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Digital Literacy

Book Description

It has never been more important to have the ability to locate, comprehend, evaluate, and organize information using digital technology than it is in today’s world. By understating and knowing how to utilize this technology, individuals can communicate and work more effectively and more efficiently. Digital Literacy: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications presents a vital compendium of research detailing the latest case studies, architectures, frameworks, methodologies, and research on Digital Literacy. With contributions from authors around the world, this three-volume collection presents the most sophisticated research and developments from the field, relevant to researchers, academics, and practitioners alike. In order to stay abreast of the latest research, this book affords a vital look into Digital Literacy research.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: A Snapshot Overview of the Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ZAMBIA ICT PENETRATION INITIATIVES
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 2: Information Literacy and the Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ICTs, e-EXCLUSION AND LITERACY
      4. DE-CONSTRUCTING LITERACIES
      5. INFORMATION AS COMMODITY
      6. SOURCES OF THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      7. LITERACY, ORALITY AND PUBLIC POLICY
      8. MULTIPLE LITERACIES AND THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      9. SPATIO-TEMPORALITY, TRANSITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES AND THE GREAT DIVIDES
      10. STRATEGIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION AND PROGNOSIS
    3. Chapter 3: Explaining the Global Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMPACT OF POLICY INITIATIVES ON E-GOVERNMENT CAPACITY AND REACH
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 4: Online Participation and Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. THE DIGITAL DIVIDE DEBATE
      4. TRENDS IN DIGITAL DIVIDE IN THE UNITED STATES
      5. PERSPECTIVES OF DIGITAL GOVERNMENT
      6. INTERNET ACCESS AND CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT
      7. METHODOLOGY
      8. FINDINGS
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: The Digital Information Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INFORMATION LITERACY AND THE REDEFINITION OF INFORMATION
      5. INFORMATION BEHAVIOR
      6. TEACHING STUDENTS ABOUT INFORMATION
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: Millennials are Digital Natives?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIGITAL PROPENSITY
      4. METHOD
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 7: M-Learning and Y Generation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ADDED VALUE OF MOBILE DEVICES
      4. FORMAL AND INFORMAL LEARNING
      5. RESEARCH QUESTION AND METHODOLOGY
      6. EXPERIMENT ONE: STUDENTS’ FORMAL AND INFORMAL ACTIVITIES ON IPOD TOUCHES
      7. EXPERIMENT TWO: COMBINING BLENDED AND MOBILE LEARNING WITHIN A COURSE ‘DOING BUSINESS IN EUROPE’
      8. RESULTS
      9. SURVEY: COLLECTING STUDENTS' MOTIVATIONS FOR PODCASTS
      10. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 8: Low Usage of Intelligent Technologies by the Aged
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A CLOSER LOOK AT PERCEPTIONS
      5. DESIGN APPROACH TO “SENSITIVE” AT
      6. EXPERIMENTS WITH THE UNIFIED PLATFORM PROJECT
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 9: Online Literacy among Students and Faculty
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHOD
      5. ANALYSIS
      6. RESULTS
      7. LIMITATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. APPENDIX A
      11. APPENDIX B
    10. Chapter 10: The Global Digital Divide and Its Impact on E-Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEASURING THE GLOBAL DIGITAL DIVIDE AND ITS DETERMINANTS
      4. THE DETERMINANTS OF THE GLOBAL DIGITAL DIVIDE
      5. THE IMPACT OF THE DIGITAL DIVIDE ON E-GOVERNMENT AND E-GOVERNANCE
      6. POLICY OPTIONS TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      7. CONCLUSION
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 11: A Framework for Digital Competence Assessment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIGITAL COMPETENCES AND PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL PARADIGMS
      4. THE FRAMEWORK FOR DIGITAL COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT
      5. CONCLUSION, TEACHING SUGGESTIONS AND FUTURE STUDIES
    2. Chapter 12: A Process Model for Successful E-Government Adoption in the Least Developed Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STUDY CONTEXT: PUBLIC SECTOR IN BANGLADESH
      4. CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. A PROCESS MODEL OF E-GOVERNMENT ADOPTION
      8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 13: Sustainable Development and the Digital Divide Among OIC Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DEFINING CONCEPTS
      5. DETERMINANTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF ICTs
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. FURTHER RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 14: Creating a Personalized Artificial Intelligence Course
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORKS
      4. TEACHER'S PERSPECTIVE (COURSE AUTHORING)
      5. STUDENT'S PERSPECTIVE (COURSE VISUALIZATION)
      6. COURSE VALIDATION
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 15: Conceptualizing a Contextual Measurement for Digital Divide/s
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A THREE-STEP ROADMAP FOR POLICY MAKERS FOR ASSESSING DIGITAL DIVIDE/S
