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Digital Electronics: Principles, Devices and Applications

Book Description

The fundamentals and implementation of digital electronics are essential to understanding the design and working of consumer/industrial electronics, communications, embedded systems, computers, security and military equipment.

Devices used in applications such as these are constantly decreasing in size and employing more complex technology. It is therefore essential for engineers and students to understand the fundamentals, implementation and application principles of digital electronics, devices and integrated circuits. This is so that they can use the most appropriate and effective technique to suit their technical need.

This book provides practical and comprehensive coverage of digital electronics, bringing together information on fundamental theory, operational aspects and potential applications. With worked problems, examples, and review questions for each chapter, Digital Electronics includes:

  • information on number systems, binary codes, digital arithmetic, logic gates and families, and Boolean algebra;

  • an in-depth look at multiplexers, de-multiplexers, devices for arithmetic operations, flip-flops and related devices, counters and registers, and data conversion circuits;

  • up-to-date coverage of recent application fields, such as programmable logic devices, microprocessors, microcontrollers, digital troubleshooting and digital instrumentation.

A comprehensive, must-read book on digital electronics for senior undergraduate and graduate students of electrical, electronics and computer engineering, and a valuable reference book for professionals and researchers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Contents
  7. 1: Number Systems
    1. 1.1 Analogue Versus Digital
    2. 1.2 Introduction to Number Systems
    3. 1.3 Decimal Number System
    4. 1.4 Binary Number System
    5. 1.5 Octal Number System
    6. 1.6 Hexadecimal Number System
    7. 1.7 Number Systems – Some Common Terms
    8. 1.8 Number Representation in Binary
    9. 1.9 Finding the Decimal Equivalent
    10. 1.10 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion
    11. 1.11 Decimal-to-Octal Conversion
    12. 1.12 Decimal-to-Hexadecimal Conversion
    13. 1.13 Binary–Octal and Octal–Binary Conversions
    14. 1.14 Hex–Binary and Binary–Hex Conversions
    15. 1.15 Hex–Octal and Octal–Hex Conversions
    16. 1.16 The Four Axioms
    17. 1.17 Floating-Point Numbers
  8. 2: Binary Codes
    1. 2.1 Binary Coded Decimal
    2. 2.2 Excess-3 Code
    3. 2.3 Gray Code
    4. 2.4 Alphanumeric Codes
    5. 2.5 Seven-segment Display Code
    6. 2.6 Error Detection and Correction Codes
  9. 3: Digital Arithmetic
    1. 3.1 Basic Rules of Binary Addition and Subtraction
    2. 3.2 Addition of Larger-Bit Binary Numbers
    3. 3.3 Subtraction of Larger-Bit Binary Numbers
    4. 3.4 BCD Addition and Subtraction in Excess-3 Code
    5. 3.5 Binary Multiplication
    6. 3.6 Binary Division
    7. 3.7 Floating-Point Arithmetic
  10. 4: Logic Gates and Related Devices
    1. 4.1 Positive and Negative Logic
    2. 4.2 Truth Table
    3. 4.3 Logic Gates
    4. 4.4 Universal Gates
    5. 4.5 Gates with Open Collector/Drain Outputs
    6. 4.6 Tristate Logic Gates
    7. 4.7 AND-OR-INVERT Gates
    8. 4.8 Schmitt Gates
    9. 4.9 Special Output Gates
    10. 4.10 Fan-Out of Logic Gates
    11. 4.11 Buffers and Transceivers
    12. 4.12 IEEE/ANSI Standard Symbols
    13. 4.13 Some Common Applications of Logic Gates
    14. 4.14 Application-Relevant Information
  11. 5: Logic Families
    1. 5.1 Logic Families – Significance and Types
    2. 5.2 Characteristic Parameters
    3. 5.3 Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL)
    4. 5.4 Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL)
    5. 5.5 CMOS Logic Family
    6. 5.6 BiCMOS Logic
    7. 5.7 NMOS and PMOS Logic
    8. 5.8 Integrated Injection Logic (I 2 L) Family
    9. 5.9 Comparison of Different Logic Families
    10. 5.10 Guidelines to Using TTL Devices
    11. 5.11 Guidelines to Handling and Using CMOS Devices
    12. 5.12 Interfacing with Different Logic Families
    13. 5.13 Classification of Digital ICs
    14. 5.14 Application-Relevant Information
  12. 6: Boolean Algebra and Simplification Techniques
    1. 6.1 Introduction to Boolean Algebra
    2. 6.2 Postulates of Boolean Algebra
    3. 6.3 Theorems of Boolean Algebra
    4. 6.4 Simplification Techniques
    5. 6.5 Quine–McCluskey Tabular Method
    6. 6.6 Karnaugh Map Method
  13. 7: Arithmetic Circuits
    1. 7.1 Combinational Circuits
    2. 7.2 Implementing Combinational Logic
    3. 7.3 Arithmetic Circuits – Basic Building Blocks
    4. 7.4 Adder–Subtractor
