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Digital Democracy

Book Description

Dealing with the use of information and communication technologies to engage citizens and support the democratic decision-making process, Digital Democracy is on the rise with today’s ever changing technologies. Digital Democracy: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications presents a vital compendium of research detailing the latest case studies, architectures, frameworks, methodologies, and research on Digital Democracy. With contributions from authors around the world, this three-volume collection presents the most sophisticated research and developments from the field, relevant to researchers, academics, and practitioners alike. In order to stay abreast of the latest research, this book affords a vital look into Digital Democracy research.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: The State Economical Regulation Practice Modernization in Terms of Business Digitalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATION FOR RESEARCH
      5. THE EFFICIENCY OF GOVERNANCE IN CONDITIONS OF THE WORLD ECONOMY GLOBALIZATION
      6. THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF ECONOMY IN CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS TRANSNATIONALIZATION AND NETWORKING DEVELOPMENT
      7. THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNANCE ON THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC INSTABILITY
      8. E-GOVERNMENT AS A TOOL OF GOVERNANCE MODERNIZING
      9. PRINCIPLES, STRUCTURE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF E-GOVERNMENT
      10. THE ANALYSIS OF E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGIES AND FACTORS OF THEIR EFFICIENCY
      11. THE MODERN COUNTRIES IN THE GLOBAL PROCESS OF GOVERNANCE DIGITILIZATION
      12. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 2: Review of Open Source Software (OSS)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OVERVIEW OF OSS
      3. MOTIVATIONS BEHIND INVOLVEMENT IN OSS DEVELOPMENT
      4. ADVANTAGES OF ADOPTING OSS IN GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS
      5. ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH OSS ADOPTION
      6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 3: A Snapshot Overview of the Digital Divide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ZAMBIA ICT PENETRATION INITIATIVES
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 4: Communication and Documentation on Parliamentary Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: SEARCH FUNCTIONS IN PARLIAMENTARY WEBSITES
      4. THE TOPICS OF PARLIAMENTARY BUSINESS
      5. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
      6. FROM CONTEXT TO PUBLIC POLICIES
      7. FROM E-PARLIAMENT TO T-PARLIAMENT
      8. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: Standards for Achieving Interoperability of eGovernment in Europe
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TECHNICAL INTEROPERABILITY
      5. SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
      6. SEMANTIC eGOVERNMENT
      7. ORGANIZATIONAL INTEROPERABILITY
      8. EXCURSION: A SYSTEMATIC OVERVIEW OF eGOVERNMENT INTEROPERABILITY FRAMEWORKS7
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. Chapter 6: Municipal Government and the Interactive Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ANALYSIS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT WEBSITES
      5. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Adoption of E-Government Services in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONTEXT OF THE STUDY
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 8: Competence Development of E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-LEARNING AND A STUDY CIRCLE APPROACH
      4. THE WEB-BASED COURSE OF E-GOVERNMENT
      5. THE INTERVIEW STUDY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 9: Survey of Citizens’ Perceptions in the Adoption of National Governmental Portals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL MODEL
      4. DATA COLLECTION
      5. DISCUSSIONS
    10. Chapter 10: Success and Failure of Local E-Government Projects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. SUCCESS AND FAILURE OF E-GOVERNMENT PROJECTS
      4. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SUCCESS MODEL
      5. RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES
      6. CONTEXT
      7. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
      8. RESULTS
      9. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. APPENDIX A: SURVEY ITEMS USED IN THIS STUDY
    11. Chapter 11: Analyzing e-Government Research in Emerging Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW ON BIBLIOMETRIC STUDIES
      4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF E-GOVERNMENT RESEARCH IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AND EMERGING ECONOMIES
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 12: A Methodology to Evaluate ICT Platforms in the Implementation of e-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP
      4. INFORMATION GATHERING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 13: Evaluating the Quality Attributes of E-Government Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EVALUATION CRITERIA
      5. EVALUATION FRAMEWORK
      6. E-GOVERNMENT WEBSITE COMPARISONS