      5. INTEGRATED CONTEXTUAL ITERATIVE APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT: HOW DOES IT WORK?
      6. A STUDY OF 25 COUNTRIES: IMPLEMENTING THE ICI APPROACH
      7. CHALLENGES TO UTILIZING THE ICI
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 16: The Empirics of the Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COMPARISON OF METHODS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. APPENDIX
    7. Chapter 17: Perusing E-Readiness and Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      4. DEFINING E-READINESS
      5. METHODOLOGIES OF DIGITAL DIVIDE AND E-READINESS MEASURMENT
      6. WHAT IS THE GAP OF DIGITAL DIVIDE MEASURES?
      7. WHAT IS THE GAP OF E-READINESS ASSESSMENTS?
      8. WHY FOCUS ON SMEs?
      9. TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED SME E-READINESS/DIGITAL DIVIDE MODEL
      10. METHOD OF COMPUTATION E-READINESS/DIGITAL DIVIDE INDICES
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. APPENDICES
      13. APPENDIX A
      14. APPENDIX B
      15. APPENDIX C
      16. APPENDIX D
      17. APPENDIX E
      18. APPENDIX F
      19. APPENDIX G
    8. Chapter 18: Game Literacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. “IT’S EDUCATIONAL”
      4. SURMISING GAME CONTENT
      5. DEMONSTRATING PUBLIC PERCEPTION
      6. CRITICAL REFLECTION
      7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    9. Chapter 19: Policy as a Bridge across the Global Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. POLICY ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL DIGITAL DIVIDE
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 20: Exclusiveness vs. Inclusiveness in Software Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DOING GENDER: DOING DIFFERENCE?
      5. INCLUSIVE DESIGN APPROACHES AND TRIPLE-LOOP LEARNING
      6. ON GENDERED AND CULTURAL BIASES OF SOFTWARE-DEVELOPMENT: SELECTED EMPIRICAL RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION: LESSONS LEARNED
    11. Chapter 21: Developing and Managing Digital/Technology Literacy and Effective Learning Skills in Adult Learners
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADULT LEARNERS AND TECHNOLOGY
      4. TECHNOLOGY AND ADULT LEARNER CLASS ENVIRONMENTS
      5. DISTANCE LEARNING AND ADULT LEARNERS
      6. INTENSIVE COURSE SCHEDULING SUPPORTED BY TECHNOLOGY
      7. MODULAR/PROJECT-BASED LEARNING SUPPORTED BY TECHNOLOGY
      8. ADULT LEARNER TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
      9. THE ADULT LEARNER TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION MODEL
      10. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
    12. Chapter 22: Intelligent M-Learning Frameworks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND RESEARCH
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. THE RESEARCH STUDY
      6. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 23: Bringing the Internet to the Rural Area
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OF ICT DIFFUSION AND DIGITAL DIVIDE IN MALAYSIA
      4. THE ROLE OF KEDAIKOM IN BRIDGING RURAL DIGITAL DIVIDE
      5. QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTION AND DATA COLLECTION TIMEFRAME
      6. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON KedaiKom
    2. Chapter 24: Children’s Maps in GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLICATION OF THE METHOD IN REAL-WORLD USE IN TÄBY
      5. REPRESENTATION OF DATA
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 25: ICT for Digital Inclusion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY IN MAURITIUS
      4. CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND
      5. RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES
      6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      7. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. APPENDIX: CONSTRUCT OPERATIONALIZATION
    4. Chapter 26: Guidelines for Successful Public Internet Access Points (PIAPs) Implementation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL PIAP IMPLEMENTATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX A
    5. Chapter 27: Effortless Data Capture for Ambient E-Services with Digital Pen and Paper Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DIGITAL PEN TECHNOLOGIES
      5. DRAWING PADS AND TOUCH SCREENS
      6. SHAPE WRITING
      7. DIGITAL WRITING ON ORDINARY PAPER WITH AN ACTIVE PEN
      8. DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER: THE ANOTO SOLUTION
      9. USING DIGITAL PEN AND PAPER FOR EFFORTLESS DATA CAPTURE
      10. SYMPTOM REPORTING WITH A DIGITAL PEN IN HOME HEALTHCARE
      11. DIGITALLY ENHANCED PAPER MAPS AND SKETCHES
      12. THE PAPER REMOTE
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 28: Digital Cities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 29: Documenting Teachers and Students Experiences with Interactive Whiteboards in Ireland
