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Digital Electronics

Book Description

Designed to provide a comprehensive and practical insight to the basic concepts,

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Preface
  5. Acknowledgement
  6. DIGITAL SYSTEMS
    1. DIGITAL TRANSMISSION
    2. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
    3. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  7. NUMBERING SYSTEMS
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM
    3. BINARY NUMBERING SYSTEM
    4. OCTAL NUMBERING SYSTEM
    5. HEXADECIMAL NUMBERING SYSTEM
    6. CONVERSION OF NUMBERS FROM ONE BASE INTO ANOTHER
      1. Binary to Decimal
      2. Decimal to Binary
      3. Decimal to Octal
      4. Binary to Octal
      5. Octal to Binary
      6. Decimal to Hexadecimal
      7. Hexadecimal to Decimal
      8. Binary to Hexadecimal
    7. ARITHMETIC IN NUMBER SYSTEM
      1. Binary Addition
      2. Hexadecimal Addition
    8. BINARY SUBTRACTION
    9. NEGATIVE BINARY NUMBERS
      1. One’s Complement
      2. Two’s Complement
    10. BINARY MULTIPLICATION
    11. BINARY DIVISION
    12. NUMBER CODES
      1. Weighted Codes
      2. Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) or 8421 Code
      3. Advantages of BCD Codes
      4. Disadvantages of BCD Codes
      5. Excess-3 Codes
    13. GRAY CODE
      1. Conversion of Binary to Gray Code
      2. Conversion of Gray Code to Binary
      3. Non-Boolean Gray Code
      4. Advantages of the Gray Code
      5. Limitations of the Gray Code
      6. Applications of the Gray Code
    14. ALPHANUMERIC CODES
      1. Hollerith Code
      2. American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
      3. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC)
    15. PARITY METHOD FOR ERROR DETECTION
      1. Repetition Code
      2. Cyclic Redundancy Check Code
      3. Hamming Code
    16. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    17. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  8. LOGIC GATES
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE LOGIC
      1. Positive Logic System
      2. Negative Logic System
    3. AND Gate
    4. OR GATE
    5. NOT GATE
    6. UNIVERSAL GATES
    7. NAND AS A UNIVERSAL GATE
    8. OPERATION OF A NAND GATE
      1. Negative OR-Equivalent Operation of a NAND Gate
    9. NOR GATE
    10. OPERATION OF NOR GATE
      1. Logic Expressions for a NOR Gate
      2. Negative-AND Equivalent Operation of the NOR Gate
    11. THE EXCLUSIVE-OR AND EXCLUSIVE-NOR GATES
      1. XOR Gate
    12. OPERATION OF XOR GATE
    13. EX-NOR GATE (EXNOR/XNOR)
    14. Operation of XNOR Gate
    15. IEEE SYMBOLS
    16. ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES
    17. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    18. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  9. BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
    1. FUNDAMENTAL SYMBOLS—BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
    2. BOOLEAN ALGEBRAIC PROPERTIES
    3. DE MORGAN’S THEOREM
      1. Theorem 1
      2. Theorem 2
    4. LOGIC AXIOMS
      1. Single Variant Theorems
      2. Multivariate Theorems
      3. Rules Considered while Operating Logic Expressions
    5. MINTERMS AND MAXTERMS
      1. Minterm
      2. Maxterms
    6. Additional Examples
    7. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    8. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  10. KARNAUGH MAPPING
    1. KARNAUGH MAP FOR TWO VARIABLES
    2. KARNAUGH MAP FOR THREE VARIABLES
    3. KARNAUGH MAP FOR FOUR VARIABLES
    4. KARNAUGH MAP FOR FIVE VARIABLES
      1. Pairs
      2. Quads
      3. Octet
      4. Overlapping Groups
      5. Map Rolling
    5. RULES IN KARNAUGH MAPPING
      1. Product of Sum Form (POS)
      2. Don’t Care Conditions
    6. ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES
    7. SUMMARY
    8. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    9. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL GATES