      7. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH: FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEMS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. APPENDIX A
      11. APPENDIX B
    3. Chapter 14: The “Quicksilver Initiatives” as a Framework for e-Government Strategy Design in Developing Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE QUICKSILVER INITIATIVES
      5. LESSONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND FUTURE WORKS
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 15: Design and Standardisation of Core Directories for e-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CORE DIRECTORIES FOR E-GOVERNMENT
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 16: A Model for Building Trust in E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HISTORY OF E-GOVERNMENT
      5. MODELS OF E-GOVERNMENT INTERACTIONS
      6. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      7. E-GOVERNMENT TRUST RELATED MODELS
      8. THEORETICAL BASIS OF TRUST
      9. CAUSES OF DISTRUST IN E-GOVERNMENT
      10. CHALLENGES OF THE APPLICATION ICT IN E-GOVERNMENT
      11. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BUILDING TRUST IN E-GOVERNMENT
      12. MODEL (FRAMEWORK) FOR BUILDING TRUST IN E-GOVERNMENT
      13. FUTURE TRENDS AND TRUST IN E-GOVERNMENT
      14. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 17: Towards a Business Intelligence Governance Framework within E-Government System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH MOTIVATION
      3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. INITIAL FRAMEWORK
      7. DEVELOPMENT OF BIG FRAMEWORK WITHIN E-GOVERNMENT
      8. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 18: A Process Model for Successful E-Government Adoption in the Least Developed Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STUDY CONTEXT: PUBLIC SECTOR IN BANGLADESH
      4. CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. A PROCESS MODEL OF E-GOVERNMENT ADOPTION
      8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 19: Guidelines for Successful Public Internet Access Points (PIAPs) Implementation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL PIAP IMPLEMENTATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX A: SUMMARY TABLE OF CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
    9. Chapter 20: A Multi-Level Relational Risk Assessment Model for Secure E-Government Projects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RISK ASSESSMENT AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GOVERNANCE
      4. THE RIPC4 MODEL: EXTENDED RA FOR SECURE E-GOVERNMENT PROJECTS
      5. RISK DEPENDENCY IN THE RIPC4 MODEL
      6. INTO THE THIRD DIMENSION: ACCOUNTING FOR OTHER PROJECTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
    10. Chapter 21: Developments of e-Government in Sri Lanka
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH METHOD
      4. IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN SRI LANKA
      5. STATUS OF E-GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT IN SRI LANKA
      6. OPPORTUNITIES FROM E-GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SRI LANKA
      7. CHALLENGES TO AN EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 22: E-Frameworks to Optimize Public Administration Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-SERVICES, E-BUSINESS AND E-GOVERNMENT: ARCHITECTURAL PRINCIPLES
      4. AN APPROACH TO PSC DEVELOPMENT OF EU SERVICE DIRECTIVE
      5. A FRAMEWORK FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REPORTING SERVICES
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 23: Implementing and Managing Public Library Networks, Connectivity, and Partnerships to Promote E-Government Access and Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PUBLIC LIBRARIES AND E-GOVERNMENT
      5. E-GOVERNMENT ACCESS AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS
      6. KEY FINDINGS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 24: Value Assessment in E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    2. Chapter 25: Municipal E-Government Services in Emerging Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EFFECTS OF E-GOVERNMENT ON PUBLIC SECTOR SERVICES
      4. GOVERNMENTAL PROMOTION OF WEB-BASED PUBLIC SERVICES IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
      5. THE ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL ONLINE PUBLIC SERVICES IN LAC COUNTRIES
      6. METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH
      7. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 26: Extension of E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. M-GOVERNMENT: CONCEPT AND APPLICATION
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: TYPOLOGY OF MG DEVELOPMENT CAPABILITY
      5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 27: Data Mining Applications in the Service of e-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MINING USER-GENERATED CONTENT EXPRESSING OPINIONS ABOUT GOVERNMENTAL REGULATIONS
      5. EVALUATING CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY OF POLARITY-LABELED USER OPINIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 28: A Statistical Analysis of Priority Factors for Local e-Government in a Developing Country
      1. ABSTRACT1
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEWS
      4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. Chapter 29: Egyptian Local Government Website Portals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. CONTEXT: EGYPT’S LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM
      4. EGYPT’S LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. RESULTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. APPENDIX
    7. Chapter 30: Public Information Services for People with Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF THE ART
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    8. Chapter 31: E-Documents and E-Signatures in Tanzania
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LEGAL STATUS OF E-DOCUMENTS AND E-SIGNATURES IN TANZANIA
      5. CHANGING THE LEGAL LANDSCAPE
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 32: SOA Designed Health Care System for Taiwan Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. WEB SERVICES AND SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE
      5. WEB SERVICES OPERATION DESIGN
      6. WEB SERVICE SECURITY AND MANAGEMENT
      7. WEB SERVICES SECURITY GATEWAY
      8. APPENDIX: SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF E-HEALTHCARE RECORD SERVICE
    10. Chapter 33: Using Internet Survey to Evaluate the Effects of E-Government
      1. ABRSTACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 34: Using a Fuzzy-Based Cluster Algorithm for Recommending Candidates in E-Elections
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 MOTIVATION
      3. 2 ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT AND ELECTRONIC DEMOCRACY
      4. 3 SMARTVOTE: A VOTING ADVICE APPLICATION
      5. 4 FUZZY-BASED CLUSTER ALGORITHM FOR RECOMMENDIND E-ELECTIONS
      6. 5 DISCUSSION
      7. 6 OUTLOOK
      8. 7 CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 35: Educational and Democratic Potential of Digital Games in e-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SERIOUS GAMES FOR LEARNING WHAT TO DO
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 36: Turkish Case of E-Government Policy-Formulation Process as an Emerging and Innovative Public Policymaking Area
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOME OF THE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TURKISH ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM AND E-GOVERNMENT
      4. INFORMATION SOCIETY DEVELOPMENTS IN TURKEY
      5. MAJOR PLAYERS OF E-GOVERNMENT IN TURKEY
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 37: Thailand Citizen Centric e-Government Service
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. E-GOVERNMENT, DEFINITION AND EVOLUTION
      3. SHIFTING TO THE SECOND GENERATION E-GOVERNMENT PARADIGM
      4. FROM E-GOVERNMENT TO E-GOVERNANCE
      5. THAILAND PACES OF E-GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT
      6. THE 2ND COUNTRY ICT MASTER PLAN, DRIVING TOWARD SMART THAILAND (MICT, 2010)
      7. CURRENT STATUS OF THAILAND E-GOVERNMENT
      8. AIMING FOR A STEP FORWARD
      9. HIGHLIGHTS OF INITIATIVES AND PROJECTS
      10. SUMMARY OF THAILAND E-GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT STATUS AND AIMS: CASE STUDIES
      11. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPING SUCCESSFUL CITIZEN-CENTRIC E-GOVERNMENT
      12. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 38: Online Presence of the Members of the Turkish Parliament
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      5. FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. APPENDIX: CONTENT ANALYSIS FORM FOR MP WEB SITES
    4. Chapter 39: Global Comparative Study on the Relationship between User's Traits and Public e-Service Quality
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WASEDA WORLD E-GOVERNMENT RANKING
      4. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF E-PARTICIPATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF USER TRAITS
      5. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 40: A Review of e-Government Initiatives in Tanzania
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE E-GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES IN TANZANIA
      4. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF E-GOVERNMENT PERFORMANCE ON EAST AFRICA COUNTRIES’ (EAC) STATES
      5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR E-GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN TANZANIA
      6. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 41: A Descriptive Analysis of Contents of Asian E-Government Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONTENTS OF ASIAN E-GOVERNMENT WEBSITES
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 42: National Interoperability Approach for Social Services Information Management in Finland
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTEROPERABILITY ANALYSES AND SPECIFICATIONS IN THE TIKESOS PROJECT
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 43: E-Engaging India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN INDIA: OLD AND NEW CHANNELS
      5. E-ENGAGEMENT: THE PROFILE OF THE NEW VOTER, NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES- INTERNET AND MOBILE MARKETING
      6. NARRATIVE ANALYSIS: E-ENGAGING THE ELECTORATE-CORPORATE AND CITIZENSHIP INITIATIVES DURING THE ELECTIONS
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 44: Benchmarking Botswana’s e-Government Initiatives with WSIS Principles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. FINDINGS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 45: Service Oriented Architectural Principles for Interoperable and Secure E-government Frameworks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF PREVIOUS E-GOVERNMENT RESEARCH