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT
      3. PROJECT RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
      4. THE RESEARCH AND EVALUATION FRAMEWORK
      5. KEY OUTCOMES AND FINDINGS
      6. IMPLICATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 30: Promoting Active Ageing through Technology Training in Korea
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE DIGITAL DIVIDE AND EFFORTS TO REDUCE IT IN SOUTH KOREA
      5. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 31: Towards Multimodal Mobile GIS for the Elderly
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
      4. GIS FOR THE ELDERLY: ISSUES AND REQUIREMENTS
      5. CASE STUDY: ADAPTING COMPASS FOR ELDERLY USAGE
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
    10. Chapter 32: Integration of Educational Games in Synchronous Virtual Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK: COMBINING GAME-BASED LEARNING WITH SEVERAL METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
      5. TECHNOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
      6. THE CASE STUDY
      7. RESULTS: DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 33: Navigation and Visualisation Techniques in eLearning and Internet Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. ISSUE 1: USING AUDIT TRAILS
      6. ISSUE 2: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NAVIGATION PATTERNS
      7. ISSUE 3: DEVELOPING NAVIGATION TOOLS
      8. ISSUE 4: NEW NAVIGATION TOOLS
      9. ISSUE 5: DESIGN ISSUES WITH MULTIMEDIA AND INTERNET RESOURCES
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      12. FURTHER RESEARCH WORK AND DISCUSSION
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 34: Pervasive Internet via Wireless Infrastructure-Based Mesh Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW
      4. PERVASIVE INTERNET VIA WMN
      5. DESIGN ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
      6. RECENT ACTIVITIES
      7. OPEN RESEARCH ISSUES
      8. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 35: The Dynamics of Video Gaming
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
      5. THE DYNAMICS OF GAME PLAY
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 36: Digital Divide and Rural Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ISSUES: THE DIGITAL DIVIDE PROBLEM IN RURAL AREAS AROUND EUROPE – REASONS AND INITIATIVES TO DEAL WITH
      4. TELECENTRES AS A SUPPORT MECHANISM TO BOOST THE ICT PENETRATION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF EUROPE
      5. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 37: Digital Divide in Turkey
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 38: Swedish Students Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESULTS FROM QUESTIONNAIRE
      4. RESULTS FROM FOCUS GROUPS
      5. CONCLUSIONS TWO CULTURES ON THE INTERNET
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. Chapter 39: An Analysis of Prospective Teachers’ Digital Citizenship Behaviour Norms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. OBJECTIVE
      4. 3. METHOD
      5. 4. FINDINGS
      6. 5. DISCUSSION
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 40: Bridging the Digital Divide in Australia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. YOUNG PEOPLE’S USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON MENTAL HEALTH
      5. THE POLICY CONTEXT: UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE AND THEIR MENTAL HEALTH AND WELLBEING
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    7. Chapter 41: The Changing World of ICT and Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PATIENT AS A CONSUMER
      4. EMPOWERING THROUGH CONVERGING COMMUNICATIONS
      5. THE EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATION MEDIUMS
      6. INTERNET PENETRATION VS. MOBILE PENETRATION
      7. ACCESS TO HEALTH INFORMATION: DEVELOPING COUNTRY PERSPECTIVE
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 42: Gender Digital Divide and National ICT Policies in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ICTs AS TOOLS FOR GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWERMENT
      5. BARRIERS TO WOMEN’S ACCESS TO ICT INFRASTRUCTURE
      6. DEVELOPMENT OF ICT POLICIES IN AFRICA
      7. GENDER ANALYSIS OF ICT POLICY IN AFRICA
      8. POLICY ORIENTED STRATEGIES FOR MAKING ICT BENEFICIAL TO WOMEN IN AFRICA
      9. FUTURE TRENDS
      10. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 43: The Potentials and Pitfalls of the Information Society Project in Turkey