    5. 7.5 BCD Adder
    6. 7.6 Carry Propagation–Look-Ahead Carry Generator
    7. 7.7 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
    8. 7.8 Multipliers
    9. 7.9 Magnitude Comparator
    10. 7.10 Application-Relevant Information
  14. 8: Multiplexers and Demultiplexers
    1. 8.1 Multiplexer
    2. 8.2 Encoders
    3. 8.3 Demultiplexers and Decoders
    4. 8.4 Application-Relevant Information
  15. 9: Programmable Logic Devices
    1. 9.1 Fixed Logic Versus Programmable Logic
    2. 9.2 Programmable Logic Devices – An Overview
    3. 9.3 Programmable ROMs
    4. 9.4 Programmable Logic Array
    5. 9.5 Programmable Array Logic
    6. 9.6 Generic Array Logic
    7. 9.7 Complex Programmable Logic Devices
    8. 9.8 Field-Programmable Gate Arrays
    9. 9.9 Programmable Interconnect Technologies
    10. 9.10 Design and Development of Programmable Logic Hardware
    11. 9.11 Programming Languages
    12. 9.12 Application Information on PLDs
  16. 10: Flip-Flops and Related Devices
    1. 10.1 Multivibrator
    2. 10.2 Integrated Circuit (IC) Multivibrators
    3. 10.3 R-S Flip-Flop
    4. 10.4 Level-Triggered and Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops
    5. 10.5 J-K Flip-Flop
    6. 10.6 Toggle Flip-Flop ( T Flip-Flop)
    7. 10.7 D Flip-Flop
    8. 10.8 Synchronous and Asynchronous Inputs
    9. 10.9 Flip-Flop Timing Parameters
    10. 10.10 Flip-Flop Applications
    11. 10.11 Application-Relevant Data
  17. 11: Counters and Registers
    1. 11.1 Ripple (Asynchronous) Counter
    2. 11.2 Synchronous Counter
    3. 11.3 Modulus of a Counter
    4. 11.4 Binary Ripple Counter – Operational Basics
    5. 11.5 Synchronous (or Parallel) Counters
    6. 11.6 UP/DOWN Counters
    7. 11.7 Decade and BCD Counters
    8. 11.8 Presettable Counters
    9. 11.9 Decoding a Counter
    10. 11.10 Cascading Counters
    11. 11.11 Designing Counters with Arbitrary Sequences
    12. 11.12 Shift Register
    13. 11.13 Shift Register Counters
    14. 11.14 IEEE/ANSI Symbology for Registers and Counters
    15. 11.15 Application-Relevant Information
  18. 12: Data Conversion Circuits – D/A and A/D Converters
    1. 12.1 Digital-to-Analogue Converters
    2. 12.2 D/A Converter Specifications
    3. 12.3 Types of D/A Converter
    4. 12.4 Modes of Operation
    5. 12.5 BCD-Input D/A Converter
    6. 12.6 Integrated Circuit D/A Converters
    7. 12.7 D/A Converter Applications
    8. 12.8 A/D Converters
    9. 12.9 A/D Converter Specifications
    10. 12.10 A/D Converter Terminology
    11. 12.11 Types of A/D Converter
    12. 12.12 Integrated Circuit A/D Converters
    13. 12.13 A/D Converter Applications
  19. 13: Microprocessors
    1. 13.1 Introduction to Microprocessors
    2. 13.2 Evolution of Microprocessors
    3. 13.3 Inside a Microprocessor
    4. 13.4 Basic Microprocessor Instructions
    5. 13.5 Addressing Modes
    6. 13.6 Microprocessor Selection
    7. 13.7 Programming Microprocessors
    8. 13.8 RISC Versus CISC Processors
    9. 13.9 Eight-Bit Microprocessors
    10. 13.10 16-Bit Microprocessors
    11. 13.11 32-Bit Microprocessors
    12. 13.12 Pentium Series of Microprocessors
    13. 13.13 Microprocessors for Embedded Applications
    14. 13.14 Peripheral Devices
  20. 14: Microcontrollers
    1. 14.1 Introduction to the Microcontroller
    2. 14.2 Inside the Microcontroller
    3. 14.3 Microcontroller Architecture
    4. 14.4 Power-Saving Modes
    5. 14.5 Application-Relevant Information
    6. 14.6 Interfacing Peripheral Devices with a Microcontroller
  21. 15: Computer Fundamentals
    1. 15.1 Anatomy of a Computer
    2. 15.2 A Computer System
    3. 15.3 Types of Computer System
    4. 15.4 Computer Memory
    5. 15.5 Random Access Memory
    6. 15.6 Read Only Memory
    7. 15.7 Expanding Memory Capacity
    8. 15.8 Input and Output Ports
    9. 15.9 Input/Output Devices
    10. 15.10 Secondary Storage or Auxiliary Storage
  22. 16: Troubleshooting Digital Circuits and Test Equipment
    1. 16.1 General Troubleshooting Guidelines
    2. 16.2 Troubleshooting Sequential Logic Circuits
    3. 16.3 Troubleshooting Arithmetic Circuits
    4. 16.4 Troubleshooting Memory Devices
    5. 16.5 Test and Measuring Equipment
    6. 16.6 Digital Multimeter
    7. 16.7 Oscilloscope
    8. 16.8 Analogue Oscilloscopes
    9. 16.9 CRT Storage Type Analogue Oscilloscopes
    10. 16.10 Digital Oscilloscopes
    11. 16.11 Analogue Versus Digital Oscilloscopes
    12. 16.12 Oscilloscope Specifications
    13. 16.13 Oscilloscope Probes
    14. 16.14 Frequency Counter
    15. 16.15 Frequency Synthesizers and Synthesized Function/Signal Generators
    16. 16.16 Logic Probe
    17. 16.17 Logic Analyser
    18. 16.18 Computer–Instrument Interface Standards
    19. 16.19 Virtual Instrumentation
  23. Index