      4. GREEK LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL BACKGROUND
      5. THE LGAF FRAMEWORK
      6. THE DIFFERENT ANGLES OF THE LGAF FRAMEWORK
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 46: Setting the Dutch E-Government Interoperability Agenda
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EARLIER EFFORTS: A BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
      5. THE ‘POLDER’ PARTNERHIP
      6. EXAMPLE: E-INVOICING IN THE NETHERLANDS
      7. EXAMPLE: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE WCO DATAMODEL
      8. THE DUTCH E-GOVERNMENT INTEROPERABILITY AGENDA
      9. PREPARING THE INTEROPERABILITY AGENDA
      10. THE INTEROPERABILITY AGENDA
      11. PRIORITIES AND NEXT STEPS
    12. Chapter 47: The Contribution of Colombian Civil Society Organizations to E-Government for the Improvement of Transparency through the Use of Information and Communication Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. VIRTUAL CONSULTATION ON THE WEBSITES USAGE IN COLOMBIA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX: ADDITIONAL READING
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 48: Who Participates Now… and Why?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TECHNOCRACY, RATIOCINATION, AND REAL-WORLD IMPLICATIONS OF E-RULEMAKING
      5. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 49: Voters’ Perception of the Adequacy and Suitability of e-Voting in the Nigeria Polity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OBJECTIVE
      4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      5. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      6. BACKGROUND ON NIGERIAN ELECTORAL SYSTEM
      7. METHODOLOGY
      8. DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
      9. RELEVANCE OF E-VOTING TO NIGERIA
      10. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
      11. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. RECOMMENDATIONS
      14. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 50: Organizational Change Contributions to E-Government Project Transitions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ISSUES AND PROBLEMS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 51: Internet-Based Citizen Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND THE INTERNET
      4. CONTENT ANALYSIS
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FINDINGS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 52: Implications of e-Government in Botswana in the Realm of e-Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-GOVERNMENT IN BOTSWANA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 53: Comparing Citizens’ use of E-Government to Alternative Service Channels
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. LITERATURE ON E-GOVERNMENT AND CITIZENS
      4. ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    7. Chapter 54: Comparative Study of E-Government Implementation in two Public Agencies in Oman
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT:
      4. CASE STUDY FINDINGS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 55: Employees’ Perceptions of Biometric Technology Adoption in E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 BACKGROUND
      4. 3 METHODOLOGY
      5. 4 RESULTS
      6. 6 CONCLUSION
      7. 7 FURTHER RESEARCH
    9. Chapter 56: Internal Digital Divide in Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A CASE STUDY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN A PUBLIC ORGANIZATION
      5. DISCUSSION OF SOME RESULTS FROM THE STUDY
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 57: Librarians, Records Managers, and E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PROMOTION OF E-GOVERNMENT BY LIBRARIANS AND RECORDS MANAGERS
      5. CHALLENGES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 58: Trust and Public Services in E-Government Based on Customer Orientation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESEARCH DESIGN
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 59: Web 2.0 Applications and Citizen Relations through E-Government Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLICABILITY OF DIALOGIC THEORY IN E-GOVERNMENT WEBSITES
      5. DIALOGIC CAPACITY OF WEB2.0 IN E-GOVERNMENT WEB SITES
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 60: Transformation of Management in the Public Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING E-GOVERNMENT
      4. BARRIERS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT
      5. CURRENT STATUS OF STRATEGIC E-GOVERNMENT FRAMEWORKS LITERATURE
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 61: Institutionalisation, Framing, and Diffusion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FACTORS INFLUENCING CITIZENS’ DECISION-MAKING IN ADOPTING E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES
      5. COMPARATIVE DISCUSSION ON THE PREVIOUSLY DISCUSSED ADOPTION MODELS
      6. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 62: CRM 2.0 and E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CRM 2.0
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOCIAL EFFECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF CRM 2.0 ON E-GOVERNMENT
      6. EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY
      7. SERVICE COSTS
      8. INTEGRATION OF THE INFORMATION
      9. INTERACTION WITH THE CITIZEN