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    10. Chapter 44: India’s Dalits Search for a Democratic Opening in the Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: A DEMOCRATIC OPENING IN THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      3. BACKGROUND: DALITS AND THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 45: An Ecological Approach to Instructional Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FRAMEWORK
      4. THE MICROSYSTEM: THE LEARNER’S EXPERIENCE
      5. DESIGN DECISIONS FOR THE MESOSYSTEM AND EXOSYSTEM
      6. PUTTING THE ECOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PRACTICE
      7. DESIGN OF COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 46: A Case Study of Social Interaction on ANGEL and Student Authoring Skills
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 47: Citizens and E-Government Service Delivery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 48: American Digital Divides
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. GENERAL ANALYTIC PLAN
      5. OVERALL RESULTS
      6. GENERATIONAL EFFECTS OVERALL
      7. SUMMARY
      8. NOTE
    3. Chapter 49: School in the Knowledge Society
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHANGES IN SCHOOL CAUSED BY THE TRANSITION FROM THE SCHOOL OF THE INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY TO THE SCHOOL OF THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY
      4. RECENT DECADES’ USE OF ICT IN SCHOOLS
      5. WEB 2.0: NEW DESIGNS FOR LEARNING AND TEACHING
      6. STUDENTS AND TEACHERS: POSITIONS AND RELATIONS
      7. THE SCHOOL OF THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY: AN EXAMPLE
      8. A LOCAL GLOBAL SCHOOL
      9. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH
      11. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 50: Caste, Class, and IT in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION DIMENSIONS: CASTE, CLASS, AND POWER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 51: Digital Divide and Disadvantaged Populations in E-Tourism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO E-TOURISM
      3. DISADVANTAGED POPULATIONS DEFINITION
      4. DIGITAL DIVIDE AND DISADVANTAGED POPULATIONS
      5. THE SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF REDUCING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 52: E-Learning Challenges for Polytechnic Institutions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. NET GENERATION, DIGITAL NATIVES: THE NEW STUDENT GENERATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY
      4. 2. THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS OF CURRICULA: FROM A STATIC TO A MOBILE CONTEXT
      5. 3. MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES AND THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE INSTRUCTOR
      6. 4. MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES AND LEARNING
      7. 5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 53: Collaborative Information Behavior in Completely Online Groups
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. AN EXPLORATION OF COLLABORATIVE INFORMATION BEHAVIOR IN COGS
      5. INFORMATION HORIZON MACRO TRENDS ACROSS COGS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 54: Public Participation in E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 55: Gender Evaluation of Rural E-Governance in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF E-GRAM SURAJ SCHEME
      5. GENDER EVALUATION OF E-GRAM SURAJ SCHEME
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 56: ICT Use in Universities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. A NEW EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
      5. 4. THE UNIVERSITY OF BURGOS AND UNIVERSITY OF CASTILLA-LA MANCHA: ICT AS A COMPLEMENT TO TRADITIONAL UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
      6. 5. A NEW MODEL BASED ON COLLABORATIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS: THE UOC CASE
      7. 7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    11. Chapter 57: Learning Applications for Disabled People
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. E-LEARNING PRACTICES FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED PEOPLE
      3. ENGLISH E-LEARNING PRACTICES FOR DEAF PEOPLE
      4. E-LEARNING PRACTICES FOR ICT’S AND DEAF PEOPLE
      5. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 58: Internal Digital Divide in Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A CASE STUDY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN A PUBLIC ORGANIZATION
      5. DISCUSSION OF SOME RESULTS FROM THE STUDY
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 59: Diffusion of Technology in Higher Education Classrooms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 60: Catering to the Needs of the “Digital Natives” or Educating the “Net Generation”?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IS THERE REALLY A GENERATION OF HIGHLY ICT-LITERATE “DIGITAL NATIVES”?
      4. WEB 2.0 IN A BROADER SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
      5. EKADEMIA: AN ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT BUILT ON SOCIAL SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES
      6. CONCLUDING DISCUSSION
    3. Chapter 61: Innovation in Financing Mechanism of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. INNOVATIVE FINANCING MECHANISM: EXISTING
      4. 3. CASE STUDIES
      5. 4. PROPOSED INNOVATIVE FINANCING MECHANISM
      6. 5. FUTURE SCOPE
      7. APPENDIX: FINANCING ORGANIZATIONS AND OBJECTIVES
    4. Chapter 62: Digital Inclusion and Electronic Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 63: Empowering Students to be Scientifically Literate through Digital Literacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES
      4. SCIENTIFIC LITERACY: WHAT IS IT AND WHY THE NEED FOR IT
      5. SCIENTIFIC LITERACY AND RELATED SKILLS
      6. MULTIPLE LITERACIES, WHERE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY INFLUENCES MEANING MAKING IN SCIENCE
      7. ENHANCING SCIENTIFIC LITERACY THROUGH DIGITAL LITERACY
      8. LEARNING THEORIES THAT UNDERPIN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC LITERACY IN DIGITALLY ENHANCE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. APPENDIX
    6. Chapter 64: Authentic Tasks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 21st CENTURY OUTCOMES
      4. GENERATION ME LEARNERS
      5. GENERATION ME AND GAME-BASED LEARNING
      6. THE NEED FOR PEDAGOGICAL CHANGE IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      7. AUTHENTIC TASKS TO ENGAGE GENERATION ME
      8. AUTHENTIC TASKS EXAMPLE
      9. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 65: Governing Digital Divides
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: UNIVERSAL PROMISES, DIGITAL INEQUALITIES
      3. BACKGROUND: THE CONCEPT OF DIGITAL DIVIDE
      4. MAPPING DIGITAL DIVIDES: QUANTITATIVE EVIDENCE
      5. INTERNET ARCHITECTURES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION: A HOLISTIC APPROACH
    8. Chapter 66: E-Government Issues in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT STATUS OF E-GOVERNMENT LITERATURE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      4. CIVIL CONFLICT, DIGITAL DIVIDE, AND E-GOVERNMENT USE
      5. E-GOVERNMENT CONSUMPTION SIDE SKILLS
      6. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 67: Stakeholders and Power in Community-Based IT Projects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    10. Chapter 68: Addressing Social Inclusion via eDemocracy Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. eINCLUSION AND THE ENHANCEMENT OF CITIZENS’ PARTICIPATION
      4. PREREQUISITES FOR eDEMOCRACY AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION VIA ICT
      5. CITIZENS PERCEPTION OF FREEDOM IN THE INTERNET AND ITS FUTURE
      6. REGULATED SOCIAL INCLUSIVE MEASURES AS ENABLER AND SUCCESS FACTOR FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 69: Social Equity, the Digital Divide and E-Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE DIGITAL DIVIDE AND E-GOVERNANCE: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 70: Online Social Constructivism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
      4. STUDENT ISSUES OF ONLINE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST PRACTICE
      5. FACULTY ISSUES OF ONLINE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST PRACTICE
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 71: The Evolving Discourse of the Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATION
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 72: Theory and Practice in Digital Competence Assessment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIGITAL COMPETENCES AND PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL PARADIGMS
      4. THE FRAMEWORK FOR DIGITAL COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT
      5. CONCLUSION, TEACHING SUGGESTIONS AND FUTURE STUDIES
    5. Chapter 73: The Issues of Digital Natives and Tourists
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEXTUALIZATION
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    6. Chapter 74: A Psychological Model to Understand E-Adoption in the Context of the Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: PSYCHOLOGICAL MODELS OF TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION
      4. CULTURAL ASPECTS: HOFSTEDE’S CULTURE DIMENSIONS
      5. UNIFIED THEORY OF ACCEPTANCE AND USE OF TECHNOLOGY
      6. PREVIOUS PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH SPECIFICALLY ADDRESSING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      7. A NEW PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL OF E-ADOPTION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      8. AWARENESS OF THE TECHNOLOGY
      9. PERCEPTIONS OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
      10. ACCESSIBILITY OF TECHNOLOGY
      11. PERSONAL FACTORS
      12. USAGE INTENTIONS AND COGNITIVE APPRAISAL
      13. USAGE BEHAVIOURS AND CONTINUANCE INTENTIONS
      14. FUTURE TRENDS
      15. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 75: Gender Gaps and Information and Communication Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      5. WOMEN AND IT EDUCATION
      6. INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUES
      7. GLOBALIZATION, INFORMATION, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN’S WORK
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 76: Solving the Paradoxes of the Information Technology Revolution
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PRODUCTIVITY PARADOX
      4. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY; TASK PRODUCTIVITY AND KNOWLEDGE
      5. APPLICATION OF THE THEORETICAL MODEL TO THE SKILL-BIASED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
      6. A PRACTICAL EXAMPLE
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 77: Social Issues and Web 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL ISSUES AND CULTURE
      4. SOME KEY CHALLENGES TO WEB 2.0
      5. DIMENSIONS OF CULTURAL VARIABILITY AND WEB 2.0
      6. TRUST AND TRUST DEVELOPMENT IN WEB 2.0
      7. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 78: Exploring the Notion of ‘Technology as a Public Good’
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WORLDWIDE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      4. HISTORICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES: EAST ASIAN EDUCATION AND DIGITAL DIVIDE
      5. CRITICAL SOCIAL THEORY AND THE NOTION OF TECHNOLOGY AS A PUBLIC GOOD
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH FOR TECHNOLOGY AS A PUBLIC GOOD
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 79: Does the Digital Divide Extend to Minority- and Women- Owned Small Businesses?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EVIDENCE FROM PAST STUDIES
      4. DATA
      5. METHODS USED TO ANSWER THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      6. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRMS AND BUSINESS OWNERS
      7. ARE MWEs LESS LIKELY TO USE COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY THAN WHITE MALE-OWNED BUSINESSES?