    1. NAND IMPLEMENTATION
      1. Implementing an Inverter Using Only NAND Gate
      2. Implementing AND Using Only NAND Gates
      3. Implementing OR Using Only NAND Gates
    2. NOR AS A UNIVERSAL GATE
      1. Implementing an Inverter Using Only NOR Gate
      2. Implementing OR Using Only NOR Gates
      3. Implementing AND Using Only NOR Gates
    3. EQUIVALENT GATES
    4. NAND and NOR IMPLEMENTATION TO BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS
    5. NAND-AND and AND-NOR IMPLEMENTATION
    6. NOR-OR IMPLEMENTATION and OR-NAND IMPLEMENTATION
    7. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    8. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  12. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND LOGIC FAMILIES
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. CLASSIFICATION OF ICs
    3. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SIZE
    4. COMMON DIGITAL IC TERMINOLOGY
    5. CHARACTERISTICS OF LOGIC FAMILIES
      1. Fan-In
      2. Fan-Out
      3. Noise Immunity and Noise Margin
      4. Time Delay
      5. Power Dissipation
    6. SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES AND TRANSISTORS
    7. SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES
      1. PN Diodes
      2. Working of PN Diode
    8. SEMICONDUCTOR TRANSISTORS
      1. Bipolar Transistor (BJT)
      2. Field-Effect Transistor (FET)
      3. Metal Oxide Semiconductors
    9. LOGIC FAMILIES
      1. Diode Logic
      2. Resistor–Transistor Logic (RTL)
      3. Diode–Transistor Logic (DTL)
      4. Transistor–Transistor Logic (TTL)
      5. Emitter-Coupled Logic
      6. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
      7. Comparison of TTL and CMOS Logic Families
    10. IC PACKAGING
    11. TROUBLESHOOTING IN DIGITAL DEVICES
      1. Logic Pulser
      2. Logic Probe
    12. SUMMARY
    13. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    14. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  13. COMBINATIONAL LOGIC CIRCUITS
    1. COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS
    2. BINARY ADDERS
    3. HALF ADDER
    4. FULL ADDER
    5. ADDITION OF MORE THAN 2 BITS BY FULL ADDER
      1. Look-Ahead Carry Adder
    6. PARALLEL ADDER–SUBRACTOR
      1. Binary Multiplier
    7. MULTIPLEXERS
    8. 2 × 1 MULTIPLEXER
    9. 4 × 1 MULTIPLEXER
    10. QUAD 2 × 1 MULTIPLEXER
    11. IMPLEMENTATION OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS USING MULTIPLEXERs
      1. Combinational Circuit Implementation using Multiplexers
    12. DEMULTIPLEXER
    13. CODE CONVERTORS
    14. DECODERS
    15. ENCODERS
      1. Major Limitation of Encoders
    16. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    17. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  14. FLIP-FLOPS
    1. LATCH
      1. SR Latch
      2. SR Latch Using NOR Gates
      3. Contact Bounce Eliminator
    2. CLOCKED SR LATCH
    3. CLOCK PULSES
    4. D LATCH
    5. MASTER–SLAVE D FLIP-FLOP
    6. EDGE-TRIGGERED d FLIP-FLOP
    7. JK FLIP-FLOP
      1. Operation of JK Flip-Flop
      2. The Race-around Condition
    8. MASTER–SLAVE JK FLIP-FLOP
      1. JK Flip-Flop Data Transfer
    9. T FLIP-FLOP
    10. CONVERSIONS OF FLIP-FLOPS
      1. SR Flip-Flop to JK Flip-Flop
      2. JK Flip-Flop to SR Flip-Flop
      3. D Flip-Flop to SR Flip-Flop
      4. JK Flip-Flop to T Flip-Flop
      5. JK Flip-Flop to D Flip-Flop
      6. D Flip-Flop to JK Flip-Flop
      7. RS to T Flip-Flop
      8. D Flip-Flop to T Flip-Flop
    11. APPLICATIONS OF FLIP-FLOPS
      1. Frequency Division
      2. Parallel Data Storage
    12. MULTIVIBRATORS
    13. BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
    14. MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
    15. ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
    16. SCHMITT TRIGGER
    17. IC 555 TIMER
    18. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    19. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  15. REGISTERS
    1. SHIFT REGISTERS