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 63: An Organizing Vision for E-Participation Projects in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-PARTICPATION IN THE GOVERNANCE PARADOX
      4. IMPLICATION OF THE IDEOLOGICAL BASIS OF E-GOVERNMENT PROJECTS
      5. TOWARDS FRAMEWORK FOR E-PARTICIPATION IN AFRICA
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 64: Managing in the Era of Digital Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 65: Improving E-Government Project Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPING METHODOLOGY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT COMPETENCY
      4. STRATEGICALLY ALIGNING E-GOVERNMENT AND ENTITY-WIDE GOALS
      5. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS AND E-GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTATION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 66: Customer Relationship Management Adoption in Local Governments in the United States
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND E-GOVERNMENT MODELS
      4. CRM TECHNOLOGY
      5. TECHNOLOGY USED IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT CRM SYSTEMS
      6. TECHNOLOGY, SIZE, DEPARTMENTAL CONTROL, AND ENTERPRISE APPROACH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. Chapter 67: Managing Interactional Performance in E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTON
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MEDIA PREFERENCES OF CITIZEN-USERS: A CONTINGENT APPROACH
      5. INTERACTIONAL JUSTICE IN E-GOVERNMENT
      6. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING INTERACTIONAL PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC E-SERVICE DELIVERY
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 68: Reconfiguring Performance Information Linking with Accountability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT LINKING WITH ACCOUNTABILITY
      4. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 69: The Demand Side for Development of E-Government Services and Gateway in Turkey
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW: IMPORTANCE OF ISSUES SUCH AS IS SUCCESS FACTORS, SECURITY AND TRUST-WORTHINESS FOR CITIZENS
      4. 3. CITIZEN SIDE OF E-GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT IN TURKEY
      5. 4. CITIZEN PERCEPTIONS OF PROVIDING AND WIDESPREADING E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES IN TURKEY: FINDINGS FROM PRELIMINARY STUDY
      6. 5. A RECENT ANALYSIS OF CITIZEN SUGGESTIONS FOR EGG
      7. 6. WHAT IS NEXT? SUGGESTIONS FOR THE FUTURE
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 70: Impact of E-Governance on Businesses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. E-GOVERNANCE IMPACT ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK
      5. IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR G2B
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 71: ICT Policies on Structural and Socio-Cultural Participation in Brussels
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOURCES
      5. TYPES OF ICT POLICY
      6. A. POLICY INITIATIVES ENHANCING STRUCTURAL PARTICIPATION
      7. B. POLICY INITIATIVES ENHANCING SOCIO-CULTURAL PARTICIPATION
      8. A PLEA FOR A FUTURE TREND: DIGITAL PEDAGOGY
      9. CONCLUSION
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 72: Social Media and Web 2.0 for Rethinking E-Government Maturity Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NEW APPROACHES TOWARDS FUTURE E-GOVERNMENT
      4. GUIDELINES FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 73: Overlooking Organizational Culture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 74: Elucidating Online Structure for Democratic Legitimacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
      6. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 75: A Systems Theory Approach to Electronic Voting Complexity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PARTICIPATION IN AN ELECTRONIC DEMOCRACY
      4. SYSTEMS THINKING
      5. SSM FOR ELECTRONIC VOTING
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 76: Conceptualization of Trust in the e-Government Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITION AND SEMANTIC OF THE TRUST
      4. ANTECEDENT FACTORS OF TRUST
      5. ANALYSIS OF THE FOCUS GROUP ONE
      6. ANALYSIS OF THE FOCUS GROUP TWO
      7. ANALYSIS OF THE FOCUS GROUP THREE
      8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE GROUP THREE
      9. IMPLICATIONS FOR GOVERNMENTS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 77: Exploring Civil Servant Resistance to M-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. M-GOVERNMENT BACKGROUND IN TURKEY
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. APPENDIX
    7. Chapter 78: Is Romania Ready for Nation-Wide Public e-Services?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY AND DATA
      5. E-GOVERNMENT IN ROMANIA AND EASTERN EUROPE: A BRIEF OVERVIEW
      6. AN EDUCATED CITIZENRY
      7. ADEQUATE INFRASTRUCTURE
      8. REAL POLITICAL COMMITMENT
      9. OFFERING E-SERVICES FOR CITIZENS’ NEEDS
      10. MEMBERSHIP IN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
      11. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      12. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 79: Social Media and Voter Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND CONCEPT CLARIFICATION
      4. SUPPORTERS AND CRITICS OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLITICS
      5. VOTER PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL MEDIA: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 80: Factors Affecting the Citizens’ Trust in E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. TRUST IN E-GOVERNMENT
      5. PERCEIVED WEBSITE QUALITY
      6. TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL (TAM)
      7. PERCEIVED RISK
      8. INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT
      9. ITEMS GENERATION
      10. SCALE DEVELOPMENT: Q-SORT METHOD
      11. FIRST SORTING ROUND
      12. SECOND SORTING ROUND
      13. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      14. APPENDIX: MEASURES
    10. Chapter 81: Issues of Digital Disempowerment and New Media Networking (NMN) in Relation to E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIGITAL DEMOCRACY AND E-GOVERNMENT
      4. THE TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS
      5. NETWORK SOCIETY
      6. FROM MASS MEDIA PUBLIC SPHERE TO NETWORKED PUBLIC SPHERES
      7. POWER AND NETWORKS
      8. NEW MEDIA NETWORKS AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
      9. THE NOTORIOUS POWER LAW
      10. EMPOWERMENT AND DISEMPOWERMENT ISSUES FOR ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT
      11. THE NONTRIVIAL NATURE OF LOW PARTICIPATION IN NETWORK SOCIETY
      12. DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 82: Small Communities and the Limits of E-Government Engagement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DATA AND METHODS
      5. FINDINGS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 83: Social Equity, the Digital Divide and E-Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE DIGITAL DIVIDE AND E-GOVERNANCE: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 84: Advancing Local E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES
      4. CITY MANAGERS AND E-GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP
      5. IDENTIFYING E-GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP NEEDS
      6. THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF FINANCIAL OFFICERS
      7. REENGINEERING THE CFO ROLE
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 85: The Global Digital Divide and Its Impact on E-Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEASURING THE GLOBAL DIGITAL DIVIDE AND ITS DETERMINANTS
      4. THE DETERMINANTS OF THE GLOBAL DIGITAL DIVIDE
      5. THE IMPACT OF THE DIGITAL DIVIDE ON E-GOVERNMENT AND E-GOVERNANCE
      6. POLICY OPTIONS TO BRIDGE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 86: Government Process Reengineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
      5. REVIEW RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE GPR RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      8. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 87: Transparency Issues in E-Governance and Civic Engagement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TRANSPARENCY, CIVIC PARTICIPATION, E-GOVERNANCE, AND THE CHANGING STATE
      5. E-GOVERNANCE AND WEB 2.0
      6. WEB 2.0, GOVERNANCE, AND CONTEXT
      7. E-GOVERNANCE CURRENT STATUS
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 88: Local Government Use of Web 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FRAMEWORKS FOR ASSESSING WEB 2.0
      4. GOVERNMENT APPLICATIONS OF WEB 2.0
      5. IMPLEMENTATION CONSIDERATIONS FOR WEB 2.0 IN GOVERNMENT
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 89: Trends in Government e-Authentication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-AUTHENTICATION
      5. GOVERNMENT AND E-AUTHENTICATION
      6. EXAMPLES OF E-AUTHENTICATION IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
      7. TOWARDS E-AUTHENTICATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      8. THE CHALLENGE OF E-AUTHENTICATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      9. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 90: New Technology Communication in American State Governments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND THEORETICAL UNDERPINNING
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 91: Using Web 2.0 to Reconceptualize E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEB 2.0 IN E-GOVERNMENT
      4. CASES OF GOVERNMENT UTILIZATION OF WEB 2.0
      5. A GRASSROOTS MOVEMENT: THE CASE FOR GOVLOOP
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 92: Open Innovation in the E-Government Strategy Planning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND KEY TERMS
      4. THE MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR: CASE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 93: Web 2.0 and Government Transformation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ESM PLANNING: COMPLEX ISSUES, NEW OPPORTUNITIES
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 94: The Challenges of Implementing e-Government Interoperability in Thailand
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEWS
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. THE E-GIF ADOPTION: A PILOT PROJECT
      6. IMPLEMENTATION
      7. KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
      8. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 95: Service Science Innovations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORY OF E-GOVERNMENT
      4. THE STRUCTURE OF E-GOVERNMENT
      5. THE LEVEL OF “E-GOVERNMENT” IN THE WORLD
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX