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Digital Interface Handbook, 3rd Edition

Book Description

A digital interface is the technology that allows interconnectivity between multiple pieces of equipment. In other words hardware devices can communicate with each other and accept audio and video material in a variety of forms.

The Digital Interface Handbook is a thoroughly detailed manual for those who need to get to grips with digital audio and video systems. Francis Rumsey and John Watkinson bring together their combined experience to shed light on the differences between audio interfaces and show how to make devices 'talk to each' in the digital domain despite their subtle differences. They also include detailed coverage of all the regularly used digital video interfaces.

New information included in this third edition: dedicated audio interfaces, audio over computer network interfaces and revised material on practical audio interfacing and synchronisation.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Chapter 1: Introduction to interfacing
    1. 1.1 The need for digital interfaces
      1. 1.1.1 Transparent links
      2. 1.1.2 The need for standards
      3. 1.1.3 Digital interfaces and programme quality
    2. 1.2 Analog and digital communication compared
    3. 1.3 Quantization, binary data and word length
    4. 1.4 Serial and parallel communications
    5. 1.5 Introduction to interface terminology
      1. 1.5.1 Data rate versus baud rate
      2. 1.5.2 Synchronous, asynchronous and isochronous communications
      3. 1.5.3 Uni- and bi-directional interfaces
      4. 1.5.4 Clock signals
      5. 1.5.5 Multiplexing
      6. 1.5.6 Buffering
    6. 1.6 Introduction to networks
    7. 1.7 The electrical interface
      1. 1.7.1 Balanced and unbalanced compared
      2. 1.7.2 Electrical interface standards
      3. 1.7.3 Transmission lines
      4. 1.7.4 Cables
      5. 1.7.5 Connectors
    8. 1.8 Optical interfaces
      1. 1.8.1 Fibre principles
      2. 1.8.2 Light sources and connectors
    9. 1.9 Timebase recovery in interfacing
    10. References
  7. Chapter 2: An introduction to digital audio and video
    1. 2.1 What is an audio signal?
    2. 2.2 Types of audio signal
    3. 2.3 What is a video signal?
    4. 2.4 Types of video signal
    5. 2.5 What is a digital signal?
    6. 2.6 Why digital?
    7. 2.7 The information content of an analog signal
    8. 2.8 Introduction to conversion
      1. 2.8.1 Sampling and aliasing
      2. 2.8.2 Reconstruction
      3. 2.8.3 Filter design
      4. 2.8.4 Sampling clock jitter
      5. 2.8.5 Aperture effect
      6. 2.8.6 Choice of audio sampling rate
      7. 2.8.7 Choice of video sampling rate
      8. 2.8.8 Quantizing
      9. 2.8.9 Quantizing error
      10. 2.8.10 Dither
    9. 2.9 Binary codes for audio
    10. 2.10 Binary codes for video
    11. 2.11 Requantizing and digital dither
    12. 2.12 Introduction to compression
    13. 2.13 Introduction to audio compression
    14. 2.14 Introduction to video compression
    15. References
  8. Chapter 3: Digital transmission
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Types of transmission channel
    3. 3.3 Transmission lines
    4. 3.4 Equalization and data separation
    5. 3.5 Slicing and jitter rejection
    6. 3.6 Channel coding
    7. 3.7 Simple codes
    8. 3.8 Group codes
    9. 3.9 Randomizing and encryption
    10. 3.10 Synchronizing
    11. 3.11 Basic error correction
    12. 3.12 Concealment by interpolation
    13. 3.13 Parity
    14. 3.14 Block and convolutional codes
    15. 3.15 Cyclic codes
    16. 3.16 The Galois field
    17. 3.17 Introduction to the Reed–Solomon codes
    18. 3.18 Correction by erasure
    19. 3.19 Interleaving
    20. 3.20 Product codes
    21. 3.21 Networks
    22. 3.22 MPEG packets and time stamps
    23. 3.23 Program clock reference
    24. 3.24 Transport stream multiplexing
    25. Appendix 3.1 Calculation of Reed–Solomon generator polynomials
    26. References
  9. Chapter 4: Dedicated audio interfaces
    1. 4.1 Background to dedicated audio interfaces
    2. 4.2 Background to internationally standardized interfaces
    3. 4.3 Standard two-channel interface – principles
      1. 4.3.1 Data format
      2. 4.3.2 Audio resolution
      3. 4.3.3 Balanced electrical interface
      4. 4.3.4 Unbalanced electrical interface
      5. 4.3.5 Optical interface
      6. 4.3.6 Coaxial interface
      7. 4.3.7 Multipin connector
    4. 4.4 Sampling rate related to data rate
    5. 4.5 Auxiliary data in the standard two-channel interface
    6. 4.6 The validity (V) bit
    7. 4.7 The user (U) channel
      1. 4.7.1 HDLC packet scheme (AES18-1992)
      2. 4.7.2 Consumer applications of the user bit
      3. 4.7.3 Applications of the user bit in Compact Disc and MiniDisc systems
      4. 4.7.4 Applications of the user bit in DAT systems
    8. 4.8 Channel status data
      1. 4.8.1 Format of channel status
      2. 4.8.2 Professional and consumer usage compared
      3. 4.8.3 Professional usage
      4. 4.8.4 Levels of professional channel status implementation
      5. 4.8.5 Overview of channel status in consumer applications
      6. 4.8.6 Category codes in consumer channel status
      7. 4.8.7 SCMS and copy protection
      8. 4.8.8 SCMS in DAT machines
      9. 4.8.9 Channel status in consumer CD machines
    9. 4.9 Data-reduced audio over standard two-channel interfaces
      1. 4.9.1 General principles
      2. 4.9.2 Data-reduced consumer formats
      3. 4.9.3 Data-reduced professional formats
    10. 4.10 AES42 digital microphone interface
      1. 4.10.1 Principles
      2. 4.10.2 Powering
      3. 4.10.3 Remote control and status reporting
      4. 4.10.4 Synchronization
    11. 4.11 The standard multichannel interface (MADI)
      1. 4.11.1 Format of the multichannel interface
      2. 4.11.2 Electrical characteristics
    12. 4.12 Manufacturer-specific interfaces
      1. 4.12.1 Sony digital interface for LPCM (SDIF-2)
      2. 4.12.2 Sony digital interface for DSD (SDIF-3)
      3. 4.12.3 Sony multichannel DSD interface (MAC-DSD)
      4. 4.12.4 Tascam digital interface (TDIF)
      5. 4.12.5 Alesis digital interface
      6. 4.12.6 Roland R-bus
      7. 4.12.7 Mitsubishi digital interfaces
      8. 4.12.8 Sony to Mitsubishi conversion
      9. 4.12.9 Yamaha interface
    13. References
  10. Chapter 5: Carrying real-time audio over computer interfaces
    1. 5.1 Introduction to carrying audio over computer interfaces
    2. 5.2 Audio over FireWire (IEEE 1394)
      1. 5.2.1 Basic FireWire principles
      2. 5.2.2 Audio and Music Data Transmission Protocol
      3. 5.2.3 Clock synchronization
    3. 5.3 Audio over universal serial bus (USB)
      1. 5.3.1 Basic USB principles
      2. 5.3.2 Audio over USB
      3. 5.3.3 Clock synchronization
    4. 5.4 AES47: audio over ATM
    5. 5.5 ISDN
    6. 5.6 CobraNet
    7. 5.7 MAGIC
    8. 5.8 MOST
    9. 5.9 BSS SoundWeb
    10. 5.10 Digital content protection
    11. References
  11. Chapter 6: Practical audio interfacing
    1. 6.1 The importance of synchronization
    2. 6.2 Choice of sync reference
      1. 6.2.1 AES recommendations
      2. 6.2.2 Other forms of external sync reference
    3. 6.3 Distribution of sync references
    4. 6.4 Clock accuracy considerations
      1. 6.4.1 Causes and effects of jitter on the interface signal
      2. 6.4.2 Audio sampling frequency
      3. 6.4.3 Sample clock jitter and effects on sound quality
    5. 6.5 Use and function of sampling frequency synchronizers
      1. 6.5.1 Frame alignment
      2. 6.5.2 Buffering
      3. 6.5.3 Sampling frequency conversion
    6. 6.6 Considerations in video environments
      1. 6.6.1 Relationships between video frame rates and audio sampling rates
      2. 6.6.2 Referencing of VTRs with digital audio tracks
      3. 6.6.3 Timecode in the standard two-channel interface
    7. 6.7 Compatibility issues in audio interfacing
      1. 6.7.1 Incompatibilities between devices using the standard two-channel interface
      2. 6.7.2 Electrical mismatch in professional systems
      3. 6.7.3 Data mismatch in professional systems
      4. 6.7.4 Electrical mismatch between consumer and professional systems
      5. 6.7.5 Data mismatch between consumer and professional systems
    8. 6.8 Handling differences in audio signal rate and resolution
    9. 6.9 Analysing the digital audio interface
      1. 6.9.1 Eye pattern and pulse-width testing
      2. 6.9.2 Security margin estimation
      3. 6.9.3 Error checking
      4. 6.9.4 Other tests
    10. 6.10 Interface transceiver chips
    11. 6.11 Routers and switchers
    12. 6.12 Other useful products
      1. 6.12.1 Interface format convertors
      2. 6.12.2 Digital headphones
    13. 6.13 A brief troubleshooting guide
    14. References
  12. Chapter 7: Digital video interfaces
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Areas of standardization
    3. 7.3 Digitizing component video
    4. 7.4 Structure of SD component digital
    5. 7.5 Structure of HD component digital
    6. 7.6 Synchronizing
    7. 7.7 Component ancillary data
    8. 7.8 The SD parallel interface
    9. 7.9 The HD parallel interface
    10. 7.10 The composite digital parallel interface
      1. 7.10.1 PAL interface
      2. 7.10.2 NTSC interface
    11. 7.11 Serial digital video interfaces
      1. 7.11.1 Standard definition serial digital interface (SDI)
      2. 7.11.2 SDTI
      3. 7.11.3 ASI
      4. 7.11.4 High definition serial digital interface (HD-SDI)
    12. 7.12 Digital video interfacing chipsets
    13. 7.13 Embedded audio in SDI
    14. 7.14 EDH – error detection and handling
    15. References
  13. Chapter 8: Practical video interfacing
    1. 8.1 Digital video routing
    2. 8.2 Timing in digital installations
    3. 8.3 Configuring SDI links
    4. 8.4 Testing digital video interfaces
    5. 8.5 Signature analysis
    6. 8.6 Margining
    7. 8.7 Protocol testing
  14. Index