      1. Classifications of Shift Registers
    2. BIDIRECTIONAL SHIFT REGISTERS
      1. Mode Control High
      2. Mode Control Low
    3. UNIVERSAL SHIFT REGISTER
    4. SHIFT REGISTERS APPLICATIONS
      1. Ring Counters
      2. Johnson Counter
      3. Sequence Generator
      4. Time Delay
      5. Serial to Parallel Conversion or Vice Versa
      6. Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART)
    5. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    6. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  16. COUNTERS
    1. MOD-3 COUNTER
    2. MOD-16 OR MOD-4 BIT COUNTER
    3. DOWN COUNTERS
      1. 3-bit or MOD-8 Down Counter
    4. DESIGNING OF RIPPLE COUNTER DIVIDED BY N
    5. DECADE COUNTER OR MOD-10 RIPPLE COUNTER
    6. BCD COUNTER
    7. DECODING A COUNTER
    8. UP/DOWN COUNTER
    9. PARALLEL COUNTER (or) SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER
      1. Maximum Clock Frequency
    10. DECADE SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER
    11. SYNCHRONOUS UP/DowN COUNTER
    12. IC COUNTERS
    13. APPLICATIONS OF COUNTERS
    14. Additional Examples
    15. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    16. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  17. MEMORY
    1. Random Access Memory (RAM)
    2. Static Random Access Memory (SRAM)
    3. DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (DRAM)
    4. GENERAL DRAM MODULES
      1. Single In-line Pin Package (SIPP)
      2. Dual In-line Package (DIP)
    5. DRAM MEMORY MODULES
      1. Single In-line Memory Module (SIMM)
      2. Dual In-line Memory Module (DIMM)
      3. Video RAM (VRAM) and Window DRAM (WRAM)
      4. Fast Page Mode DRAM (FPM DRAM)
      5. Extended Data Out DRAM (EDO DRAM)
      6. Burst EDO DRAM (BEDO DRAM)
      7. SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) and DDR SDRAM (Double-Data Rate DRAM)
    6. READ ONLY MEMORY
    7. PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY
    8. EPROM and EEPROM
      1. Electrically Erasable PROM (EEPROM)
    9. FLASH MEMORY
      1. Magneto Resistive RAM (MRAM)
    10. PROGRAMMABLE ARRAY LOGIC
    11. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ARRAY
      1. Difference Between RAM and ROM Memory
    12. SUMMARY
    13. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    14. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  18. DISPLAY DEVICES
    1. CATHODE RAY TUBES (CRTs)
      1. Working
      2. Colour CRTs
      3. Frame Buffers
    2. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS (LCD)
      1. Types of LCDs
      2. Construction of LCD Display
      3. Working of LCD with a Twisted Nematic Crystal
      4. Colour LCD
      5. Advantages
      6. Disadvantages
    3. LIQUID CRYSTALS ON SILICON (LCOS)
      1. Advantages
      2. Working of LCOS
    4. LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LED)
      1. Advantages of LEDs
      2. Disadvantages
      3. LED Display
    5. 7-SEGMENT DISPLAY
      1. Construction and Working
    6. INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (OLED)
      1. Components of OLED
      2. Construction of OLED
      3. Working of OLEDs
      4. Types of OLEDs
      5. Lifetime and Device Stability
      6. Advantages
      7. Disadvantages
    7. PLASMA DISPLAYS
      1. Working of Gas Plasma Displays
      2. Types of Gas Plasma Displays
    8. DIGITAL LIGHT PROCESSING
      1. Working of DLP
      2. Advantages of DLP
    9. E-BOOKS/E-INK
      1. Advantages
    10. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    11. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  19. CONVERTORS
    1. ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION
      1. Principle of ADC
    2. ADC PROCESS
    3. ACCURACY OF A/D CONVERSION
    4. TYPES OF A/D CONVERTERS
    5. DIGITAL RAMP ADC
    6. SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION ADC
      1. Advantages
      2. Disadvantages
    7. FLASH A/D CONVERTER
      1. Advantages
      2. Disadvantages
    8. SIGMA-DELTA A/D CONVERTER