      8. WHAT FACTORS DETERMINE COMPUTER USE BY SMALL FIRMS? WHAT LIMITS EXPANSION?
      9. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 80: A Human Factors View of the Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CULTURE AND COMPUTER INTERFACE DESIGN
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 81: What Does it Mean to Bridge the Divide?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. POSITIVE OUTCOMES OF INVENTIVE APPROPRIATIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 82: The Evolution of the Digital Divide across Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY AND DESCRIPTIVE EVIDENCE
      5. FACTOR ANALYSIS
      6. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
      7. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
      8. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 83: Reducing Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON PFNET
      4. RESEARCH FINDINGS
    4. Chapter 84: New Perspectives of Andragogy in Relation to the Use of Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 TECHNOLOGY’S IMPACT ON SOCIETY
      4. 3 TECHNOLOGY AND ADULT EDUCATION
      5. 4 ADULT EDUCATION RESPONSES TO CHANGING ADULT LEARNING NEEDS
      6. 5 TRENDS
      7. 6 CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 85: From the Digital Divide to Multiple Divides
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RETHINKING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY
      4. BEYOND THE DONATION RHETORIC: ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES
      5. TOWARDS A MULTILEVEL MODEL FOR ANALYZING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE8
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 86: U3A Online and Successful Aging
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SUCCESSFUL AGING CHARACTERISTICS OF OLDER INTERNET USERS
      5. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 87: Bridging the Political Gap?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPARENCY
      4. PARLIAMENTS IN THE AGE OF THE INFORMATION
      5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 88: Beyond Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: THE PLACE OF ICT USE IN TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SOCIETY
      4. RECOGNISING THE MULTIPLE LEVELS OF ‘ICT USE’
      5. SO WHAT IS DIGITAL EXCLUSION …. AND WHY DOES IT MATTER?
      6. RECOGNISING THE CONTINUED IMPORTANCE OF DIGITAL EXCLUSION
      7. TOWARDS AN ALTERED UNDERSTANDING OF DIGITAL INCLUSION
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 89: The Gloss and the Reality of Teaching Digital Natives
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEXTUALIZING THE DIGITAL NATIVE
      4. DIGITAL NATIVES AS A HASTY GENERATIONALIZATION
      5. A CULTURE OF DISTRACTION
      6. A RESPONSIVE PEDAGOGY FOR THE LONG VIEW
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 90: Students, Internet, eLearning and Web 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OF THE DEGW-STUDY “RECRUITING THE NEXT GENERATION” (RNG-STUDY)
      4. “STUDYING IN THE WEB 2.0”: A STUDY OF HIS AND MULTIMEDIA KONTOR HAMBURG
      5. LIFESTYLE ANALYSIS IN THE rng-STUDY
      6. HOW DO STUDENTS USE THE INTERNET?
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 91: Shifting Focus from Access to Impact
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: GROWING OR SHRINKING?
      4. FROM UNIVERSAL SERVICE TO UNIVERSAL ACCESS
      5. FROM ACCESS VIA USAGE TO IMPACT
      6. ICT ACCESS, USAGE AND IMPACT IN SENGEREMA, TANZANIA
      7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. APPENDIX
    12. Chapter 92: Toward a Roadmap to E-Government for a Better Governance Toward a Roadmap to E-Government for a Better Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT PROJECTS AND GOOD GOVERNANCE
      4. THE E-FEZ PROJECT AS A TESTBED FOR THE PROPOSED ROADMAP
      5. A ROADMAP BASED ON / FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE
      6. THE OUTCOME ANALYSIS APPROACH TO ASSESS THE SYSTEM’S IMPACT ON GOVERNANCE
      7. CRITICAL FACTORS IN THE PROPOSED ROADMAP
      8. FUTURE ISSUES
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. PRIZES AND AWARDS