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Digital Circuit Boards: Mach 1 GHz

Book Description

A unique, practical approach to the design of high-speed digital circuit boards

The demand for ever-faster digital circuit designs is beginning to render the circuit theory used by engineers ineffective. Digital Circuit Boards presents an alternative to the circuit theory approach, emphasizing energy flow rather than just signal interconnection to explain logic circuit behavior.

The book shows how treating design in terms of transmission lines will ensure that the logic will function, addressing both storage and movement of electrical energy on these lines. It covers transmission lines in all forms to illustrate how trace geometry defines where the signals can travel, then goes on to examine transmission lines as energy sources, the true nature of decoupling, types of resonances, ground bounce, cross talk, and more.

Providing designers with the tools they need to lay out digital circuit boards for fast logic and to get designs working the first time around, Digital Circuit Boards:

  • Reviews in simple terms the basic physics necessary to understand fast logic design

  • Debunks the idea that electrical conductors carry power and signals, showing that signal travels in the spaces, not the traces, of circuit boards

  • Explains logic circuit behavior through real-time analysis involving the fields and waves that carry signal and energy

  • Provides new information on how ground/power planes work

  • Outlines a software program for solving energy flow in complex networks

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedicated Page
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1: Basics
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Why the Field Approach is Important
    3. 1.3 The Role of Circuit Analysis
    4. 1.4 Getting Started
    5. 1.5 Voltage and the Electric Field
    6. 1.6 Current
    7. 1.7 Capacitance
    8. 1.8 Mutual and Self-Capacitance
    9. 1.9 E Fields Inside Conductors
    10. 1.10 The D Field
    11. 1.11 Energy Storage in a Capacitor
    12. 1.12 The Energy Stored in an Electric Field
    13. 1.13 The Magnetic Field
    14. 1.14 Rise Time/Fall Time
    15. 1.15 Moving Energy into Components
    16. 1.16 Faraday's Law
    17. 1.17 Self- and Mutual Inductance
    18. 1.18 Poynting's Vector
    19. 1.19 Fields at DC
    20. 1.20 Glossary
  7. Chapter 2: Transmission Lines
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Some Common Assumptions
    3. 2.3 Transmission Line Types
    4. 2.4 Characteristic Impedance
    5. 2.5 Wave Velocity
    6. 2.6 Step Waves on a Properly Terminated Line
    7. 2.7 The Open Circuited Transmission Line
    8. 2.8 The Short Circuited Transmission Line
    9. 2.9 Waves that Transition between Lines with Different Characteristic Impedances
    10. 2.10 Nonlinear Terminations
    11. 2.11 Discharging a Charged Open Transmission Line
    12. 2.12 Ground/Power Planes
    13. 2.13 The Ground and Power Planes as a Tapered Transmission Line
    14. 2.14 Pulling Energy from a Tapered Transmission Line (TTL)
    15. 2.15 The Energy Flow Through Cascaded (Series) Transmission Lines
    16. 2.16 An Analysis of Cascaded Transmission Lines
    17. 2.17 Series (Source) Terminating a Transmission Line
    18. 2.18 Parallel (Shunt) Terminations
    19. 2.19 Stubs
    20. 2.20 Decoupling Capacitor as a Stub
    21. 2.21 Transmission Line Networks
    22. 2.22 The Network Program
    23. 2.23 Measuring Characteristic Impedance
    24. 2.24 Glossary
  8. Chapter 3: Radiation and Interference Coupling
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 The Nature of Fields in Logic Structures
    3. 3.3 Classical Radiation
    4. 3.4 Radiation from Step Function Waves
    5. 3.5 Common Mode and Normal Mode
    6. 3.6 The Radiation Pattern Along a Transmission Line
    7. 3.7 Notes on Radiation
    8. 3.8 The Cross Coupling Process (Cross Talk)
    9. 3.9 Magnetic Component of Cross Coupling
    10. 3.10 Capacitive Component of Cross Coupling
    11. 3.11 Cross Coupling Continued
    12. 3.12 Cross Coupling between Parallel Transmission Lines of Equal Length
    13. 3.13 Radiation from Board Edges
    14. 3.14 Ground Bounce
    15. 3.15 Susceptibility
    16. 3.16 Glossary
  9. Chapter 4: Energy Management
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 The Power Time Constant
    3. 4.3 Capacitors
    4. 4.4 The Four-Terminal Capacitor or DTL
    5. 4.5 Types of DTLs
    6. 4.6 Circuit Board Resonances
    7. 4.7 Decoupling Capacitors
    8. 4.8 The Board Decoupling Problem
    9. 4.9 The IC Decoupling Problem
    10. 4.10 Comments on Energy Management
    11. 4.11 Skin Effect
    12. 4.12 Dielectric Losses
    13. 4.13 Split Ground/Power Planes
    14. 4.14 The Analog/digital Interface Problem
    15. 4.15 Power Dissipation
    16. 4.16 Traces Through Conducting Planes
    17. 4.17 Trace Geometries that Reduce Termination Resistor Counts
    18. 4.18 The Control of Connecting Spaces
    19. 4.19 Another way to look at Energy Flow in Transmission Lines
    20. 4.20 Glossary
  10. Chapter 5: Signal Integrity Engineering
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 The Envelope of Permitted Logic Levels
    3. 5.3 Net Lists
    4. 5.4 Noise Budgets
    5. 5.5 Logic Level Variation
    6. 5.6 Logic and Voltage Drops
    7. 5.7 Measuring the Performance of a Net
    8. 5.8 The Decoupling Capacitor
    9. 5.9 Cross Coupling Problems
    10. 5.10 Characteristic Impedance and the Error Budget
    11. 5.11 Resistor Networks
    12. 5.12 Ferrite Beads
    13. 5.13 Grounding in Facilities: a Brief Review
    14. 5.14 Grounding as Applied to Electronic Hardware
    15. 5.15 Internal Grounding of a Digital Circuit Board
    16. 5.16 Power Line Interference
    17. 5.17 Electrostatic discharge
    18. 5.18 Glossary
  11. Chapter 6: Circuit Boards
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 More About Characteristic Impedance
    3. 6.3 Microstrip
    4. 6.4 Centered Stripline
    5. 6.5 Embedded Microstrip
    6. 6.6 Asymmetric Stripline
    7. 6.7 Two-Layer Boards
    8. 6.8 Four-Layer Circuit Board
    9. 6.9 Six-Layer Boards
    10. 6.10 Glossary
  12. Abbreviations and Acronyms
  13. Bibliography
  14. Index