      1. Advantages
      2. Disadvantages
    9. DUAL SLOPE CONVERTOR
      1. Advantages
      2. Disadvantages
    10. DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTORS
      1. Characteristics of DAC
      2. Types of DAC
      3. Binary-Weighted Resistor DAC
      4. Advantages
      5. Disadvantages
      6. Resistor Ladder D/A Converter
    11. APPLICATIONS OF DAC
    12. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
      1. Answers
    13. DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  20. COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. COMPUTER CHARACTERISTICS
    3. EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS
    4. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS
      1. First Generation (1940–1956): Vacuum Tubes
      2. Second Generation (1956–1963): Transistors
      3. Third Generation (1964–1970s): Integrated Circuits
      4. Fourth Generation (1970s onwards): Microprocessors
      5. Fifth Generation (Present and Future): Artificial Intelligence
    5. CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
      1. Data Handled Type
      2. Based on Utility
      3. Based on Size and Capacity
      4. Advantages of Microcomputers
      5. Disadvantages of Microcomputers
      6. Advantages of Minicomputers
      7. Disadvantages of Minicomputers
      8. Advantages of Supercomputers
      9. Based on Usage Mode
    6. COMPONENTS OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS
      1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
      2. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
      3. Control Unit (CU)
      4. Memory Unit (MU)
      5. Cache Memory
      6. Secondary Storage Devices
      7. Types of Disks
    7. INPUT–OUTPUT DEVICES
      1. Keyboard
      2. Mouse
      3. Types of Mouse
      4. Joystick
      5. Touch Screens
      6. Light Pen
      7. Barcode Reader
      8. Optical Code Reader (OCR)
      9. Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR)
    8. OUTPUT DEVICES
      1. sMonitor
      2. Printer
      3. Plotter
      4. Speech Input Unit
    9. COMPUTER SOFTWARE
      1. System Software
      2. Application Software
    10. COMPUTER LANGUAGES
      1. Low Level Language
      2. Machine Language
      3. Assembly Language
      4. High Level Language
      5. Translating Computer Languages : Compiler and Assembler
    11. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
    12. DESRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
  21. ELECTRONIC EXERCISES
    1. CMOS GATE – CD 4001 NOR
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    2. Modulus Counter – JK FLIP-FLOPS
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    3. MODULUS COUNTER - D FLIP-FLOPS 7474
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    4. MODULUS COUNTERS – JK FLIP-FLOPS – SYNCHRONOUS
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    5. MODULUS COUNTER – DECADE COUNTER (7490)
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    6. STUDY OF 8-BIT SHIFT REGISTER (7495)
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    7. STUDY OF UP/DOWN COUNTER
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    8. DESIGN OF COUNTERS
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    9. STUDY OF BINARY ADDER AND SUBTRACTOR CIRCUITS
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    10. STUDY OF ALU AND BCD ADDER CIRCUITS
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    11. STUDY OF DEMUX CIRCUITS
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    12. STUDY OF DIGITAL ENCODER/DECODER CIRCUITS
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    13. STUDY OF RAM
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. READ/WRITE Operations of 16 × 4-bit RAM 7489
      4. Result
    14. A/D CONVERTER
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    15. D/A CONVERTER
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
    16. STUDY OF MUX
      1. Aim
      2. Procedure
      3. Result
  22. Index