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Digital Video and HD, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Digital Video and HD: Algorithms and Interfaces provides a one-stop shop for the theory and engineering of digital video systems. Equally accessible to video engineers and those working in computer graphics, Charles Poynton’s revision to his classic text covers emergent compression systems, including H.264 and VP8/WebM, and augments detailed information on JPEG, DVC, and MPEG-2 systems. This edition also introduces the technical aspects of file-based workflows and outlines the emerging domain of metadata, placing it in the context of digital video processing.



With the help of hundreds of high quality technical illustrations, this book presents the following topics:

* Basic concepts of digitization, sampling, quantization, gamma, and filtering
* Principles of color science as applied to image capture and display
* Scanning and coding of SDTV and HDTV
* Video color coding: luma, chroma (4:2:2 component video, 4fSC composite video)
* Analog NTSC and PAL
* Studio systems and interfaces
* Compression technology, including M-JPEG and MPEG-2
* Broadcast standards and consumer video equipment

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Image
  2. Content
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Figures
  7. Tables
  8. Preface
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. About the Book
  11. PART 1
    1. 1. Raster images
      1. Aspect ratio
      2. Geometry
      3. Image capture
      4. Digitization
      5. Perceptual uniformity
      6. Colour
      7. Luma and colour difference components
      8. Digital image representation
      9. SD and HD
      10. Square sampling
      11. Comparison of aspect ratios
      12. Aspect ratio
      13. Frame rates
    2. 2. Image acquisition and presentation
      1. Image state
      2. EOCF standards
      3. Entertainment programming
      4. Acquisition
      5. Consumer origination
      6. Consumer electronics (CE) display
    3. 3. Linear-light and perceptual uniformity
      1. Contrast
      2. Contrast ratio
      3. Perceptual uniformity
      4. The “code 100” problem and nonlinear image coding
      5. Linear and nonlinear
    4. 4. Quantization
      1. Linearity
      2. Decibels
      3. Noise, signal, sensitivity
      4. Quantization error
      5. Full-swing
      6. Studio-swing (footroom and headroom)
      7. Interface offset
      8. Processing coding
      9. Two's complement wrap-around
    5. 5. Contrast, brightness, , and
      1. Perceptual attributes
      2. History of display signal processing
      3. Digital driving levels
      4. Relationship between signal and lightness
      5. Algorithm
      6. Black level setting
      7. Effect of contrast and brightness on contrast and brightness
      8. An alternate interpretation
      9. Brightness and contrast controls in LCDs
      10. Brightness and contrast controls in PDPs
      11. Brightness and contrast controls in desktop graphics
    6. 6. Raster images in computing
      1. Symbolic image description
      2. Raster images
      3. Conversion among types
      4. Image files
      5. “Resolution” in computer graphics
    7. 7. Image structure
      1. Image reconstruction
      2. Sampling aperture
      3. Spot profile
      4. Box distribution
      5. Gaussian distribution
    8. 8. Raster scanning
      1. Flicker, refresh rate, and frame rate
      2. Introduction to scanning
      3. Scanning parameters
      4. Interlaced format
      5. Twitter
      6. Interlace in analog systems
      7. Interlace and progressive
      8. Scanning notation
      9. Motion portrayal
      10. Segmented-frame (24PsF)
      11. Video system taxonomy
      12. Conversion among systems
    9. 9. Resolution
      1. Magnitude frequency response and bandwidth
      2. Visual acuity
      3. Viewing distance and angle
      4. Kell effect
      5. Resolution
      6. Resolution in video
      7. Viewing distance
      8. Interlace revisited
    10. 10. Constant luminance
      1. The principle of constant luminance
      2. Compensating for the CRT
      3. Departure from constant luminance
      4. Luma
      5. “Leakage” of luminance into chroma
    11. 11. Picture rendering
      1. Surround effect
      2. Tone scale alteration
