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Digital Video Concepts, Methods, and Metrics: Quality, Compression, Performance, and Power Trade-off Analysis

Book Description

Digital Video Concepts, Methods, and Metrics: Quality, Compression, Performance, and Power Trade-off Analysis is a concise reference for professionals in a wide range of applications and vocations. It focuses on giving the reader mastery over the concepts, methods and metrics of digital video coding, so that readers have sufficient understanding to choose and tune coding parameters for optimum results that would suit their particular needs for quality, compression, speed and power.

The practical aspects are many: Uploading video to the Internet is only the beginning of a trend where a consumer controls video quality and speed by trading off various other factors. Open source and proprietary applications such as video e-mail, private party content generation, editing and archiving, and cloud asset management would give further control to the end-user.

Digital video is frequently compressed and coded for easier storage and transmission. This process involves visual quality loss due to typical data compression techniques and requires use of high performance computing systems. A careful balance between the amount of compression, the visual quality loss and the coding speed is necessary to keep the total system cost down, while delivering a good user experience for various video applications. At the same time, power consumption optimizations are also essential to get the job done on inexpensive consumer platforms.

Trade-offs can be made among these factors, and relevant considerations are particularly important in resource-constrained low power devices. To better understand the trade-offs this book discusses a comprehensive set of engineering principles, strategies, methods and metrics. It also exposes readers to approaches on how to differentiate and rank video coding solutions.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. About ApressOpen
  5. Contents at a Glance
  6. Contents
  7. About the Author
  8. About the Technical Reviewer
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. Preface
  11. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. The Key Concepts
      1. Digital Video
      2. Video Data Compression
      3. Noise Reduction
      4. Visual Quality
      5. Performance
      6. Power Consumption
    2. Video Compression Considerations
      1. Varying Uses
      2. Conflicting Requirements
      3. Hardware vs. Software Implementations
    3. Tradeoff Analysis
      1. Benchmarks and Standards
      2. Challenges and Opportunities
      3. The Outcomes of Tradeoff Analysis
    4. Emerging Video Applications
    5. Summary
  12. Chapter 2: Digital Video Compression Techniques
    1. Network Limits and Compression
    2. The Human Visual System
      1. The HVS Models
      2. Expoliting the HVS
    3. An Overview of Compression Techniques
      1. Data Structures and Concepts
      2. Chroma Subsampling
      3. Reduction of Redundancy
      4. Entropy Coding
    4. Compression Techniques: Cost-benefit Analysis
      1. Transform Coding Techniques
      2. Predictive Coding Techniques
      3. Additional Coding Techniques
      4. Rate-Distortion Theory
    5. Summary
  13. Chapter 3: Video Coding Standards
    1. Overview of International Video Coding Standards
      1. JPEG
      2. H.261
      3. MPEG-1
      4. MPEG-2
      5. H.263
      6. MPEG-4 (Part 2)
      7. AVC
      8. HEVC
      9. International Standards for Video Quality
    2. Overview of Other Industry Standards and Formats
      1. VC-1
      2. VP8
      3. VP9
    3. Summary
  14. Chapter 4: Video Quality Metrics
    1. Compression Loss, Artifacts, and Visual Quality
      1. Compression Loss: Quantization Noise
      2. Common Artifacts
      3. Factors Affecting Visual Quality
    2. Video Quality Evaluation Methods and Metrics
      1. Subjective Video Quality Evaluation
      2. Objective Video Quality Evaluation Methods and Metrics
    3. Measurement of Video Quality
      1. Subjective Measurements
      2. Objective Measurements and Their Applications
    4. Parameters to Tune
      1. Parameters that Impact Video Quality
      2. Tradeoff Opportunities
    5. Summary
  15. Chapter 5: Video Coding Performance
    1. CPU Speed and its Limits
    2. Motivation for Improvement
    3. Performance Considerations
      1. Maximum Resource Utilization
      2. Resource Specialization
      3. Video Parameters Tuning
    4. Performance Optimization Approaches
      1. Algorithmic Optimization
      2. Compiler and Code Optimization
      3. Overclocking
      4. Performance Bottlenecks
    5. Performance Measurement and Tuning
      1. Considerations
      2. Performance Metrics
      3. Tools and Applications
    6. Summary
  16. Chapter 6: Power Consumption by Video Applications
    1. Power Consumption and Its Limits
    2. Media Workloads on Consumer Platforms
      1. Media Usages
    3. Power-Aware Designs
    4. Power-Management Considerations
      1. ACPI and Power Management
      2. Power Management by the Operating System
      3. Power Management by the Processor
      4. The Voltage-Frequency Curve
    5. Power Optimizations
      1. Architectural Optimization
      2. Algorithmic Optimization
      3. System Integration Optimization
      4. Application-Level Optimization
    6. Power Measurement
      1. Methodology
      2. Considerations in Power Measurement
    7. Tools and Applications
      1. An Example DC Power-Measurement System
      2. Software Tools and Applications
    8. Summary
  17. Chapter 7: Video Application Power Consumption on Low-Power Platforms
    1. The Priorities for Low-Power Devices
    2. Typical Media Usage on Low-Power Platforms
      1. Video Playback and Browsing
      2. Video Recording
      3. Video Delivery over Wireless Display and Miracast
      4. Videophone or Videoconferencing
    3. System Low-Power States
      1. Drawbacks of the ACPI Simple Model
      2. Connected Standby and Standby States
      3. Combination of Low-Power States
    4. Power Management on Low-Power Platforms
      1. Special Hardware for Power Management
      2. Display Power Management
    5. Low-Power Platform Considerations
      1. Software Design
      2. Architectural Matters
    6. Power Optimization on Low-Power Platforms
      1. Run Fast and Turn Off
      2. Activity Scheduling
      3. Reducing Wake-ups
      4. Burst Mode Processing
      5. Improving CPU and GPU Parallelism
      6. GPU Memory Bandwidth Optimization
      7. Display Power Optimization
      8. Storage Power Optimization
    7. The Measurement of Low Power
      1. Processor Signals for Power
      2. Media Power Metrics
    8. Summary
  18. Chapter 8: Performance, Power, and Quality Tradeoff Analysis
    1. Considerations in a Tradeoff Analysis
      1. Types of Tradeoff Analyses
      2. Effects of Parameter Tuning
      3. Optimization Strategies
    2. The Performance–Power Tradeoff
      1. Case Study
    3. The Performance–Quality Tradeoff
      1. Case Study I
      2. Case Study II
    4. The Power–Quality Tradeoff
      1. Case Study
    5. Summary
  19. Chapter 9: Conclusion
    1. Key Points and Observations
    2. Considerations for the Future
      1. Enhanced Tools and Metrics for Analysis
      2. Improved Quality and Performance
      3. Emerging Uses and Applications
      4. Beyond Vision to the Other Senses
  20. Appendix A: Appendix
    1. MSU Codec Comparison
    2. Industry Benchmarks
      1. MobileMark 2012
      2. PCMark and PowerMark
      3. GFXBench
    3. Suggested Reading
  21. Index