12 Gasification
    13. 9.13 Pyrolysis
    14. 9.14 Methanol
    15. 9.15 Synthetic Oil
    16. 9.16 Fuel Cells
    17. 9.17 The Stirling Engine
    18. 9.18 Algae
    19. 9.19 Hydrogen
    20. References
    21. Further Reading
  17. Chapter Ten. Hydropower
    1. 10.1 Hydroelectricity
    2. 10.2 Microhydropower Systems
    3. 10.3 Turbine Types
    4. 10.4 Potential for Rural Development
    5. References
  18. Chapter Eleven. Marine Energy
    1. 11.1 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
    2. 11.2 Technologies
    3. 11.3 Ocean Tidal Power
    4. 11.4 Ocean Wave Power
    5. 11.5 Environmental and Economic Challenges
    6. References
  19. Chapter Twelve. Geothermal Energy
    1. 12.1 Origin of Geothermal Heat
    2. 12.2 Geothermal Electricity
    3. 12.3 Types of Geothermal Power Plants
    4. References
  20. Chapter Thirteen. Energy Storage, Smart Grids and Electric Vehicles
    1. 13.1 Energy Storage
    2. 13.2 Smart Grids
    3. 13.3 Electric Vehicles
    4. References
  21. Chapter Fourteen. Current Distributed Renewable Energy Rural and Urban Communities
    1. 14.1 Rural Community Jühnde
    2. 14.2 Wildpoldsried, the 100% Emissions Free Town
    3. 14.3 Roadmap to Renewable Energy in Remote Communities in Australia
    4. 14.4 “Iraq Dream” Homes
    5. 14.5 Danish Distributed Integrated Energy Systems for Communities
    6. 14.6 Renewables in Africa
    7. 14.7 Renewables in India
    8. 14.8 Distributed Renewable Energy and Solar Oases for Deserts and Arid Regions: Desertec Concept
    9. 14.9 The Vatican City
    10. References
    11. Further Reading
  22. Chapter Fifteen. Ownership, Citizens Participation and Economic Trends
    1. 15.1 Community Ownership
    2. 15.2 The Danish Ownership Model
    3. 15.3 Economic Trends
    4. References
  23. Appendix 1: Glossary
    1. Regional Definitions
  24. Appendix Two: Abbreviations and Acronyms
  25. Appendix Three: Conversion Factors
    1. Units and Conversions
  26. Appendix Four: Inventory of PV systems for sustainable rural development
  27. Appendix Five: Project “SOLARTECH SUD,” Solar Eco-Village Zarzis - Djerba Tunisia
  28. Appendix Six: Solar Park Vechelde (Kraftfeld Vechelde GmbH & Co. KG)
  29. Appendix Seven: Solar Laundry, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, India
  30. Appendix Eight: Manual and/or solar powered water treatment system
    1. Reference
  31. References
  32. Color Plate
  33. Index