      3. Incorporation of rendering
      4. Rendering in desktop computing
    12. 12. Introduction to luma and chroma
      1. Luma
      2. Sloppy use of the term luminance
      3. Colour difference coding (chroma)
      4. Chroma subsampling
      5. Chroma subsampling notation
      6. Chroma subsampling filters
      7. Chroma in composite NTSC and PAL
    13. 13. Introduction tocomponent SD
      1. Scanning standards
      2. Widescreen (16:9) SD
      3. Square and nonsquare sampling
      4. Resampling
    14. 14. Introduction to composite NTSC and PAL
      1. NTSC and PAL encoding
      2. NTSC and PAL decoding
      3. S-video interface
      4. Frequency interleaving
      5. Composite analog SD
    15. 15. Introduction to HD
      1. HD scanning
      2. Colour coding for BT.709 HD
    16. 16. Introduction to video compression
      1. Data compression
      2. Image compression
      3. Lossy compression
      4. JPEG
      5. Motion-JPEG
      6. JPEG 2000
      7. Mezzanine compression
      8. MPEG
      9. Picture coding types (I, P, B)
      10. Reordering
      11. MPEG-1
      12. MPEG-2
      13. Other MPEGs
      14. MPEG-4
      15. H.264
      16. AVC-Intra
      17. WM9, WM10, VC-1 codecs
      18. Compression for CE acquisition
      19. HDV
      20. AVCHD
      21. Compression for IP transport to consumers
      22. VP8 (“WebM”) codec
      23. Dirac (basic)
    17. 17. Streams and files
      1. Historical overview
      2. Physical layer
      3. Stream interfaces
      4. IEEE 1394 (FireWire, i.LINK)
      5. HTTP live streaming (HLS)
    18. 18. Metadata
      1. Metadata Example 1: CD-DA
      2. Metadata Example 2: .yuv files
      3. Metadata Example 3: RFF
      4. Metadata Example 4: JPEG/JFIF
      5. Metadata Example 5: Sequence display extension
      6. Conclusions
    19. 19. Stereoscopic (“3-D”) video
      1. Acquisition
      2. S3D display
      3. Anaglyph
      4. Temporal multiplexing
      5. Polarization
      6. Wavelength multiplexing (Infitec/Dolby)
      7. Autostereoscopic displays
      8. Parallax barrier display
      9. Lenticular display
      10. Recording and compression
      11. Consumer interface and display
      12. Ghosting
      13. Vergence and accommodation
  12. PART 2
    1. 20. Filtering and sampling
      1. Sampling theorem
      2. Sampling at exactly 0.5fS
      3. Magnitude frequency response
      4. Magnitude frequency response of a boxcar
      5. The sinc weighting function
      6. Frequency response of point sampling
      7. Fourier transform pairs
      8. Analog filters
      9. Digital filters
      10. Impulse response
      11. Finite impulse response (FIR) filters
      12. Physical realizability of a filter
      13. Phase response (group delay)
      14. Infinite impulse response (IIR) filters
      15. Lowpass filter
      16. Digital filter design
      17. Reconstruction
      18. Reconstruction close to 0.5fS
      19. “(sin x)/x" correction
      20. Further reading
    2. 21. Resampling, interpolation, and decimation
      1. 2:1 downsampling
      2. Oversampling
      3. Interpolation
      4. Lagrange interpolation
      5. Lagrange interpolation as filtering
      6. Polyphase interpolators
      7. Polyphase taps and phases
      8. Implementing polyphase interpolators
      9. Decimation
      10. Lowpass filtering in decimation
    3. 22. Image digitization and reconstruction
      1. Spatial frequency domain
      2. Comb filtering
      3. Spatial filtering
      4. Image presampling filters
      5. Image reconstruction filters
      6. Spatial (2-D) oversampling
    4. 23. Perception and visual acuity
      1. Retina
      2. Adaptation
      3. Contrast sensitivity
      4. Contrast sensitivity function (CSF)
    5. 24. Luminance and lightness
      1. Radiance, intensity
      2. Luminance
      3. Relative luminance
      4. Luminance from red, green, and blue
      5. Lightness (CIE L*)
    6. 25. The CIE system of colorimetry
      1. Fundamentals of vision
      2. Definitions
      3. Spectral power distribution (SPD) and tristimulus
      4. Spectral constraints
      5. CIE XYZ tristimulus
      6. CIE [x, y] chromaticity
      7. Blackbody radiation
      8. Colour temperature
      9. White
      10. Chromatic adaptation
      11. Perceptually uniform colour spaces
      12. CIE L*u*v*
      13. CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB)
      14. CIE L*u*v* and CIE L*a*b* summary
      15. Colour specification and colour image coding
      16. Further reading
    7. 26. Colour science for video
      1. Additive reproduction (RGB)
      2. Characterization of RGB primaries
      3. BT.709 primaries
      4. Leggacy SD primaries
      5. sRGB system
      6. SMPTE Free Scale (FS) primaries
      7. AMPAS ACES primaries
      8. SMPTE/DCI P3 primaries
      9. CMFs and SPDs
      10. Normalization and scaling
      11. Luminance coefficients
      12. Transformations between RGB and CIE XYZ
      13. Noise due to matrixing
      14. Transforms among RGB systems
      15. Camera white reference
      16. Display white reference
      17. Gamut
      18. Wide-gamut reproduction
      19. Free Scale Gamut, Free Scale Log (FS-Gamut, FS-Log)
      20. Further reading
    8. 27. Gamma
      1. Gamma in CRT physics
      2. The amazing coincidence!
      3. Gamma in video
      4. Opto-electronic conversion functions (OECFs)
      5. BT.709 OECF
      6. SMPTE 240M OECF
      7. sRGB transfer function
      8. Transfer functions in SD
      9. Bit depth requirements
      10. Gamma in modern display devices
      11. Estimating gamma
      12. Gamma in video, CGI, and Macintosh
      13. Gamma in computer graphics
      14. Gamma in pseudocolour
      15. Limitations of 8-bit linear coding
      16. Linear and nonlinear coding in CGI
    9. 28. Luma and colour differences
      1. Colour acuity
      2. RGB and R′G′B′ colour cubes
      3. Conventional luma/colour difference coding
      4. Luminance and luma notation
      5. Nonlinear red, green, blue (R′G′B′)
      6. BT.601 luma
      7. BT.709 luma
      8. Chroma subsampling, revisited
      9. Luma/colour difference summary
      10. SD and HD luma chaos
      11. Luma/colour difference component sets
  13. PART 3
    1. 29. Component video colour coding for SD
      1. B’-Y’, R’-Y’ components for SD
      2. PBPR components for SD
      3. CBCR components for SD
      4. Y’CBCR from studio RGB
      5. Y’CBCR from computer RGB
      6. “Full-swing” Y’CBCR
      7. Y’UV, Y’IQ confusion
    2. 30. Component video colour coding for HD
      1. B’–Y’, R’–Y’ components for BT.709 HD
      2. PBPR components for BT.709 HD
      3. CBCR components for BT.709 HD
      4. CBCR components for xvYCC
      5. Y’CBCR from studio RGB
      6. Y’CBCR from computer RGB
      7. Conversions between HD and SD
      8. Colour coding standards
    3. 31. Video signal processing
      1. Edge treatment
      2. Transition samples
      3. Picture lines
      4. Choice of SAL and SPW parameters
      5. Video levels
      6. Setup (pedestal)
      7. BT.601 to computing
      8. Enhancement
      9. Median filtering
      10. Coring
      11. Chroma transition improvement (CTI)
      12. Mixing and keying
    4. 32. Frame, field, line, and sample rates
      1. Field rate
      2. Line rate
      3. Sound subcarrier
      4. Addition of composite colour
      5. NTSC colour subcarrier
      6. 576i PAL colour subcarrier
      7. 4fSC sampling
      8. Common sampling rate
      9. Numerology of HD scanning
      10. Audio rates
    5. 33. Timecode
      1. Introduction
      2. Dropframe timecode
      3. Editing
      4. Linear timecode (LTC)
      5. Vertical interval timecode (VITC)
      6. Timecode structure
      7. Further reading
    6. 34. 2-3 pulldown
      1. 2-3-3-2 pulldown
      2. Conversion of film to different frame rates
      3. Native 24 Hz coding
      4. Conversion to other rates
    7. 35. Deinterlacing
      1. Spatial domain
      2. Vertical-temporal domain
      3. Motion adaptivity
      4. Further reading
    8. 36. Colourbars
      1. SD colourbars
      2. SD colourbar notation
      3. PLUGE element
      4. Composite decoder adjustment using colourbars
      5. -I, +Q, and PLUGE elements in SD colourbars
      6. HD colourbars
  14. PART 4
    1. 37. Reference display and viewing conditions
      1. Introduction
      2. Signal interface
      3. Reference primaries, black, and white
      4. Reference EOCF
      5. Reference viewing conditions
    2. 38. SDI and HD-SDI interfaces
      1. Component digital SD interface (BT.601)
      2. Serial digital interface (SDI)
      3. Component digital HD-SDI
      4. SDI and HD-SDI sync, TRS, and ancillary data
      5. TRS in 4:2:2 SD-SDI
      6. TRS in HD-SDI
      7. Analog sync and digital/analog timing relationships
      8. Ancillary data
      9. SDI coding
      10. HD-SDI coding
      11. Interfaces for compressed video
      12. SDTI
      13. Switching and mixing
      14. Timing in digital facilities
      15. ASI
      16. Summary of digital interfaces
    3. 39. 480 component video
      1. Frame rate
      2. Interlace
      3. Line sync
      4. Field/frame sync
      5. R′G′B′ EOCF and primaries
      6. Luma (Y′)
      7. Picture center, aspect ratio, and blanking
      8. Halfline blanking
      9. Component digital 4:2:2 interface
      10. Component analog R′G′B′ interface
      11. Component analog Y′PBPR interface, EBU N10
      12. Component analog Y′PBPR interface, industry standard
    4. 40. 576 component video
      1. Frame rate
      2. Interlace
      3. Line sync
      4. Analog field/frame sync
      5. R′G′B′ EOCF and primaries
      6. Luma (Y′)
      7. Picture center, aspect ratio, and blanking
      8. Component digital 4:2:2 interface
      9. Component analog 576i interface
    5. 41. 280 ×720 HD
      1. Scanning
      2. Analog sync
      3. Picture center, aspect ratio, and blanking
      4. R'G'B' EOCF and primaries
      5. Luma (Y')
      6. Component digital 4:2:2 interface
    6. 42. 1920 ×1080 HD
      1. Scanning
      2. Analog sync
      3. Picture center, aspect ratio, and blanking
      4. R'G'B' EOCF and primaries
      5. Luma (Y')
      6. Component digital 4:2:2 interface
    7. 43. HD videotape
      1. D-5 HD (HD-D5, D-15)
      2. D-6
      3. HDCAM (D-11)
      4. DVCPRO HD (D-12)
      5. HDCAM SR (D-16)
    8. 44. Component analog HD interface
      1. Pre- and postfiltering characteristics
  15. PART 5
    1. 45. JPEG and motion-JPEG (M-JPEG) compression
      1. JPEG blocks and MCUs
      2. JPEG block diagram
      3. Level shifting
      4. Discrete cosine transform (DCT)
      5. JPEG encoding example
      6. JPEG decoding
      7. Compression ratio control
      8. JPEG/JFIF
      9. Motion-JPEG (M-JPEG)
      10. Further reading
    2. 46. DV compression
      1. DV chroma subsampling
      2. DV frame/field modes
      3. Picture-in-shuttle in DV
      4. DV overflow scheme
      5. DV quantization
      6. DV digital interface (DIF)
      7. Consumer DV recording
      8. Professional DV variants
    3. 47. MPEG-2 video compression
      1. MPEG-2 profiles and levels
      2. Picture structure
      3. Frame rate and 2-3 pulldown in MPEG
      4. Luma and chroma sampling structures
      5. Macroblocks
      6. Picture coding types – I, P, B
      7. Prediction
      8. Motion vectors (MVs)
      9. Coding of a block
      10. Frame and field DCT types
      11. Zigzag and VLE
      12. Refresh
      13. Motion estimation
      14. Rate control and buffer management
      15. Bitstream syntax
      16. Transport
    4. 48. H.264 video compression
      1. Algorithmic features, profiles, and levels
      2. Baseline and extended profiles
      3. High profiles
      4. Hierarchy
      5. Multiple reference pictures
      6. Slices
      7. Spatial intra prediction
      8. Flexible motion compensation
      9. Quarter-pel motion-compensated interpolation
      10. Weighting and offsetting of MC prediction
      11. 16-bit integer transform
      12. Quantizer
      13. Variable-length coding
      14. Context adaptivity
      15. CABAC
      16. Deblocking filter
      17. Buffer control
      18. Scalable video coding (SVC)
      19. Multiview video coding (MVC)
      20. AVC-Intra
    5. 49. VP8 compression
      1. Algorithmic features
  16. PART 6
    1. 50. MPEG-2 storage and transport
      1. Elementary stream (ES)
      2. Packetized elementary stream (PES)
      3. MPEG-2 program stream
      4. MPEG-2 transport stream
      5. System clock
    2. 51. Digital television broadcasting
      1. Japan
      2. United States
      3. ATSC modulation
      4. Europe
    3. A. and considered harmful
      1. Cement vs. concrete
      2. True CIE luminance
      3. The misinterpretation of luminance
      4. The enshrining of luma
      5. Colour difference scale factors
      6. Conclusion: A plea
    4. B. Introduction to radiometry and photometry
      1. Further reading
  17. Glossary
  18. index
  19. About the author